# Programs & Examples On #List comprehension

A syntactic construct which provides a concise way to create lists in a style similar to the mathematical set-builder notation. Use this tag in conjunction with the tag of the programming language you are using for questions about building new lists with list comprehensions.

### One-line list comprehension: if-else variants

I was able to do this

``````>>> [x if x % 2 != 0 else x * 100 for x in range(1,10)]
[1, 200, 3, 400, 5, 600, 7, 800, 9]
>>>
``````

### Pythonic way to print list items

I use this all the time :

``````#!/usr/bin/python

l = [1,2,3,7]
print "".join([str(x) for x in l])
``````

### Flattening a shallow list in Python

There seems to be a confusion with `operator.add`! When you add two lists together, the correct term for that is `concat`, not add. `operator.concat` is what you need to use.

If you're thinking functional, it is as easy as this::

``````>>> list2d = ((1,2,3),(4,5,6), (7,), (8,9))
>>> reduce(operator.concat, list2d)
(1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9)
``````

You see reduce respects the sequence type, so when you supply a tuple, you get back a tuple. let's try with a list::

``````>>> list2d = [[1,2,3],[4,5,6], [7], [8,9]]
>>> reduce(operator.concat, list2d)
[1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9]
``````

Aha, you get back a list.

``````>>> list2d = [[1,2,3],[4,5,6], [7], [8,9]]
>>> %timeit list(itertools.chain.from_iterable(list2d))
1000000 loops, best of 3: 1.36 µs per loop
``````

from_iterable is pretty fast! But it's no comparison to reduce with concat.

``````>>> list2d = ((1,2,3),(4,5,6), (7,), (8,9))
>>> %timeit reduce(operator.concat, list2d)
1000000 loops, best of 3: 492 ns per loop
``````

### if else in a list comprehension

You could move the conditional to:

``````v = [22, 13, 45, 50, 98, 69, 43, 44, 1]
[ (x+1 if x >=45 else x+5)  for x in v ]
``````

But it's starting to look a little ugly, so you might be better off using a normal loop. Note that I used `v` instead of `l` for the list variable to reduce confusion with the number 1 (I think `l` and `O` should be avoided as variable names under any circumstances, even in quick-and-dirty example code).

### Python's most efficient way to choose longest string in list?

``````def LongestEntry(lstName):
totalEntries = len(lstName)
currentEntry = 0
longestLength = 0
while currentEntry < totalEntries:
thisEntry = len(str(lstName[currentEntry]))
if int(thisEntry) > int(longestLength):
longestLength = thisEntry
longestEntry = currentEntry
currentEntry += 1
return longestLength
``````

### Create a dictionary with list comprehension

#### Use a dict comprehension:

``````{key: value for (key, value) in iterable}
``````

Note: this is for Python 3.x (and 2.7 upwards). Formerly in Python 2.6 and earlier, the `dict` built-in could receive an iterable of key/value pairs, so you can pass it a list comprehension or generator expression. For example:

``````dict((key, func(key)) for key in keys)
``````

In simple cases you don't need a comprehension at all...

#### But if you already have iterable(s) of keys and/or values, just call the `dict` built-in directly:

``````1) consumed from any iterable yielding pairs of keys/vals
dict(pairs)

2) "zip'ped" from two separate iterables of keys/vals
dict(zip(list_of_keys, list_of_values))
``````

### Are list-comprehensions and functional functions faster than "for loops"?

Adding a twist to Alphii answer, actually the for loop would be second best and about 6 times slower than `map`

``````from functools import reduce
import datetime

def time_it(func, numbers, *args):
start_t = datetime.datetime.now()
for i in range(numbers):
func(args[0])
print (datetime.datetime.now()-start_t)

def square_sum1(numbers):
return reduce(lambda sum, next: sum+next**2, numbers, 0)

def square_sum2(numbers):
a = 0
for i in numbers:
a += i**2
return a

def square_sum3(numbers):
a = 0
map(lambda x: a+x**2, numbers)
return a

def square_sum4(numbers):
a = 0
return [a+i**2 for i in numbers]

time_it(square_sum1, 100000, [1, 2, 5, 3, 1, 2, 5, 3])
time_it(square_sum2, 100000, [1, 2, 5, 3, 1, 2, 5, 3])
time_it(square_sum3, 100000, [1, 2, 5, 3, 1, 2, 5, 3])
time_it(square_sum4, 100000, [1, 2, 5, 3, 1, 2, 5, 3])
``````

Main changes have been to eliminate the slow `sum` calls, as well as the probably unnecessary `int()` in the last case. Putting the for loop and map in the same terms makes it quite fact, actually. Remember that lambdas are functional concepts and theoretically shouldn't have side effects, but, well, they can have side effects like adding to `a`. Results in this case with Python 3.6.1, Ubuntu 14.04, Intel(R) Core(TM) i7-4770 CPU @ 3.40GHz

``````0:00:00.257703 #Reduce
0:00:00.184898 #For loop
0:00:00.031718 #Map
0:00:00.212699 #List comprehension
``````

### Double Iteration in List Comprehension

This flatten_nlevel function calls recursively the nested list1 to covert to one level. Try this out

``````def flatten_nlevel(list1, flat_list):
for sublist in list1:
if isinstance(sublist, type(list)):
flatten_nlevel(sublist, flat_list)
else:
flat_list.append(sublist)

list1 = [1,[1,[2,3,[4,6]],4],5]

items = []
flatten_nlevel(list1,items)
print(items)
``````

output:

``````[1, 1, 2, 3, 4, 6, 4, 5]
``````

### How to unzip a list of tuples into individual lists?

If you want a list of lists:

``````>>> [list(t) for t in zip(*l)]
[[1, 3, 8], [2, 4, 9]]
``````

If a list of tuples is OK:

``````>>> zip(*l)
[(1, 3, 8), (2, 4, 9)]
``````

### Is it possible to use 'else' in a list comprehension?

The syntax `a if b else c` is a ternary operator in Python that evaluates to `a` if the condition `b` is true - otherwise, it evaluates to `c`. It can be used in comprehension statements:

``````>>> [a if a else 2 for a in [0,1,0,3]]
[2, 1, 2, 3]
``````

So for your example,

``````table = ''.join(chr(index) if index in ords_to_keep else replace_with
for index in xrange(15))
``````

### Why is there no tuple comprehension in Python?

I believe it's simply for the sake of clarity, we do not want to clutter the language with too many different symbols. Also a `tuple` comprehension is never necessary, a list can just be used instead with negligible speed differences, unlike a dict comprehension as opposed to a list comprehension.

### List comprehension vs map

#### Python 2: You should use `map` and `filter` instead of list comprehensions.

An objective reason why you should prefer them even though they're not "Pythonic" is this:
They require functions/lambdas as arguments, which introduce a new scope.

I've gotten bitten by this more than once:

``````for x, y in somePoints:
# (several lines of code here)
squared = [x ** 2 for x in numbers]
# Oops, x was silently overwritten!
``````

``````for x, y in somePoints:
# (several lines of code here)
squared = map(lambda x: x ** 2, numbers)
``````

then everything would've been fine.

You could say I was being silly for using the same variable name in the same scope.

I wasn't. The code was fine originally -- the two `x`s weren't in the same scope.
It was only after I moved the inner block to a different section of the code that the problem came up (read: problem during maintenance, not development), and I didn't expect it.

Yes, if you never make this mistake then list comprehensions are more elegant.
But from personal experience (and from seeing others make the same mistake) I've seen it happen enough times that I think it's not worth the pain you have to go through when these bugs creep into your code.

#### Conclusion:

Use `map` and `filter`. They prevent subtle hard-to-diagnose scope-related bugs.

#### Side note:

Don't forget to consider using `imap` and `ifilter` (in `itertools`) if they are appropriate for your situation!

### Transpose a matrix in Python

Is there a prize for being lazy and using the transpose function of NumPy arrays? ;)

``````import numpy as np

a = np.array([(1,2,3), (4,5,6)])

b = a.transpose()
``````

### Python for and if on one line

In list comprehension the loop variable i becomes global. After the iteration in the for loop it is a reference to the last element in your list.

If you want all matches then assign the list to a variable:

``````filtered =  [ i for i in my_list if i=='two']
``````

If you want only the first match you could use a function generator

``````try:
m = next( i for i in my_list if i=='two' )
except StopIteration:
m = None
``````

### remove None value from a list without removing the 0 value

Iteration vs Space, usage could be an issue. In different situations profiling may show either to be "faster" and/or "less memory" intensive.

``````# first
>>> L = [0, 23, 234, 89, None, 0, 35, 9, ...]
>>> [x for x in L if x is not None]
[0, 23, 234, 89, 0, 35, 9, ...]

# second
>>> L = [0, 23, 234, 89, None, 0, 35, 9]
>>> for i in range(L.count(None)): L.remove(None)
[0, 23, 234, 89, 0, 35, 9, ...]
``````

The first approach (as also suggested by @jamylak, @Raymond Hettinger, and @Dipto) creates a duplicate list in memory, which could be costly of memory for a large list with few `None` entries.

The second approach goes through the list once, and then again each time until a `None` is reached. This could be less memory intensive, and the list will get smaller as it goes. The decrease in list size could have a speed up for lots of `None` entries in the front, but the worst case would be if lots of `None` entries were in the back.

The second approach would likely always be slower than the first approach. That does not make it an invalid consideration.

Parallelization and in-place techniques are other approaches, but each have their own complications in Python. Knowing the data and the runtime use-cases, as well profiling the program are where to start for intensive operations or large data.

Choosing either approach will probably not matter in common situations. It becomes more of a preference of notation. In fact, in those uncommon circumstances, `numpy` (example if L is numpy.array: `L = L[L != numpy.array(None)` (from here)) or `cython` may be worthwhile alternatives instead of attempting to micromanage Python optimizations.

### List comprehension on a nested list?

Yes you can do the following.

``````[[float(y) for y in x] for x in l]
``````

### Python using enumerate inside list comprehension

Just to be really clear, this has nothing to do with `enumerate` and everything to do with list comprehension syntax.

This list comprehension returns a list of tuples:

``````[(i,j) for i in range(3) for j in 'abc']
``````

this a list of dicts:

``````[{i:j} for i in range(3) for j in 'abc']
``````

a list of lists:

``````[[i,j] for i in range(3) for j in 'abc']
``````

a syntax error:

``````[i,j for i in range(3) for j in 'abc']
``````

Which is inconsistent (IMHO) and confusing with dictionary comprehensions syntax:

``````>>> {i:j for i,j in enumerate('abcdef')}
{0: 'a', 1: 'b', 2: 'c', 3: 'd', 4: 'e', 5: 'f'}
``````

And a set of tuples:

``````>>> {(i,j) for i,j in enumerate('abcdef')}
set([(0, 'a'), (4, 'e'), (1, 'b'), (2, 'c'), (5, 'f'), (3, 'd')])
``````

As Óscar López stated, you can just pass the enumerate tuple directly:

``````>>> [t for t in enumerate('abcdef') ]
[(0, 'a'), (1, 'b'), (2, 'c'), (3, 'd'), (4, 'e'), (5, 'f')]
``````

### List comprehension with if statement

You put the `if` at the end:

``````[y for y in a if y not in b]
``````

List comprehensions are written in the same order as their nested full-specified counterparts, essentially the above statement translates to:

``````outputlist = []
for y in a:
if y not in b:
outputlist.append(y)
``````

Your version tried to do this instead:

``````outputlist = []
if y not in b:
for y in a:
outputlist.append(y)
``````

but a list comprehension must start with at least one outer loop.

### Create list of single item repeated N times

``````>>> [5] * 4
[5, 5, 5, 5]
``````

Be careful when the item being repeated is a list. The list will not be cloned: all the elements will refer to the same list!

``````>>> x=[5]
>>> y=[x] * 4
>>> y
[[5], [5], [5], [5]]
>>> y[0][0] = 6
>>> y
[[6], [6], [6], [6]]
``````

### Generator expressions vs. list comprehensions

Sometimes you can get away with the tee function from itertools, it returns multiple iterators for the same generator that can be used independently.

### Inline for loop

What you are using is called a list comprehension in Python, not an inline for-loop (even though it is similar to one). You would write your loop as a list comprehension like so:

``````p = [q.index(v) if v in q else 99999 for v in vm]
``````

When using a list comprehension, you do not call `list.append` because the list is being constructed from the comprehension itself. Each item in the list will be what is returned by the expression on the left of the `for` keyword, which in this case is `q.index(v) if v in q else 99999`. Incidentially, if you do use `list.append` inside a comprehension, then you will get a list of `None` values because that is what the `append` method always returns.

### Fastest way to convert an iterator to a list

@Robino was suggesting to add some tests which make sense, so here is a simple benchmark between 3 possible ways (maybe the most used ones) to convert an iterator to a list:

1. by type constructor

`list(my_iterator)`

1. by unpacking

`[*my_iterator]`

1. using list comprehension

`[e for e in my_iterator]`

I have been using simple_bechmark library

``````from simple_benchmark import BenchmarkBuilder
from heapq import nsmallest

b = BenchmarkBuilder()

def convert_by_type_constructor(size):
list(iter(range(size)))

def convert_by_list_comprehension(size):
[e for e in iter(range(size))]

def convert_by_unpacking(size):
[*iter(range(size))]

@b.add_arguments('Convert an iterator to a list')
def argument_provider():
for exp in range(2, 22):
size = 2**exp
yield size, size

r = b.run()
r.plot()
``````

As you can see there is very hard to make a difference between conversion by the constructor and conversion by unpacking, conversion by list comprehension is the “slowest” approach.

I have been testing also across different Python versions (3.6, 3.7, 3.8, 3.9) by using the following simple script:

``````import argparse
import timeit

parser = argparse.ArgumentParser(
description='Test convert iterator to list')
'--size', help='The number of elements from iterator')

args = parser.parse_args()

size = int(args.size)
repeat_number = 10000

# do not wait too much if the size is too big
if size > 10000:
repeat_number = 100

def test_convert_by_type_constructor():
list(iter(range(size)))

def test_convert_by_list_comprehension():
[e for e in iter(range(size))]

def test_convert_by_unpacking():
[*iter(range(size))]

def get_avg_time_in_ms(func):
avg_time = timeit.timeit(func, number=repeat_number) * 1000 / repeat_number
return round(avg_time, 6)

funcs = [test_convert_by_type_constructor,
test_convert_by_unpacking, test_convert_by_list_comprehension]

print(*map(get_avg_time_in_ms, funcs))
``````

The script will be executed via a subprocess from a Jupyter Notebook (or a script), the size parameter will be passed through command-line arguments and the script results will be taken from standard output.

``````from subprocess import PIPE, run

import pandas

simple_data = {'constructor': [], 'unpacking': [], 'comprehension': [],
'size': [], 'python version': []}

size_test = 100, 1000, 10_000, 100_000, 1_000_000
for version in ['3.6', '3.7', '3.8', '3.9']:
print('test for python', version)
for size in size_test:
command = [f'python{version}', 'perf_test_convert_iterator.py', f'--size={size}']
result = run(command, stdout=PIPE, stderr=PIPE, universal_newlines=True)
constructor, unpacking,  comprehension = result.stdout.split()

simple_data['constructor'].append(float(constructor))
simple_data['unpacking'].append(float(unpacking))
simple_data['comprehension'].append(float(comprehension))
simple_data['python version'].append(version)
simple_data['size'].append(size)

df_ = pandas.DataFrame(simple_data)
df_
``````

You can get my full notebook from here.

In most of the cases, in my tests, unpacking shows to be faster, but the difference is so small that the results may change from a run to the other. Again, the comprehension approach is the slowest, in fact, the other 2 methods are up to ~ 60% faster.

### How to frame two for loops in list comprehension python

In comprehension, the nested lists iteration should follow the same order than the equivalent imbricated for loops.

To understand, we will take a simple example from NLP. You want to create a list of all words from a list of sentences where each sentence is a list of words.

``````>>> list_of_sentences = [['The','cat','chases', 'the', 'mouse','.'],['The','dog','barks','.']]
>>> all_words = [word for sentence in list_of_sentences for word in sentence]
>>> all_words
['The', 'cat', 'chases', 'the', 'mouse', '.', 'The', 'dog', 'barks', '.']
``````

To remove the repeated words, you can use a set {} instead of a list []

``````>>> all_unique_words = list({word for sentence in list_of_sentences for word in sentence}]
>>> all_unique_words
['.', 'dog', 'the', 'chase', 'barks', 'mouse', 'The', 'cat']
``````

or apply `list(set(all_words))`

``````>>> all_unique_words = list(set(all_words))
['.', 'dog', 'the', 'chases', 'barks', 'mouse', 'The', 'cat']
``````

### Python Dictionary Comprehension

You can use the `dict.fromkeys` class method ...

``````>>> dict.fromkeys(range(5), True)
{0: True, 1: True, 2: True, 3: True, 4: True}
``````

This is the fastest way to create a dictionary where all the keys map to the same value.

``````d = dict.fromkeys(range(5), [])
# {0: [], 1: [], 2: [], 3: [], 4: []}
d[1].append(2)
# {0: [2], 1: [2], 2: [2], 3: [2], 4: [2]} !!!
``````

If you don't actually need to initialize all the keys, a `defaultdict` might be useful as well:

``````from collections import defaultdict
d = defaultdict(True)
``````

To answer the second part, a dict-comprehension is just what you need:

``````{k: k for k in range(10)}
``````

You probably shouldn't do this but you could also create a subclass of `dict` which works somewhat like a `defaultdict` if you override `__missing__`:

``````>>> class KeyDict(dict):
...    def __missing__(self, key):
...       #self[key] = key  # Maybe add this also?
...       return key
...
>>> d = KeyDict()
>>> d[1]
1
>>> d[2]
2
>>> d[3]
3
>>> print(d)
{}
``````

### Python: For each list element apply a function across the list

You can do this using list comprehensions and min() (Python 3.0 code):

``````>>> nums = [1,2,3,4,5]
>>> [(x,y) for x in nums for y in nums]
[(1, 1), (1, 2), (1, 3), (1, 4), (1, 5), (2, 1), (2, 2), (2, 3), (2, 4), (2, 5), (3, 1), (3, 2), (3, 3), (3, 4), (3, 5), (4, 1), (4, 2), (4, 3), (4, 4), (4, 5), (5, 1), (5, 2), (5, 3), (5, 4), (5, 5)]
>>> min(_, key=lambda pair: pair[0]/pair[1])
(1, 5)
``````

Note that to run this on Python 2.5 you'll need to either make one of the arguments a float, or do `from __future__ import division` so that 1/5 correctly equals 0.2 instead of 0.

### How can I add a custom HTTP header to ajax request with js or jQuery?

You should avoid the usage of `\$.ajaxSetup()` as described in the docs. Use the following instead:

``````\$(document).ajaxSend(function(event, jqXHR, ajaxOptions) {
});
``````

### How to replace <span style="font-weight: bold;">foo</span> by <strong>foo</strong> using PHP and regex?

``````\$text='<span style="font-weight: bold;">Foo</span>';
\$text=preg_replace( '/<span style="font-weight: bold;">(.*?)<\/span>/', '<strong>\$1</strong>',\$text);
``````

Note: only work for your example.

### Vba macro to copy row from table if value in table meets condition

That is exactly what you do with an advanced filter. If it's a one shot, you don't even need a macro, it is available in the Data menu.

``````Sheets("Sheet1").Range("A1:D17").AdvancedFilter Action:=xlFilterCopy, _
CriteriaRange:=Sheets("Sheet1").Range("G1:G2"), CopyToRange:=Range("A1:D1") _
, Unique:=False
``````

### Select all DIV text with single mouse click

#### UPDATE 2017:

To select the node's contents call:

``````window.getSelection().selectAllChildren(
document.getElementById(id)
);
``````

This works on all modern browsers including IE9+ (in standards mode).

#### Runnable Example:

_x000D_
_x000D_
``````function select(id) {_x000D_
window.getSelection()_x000D_
.selectAllChildren(_x000D_
document.getElementById("target-div") _x000D_
);_x000D_
}``````
_x000D_
``````#outer-div  { padding: 1rem; background-color: #fff0f0; }_x000D_
#target-div { padding: 1rem; background-color: #f0fff0; }_x000D_
button      { margin: 1rem; }``````
_x000D_
``````<div id="outer-div">_x000D_
<div id="target-div">_x000D_
Some content for the _x000D_
<br>Target DIV_x000D_
</div>_x000D_
</div>_x000D_
_x000D_
<button onclick="select(id);">Click to SELECT Contents of #target-div</button>``````
_x000D_
_x000D_
_x000D_

The original answer below is obsolete since `window.getSelection().addRange(range);` has been deprecated

All of the examples above use:

``````    var range = document.createRange();
range.selectNode( ... );
``````

but the problem with that is that it selects the Node itself including the DIV tag etc.

To select the Node's text as per the OP question you need to call instead:

``````    range.selectNodeContents( ... )
``````

So the full snippet would be:

``````    function selectText( containerid ) {

var node = document.getElementById( containerid );

if ( document.selection ) {
var range = document.body.createTextRange();
range.moveToElementText( node  );
range.select();
} else if ( window.getSelection ) {
var range = document.createRange();
range.selectNodeContents( node );
window.getSelection().removeAllRanges();
}
}
``````

### How to get a web page's source code from Java

Try the following code with an added request property:

``````import java.io.BufferedReader;
import java.io.IOException;
import java.io.InputStream;
import java.net.URL;
import java.net.URLConnection;

public class SocketConnection
{
public static String getURLSource(String url) throws IOException
{
URL urlObject = new URL(url);
URLConnection urlConnection = urlObject.openConnection();
urlConnection.setRequestProperty("User-Agent", "Mozilla/5.0 (Windows NT 6.1; WOW64) AppleWebKit/537.11 (KHTML, like Gecko) Chrome/23.0.1271.95 Safari/537.11");

}

private static String toString(InputStream inputStream) throws IOException
{
{
String inputLine;
StringBuilder stringBuilder = new StringBuilder();
{
stringBuilder.append(inputLine);
}

return stringBuilder.toString();
}
}
}
``````

### chrome undo the action of "prevent this page from creating additional dialogs"

No. But you should really use `console.log()` instead of `alert()` for debugging.

In Chrome it even has the advantage of being able to print out entire objects (not just `toString()`).

### SSH library for Java

The Java Secure Channel (JSCH) is a very popular library, used by maven, ant and eclipse. It is open source with a BSD style license.

### How to set default vim colorscheme

You can try too to put this into your `~/.vimrc` file:

``````colorscheme Solarized
``````

### Is there a Visual Basic 6 decompiler?

Yes I think You can get it download and separately its Help files from: vbdecompiler.org Site. and there is a Video on YouTube which explains how to Use it to Get the Code from an exe file and Save it. I hope that I helped.

### How to get jQuery to wait until an effect is finished?

if its something you wish to switch, fading one out and fading another in the same place, you can place a {position:absolute} attribute on the divs, so both the animations play on top of one another, and you don't have to wait for one animation to be over before starting up the next.

### Splitting a string into chunks of a certain size

``````static IEnumerable<string> Split(string str, double chunkSize)
{
return Enumerable.Range(0, (int) Math.Ceiling(str.Length/chunkSize))
.Select(i => new string(str
.Skip(i * (int)chunkSize)
.Take((int)chunkSize)
.ToArray()));
}
``````

and another approach:

``````using System;
using System.Collections.Generic;
using System.Linq;

public class Program
{
public static void Main()
{

var x = "Hello World";
foreach(var i in x.ChunkString(2)) Console.WriteLine(i);
}
}

public static class Ext{
public static IEnumerable<string> ChunkString(this string val, int chunkSize){
return val.Select((x,i) => new {Index = i, Value = x})
.GroupBy(x => x.Index/chunkSize, x => x.Value)
.Select(x => string.Join("",x));
}
}
``````

### What is http multipart request?

I have found an excellent and relatively short explanation here.

A multipart request is a REST request containing several packed REST requests inside its entity.

### ImportError: No module named win32com.client

`win32com.client` is a part of pywin32

### sh: 0: getcwd() failed: No such file or directory on cited drive

In Ubuntu 16.04.3 LTS, the next command works for me:

``````exit
``````

Then I've login again.

### How to display pandas DataFrame of floats using a format string for columns?

As of Pandas 0.17 there is now a styling system which essentially provides formatted views of a DataFrame using Python format strings:

``````import pandas as pd
import numpy as np

constants = pd.DataFrame([('pi',np.pi),('e',np.e)],
columns=['name','value'])
C = constants.style.format({'name': '~~ {} ~~', 'value':'--> {:15.10f} <--'})
C
``````

which displays

This is a view object; the DataFrame itself does not change formatting, but updates in the DataFrame are reflected in the view:

``````constants.name = ['pie','eek']
C
``````

However it appears to have some limitations:

• Adding new rows and/or columns in-place seems to cause inconsistency in the styled view (doesn't add row/column labels):

``````constants.loc[2] = dict(name='bogus', value=123.456)
constants['comment'] = ['fee','fie','fo']
constants
``````

which looks ok but:

``````C
``````

• Formatting works only for values, not index entries:

``````constants = pd.DataFrame([('pi',np.pi),('e',np.e)],
columns=['name','value'])
constants.set_index('name',inplace=True)
C = constants.style.format({'name': '~~ {} ~~', 'value':'--> {:15.10f} <--'})
C
``````

### How to write "Html.BeginForm" in Razor

The following code works fine:

``````@using (Html.BeginForm("Upload", "Upload", FormMethod.Post,
new { enctype = "multipart/form-data" }))
{
@Html.ValidationSummary(true)
<fieldset>
Select a file <input type="file" name="file" />
<input type="submit" value="Upload" />
</fieldset>
}
``````

and generates as expected:

``````<form action="/Upload/Upload" enctype="multipart/form-data" method="post">
<fieldset>
Select a file <input type="file" name="file" />
<input type="submit" value="Upload" />
</fieldset>
</form>
``````

On the other hand if you are writing this code inside the context of other server side construct such as an `if` or `foreach` you should remove the `@` before the `using`. For example:

``````@if (SomeCondition)
{
new { enctype = "multipart/form-data" }))
{
@Html.ValidationSummary(true)
<fieldset>
Select a file <input type="file" name="file" />
<input type="submit" value="Upload" />
</fieldset>
}
}
``````

As far as your server side code is concerned, here's how to proceed:

``````[HttpPost]
public ActionResult Upload(HttpPostedFileBase file)
{
if (file != null && file.ContentLength > 0)
{
var fileName = Path.GetFileName(file.FileName);
var path = Path.Combine(Server.MapPath("~/content/pics"), fileName);
file.SaveAs(path);
}
}
``````

### passing JSON data to a Spring MVC controller

Add the following dependencies

``````<dependency>
<groupId>org.codehaus.jackson</groupId>
<artifactId>jackson-mapper-asl</artifactId>
<version>1.9.7</version>
</dependency>

<dependency>
<groupId>org.codehaus.jackson</groupId>
<artifactId>jackson-core-asl</artifactId>
<version>1.9.7</version>
</dependency>
``````

Modify request as follows

``````\$.ajax({
url:urlName,
type:"POST",
contentType: "application/json; charset=utf-8",
data: jsonString, //Stringified Json Object
async: false,    //Cross-domain requests and dataType: "jsonp" requests do not support synchronous operation
cache: false,    //This will force requested pages not to be cached by the browser
processData:false, //To avoid making query String instead of JSON
success: function(resposeJsonObject){
// Success Message Handler
}
});
``````

Controller side

``````@RequestMapping(value = urlPattern , method = RequestMethod.POST)
public @ResponseBody Person save(@RequestBody Person jsonString) {

Person person=personService.savedata(jsonString);
return person;
}
``````

`@RequestBody` - Covert Json object to java
`@ResponseBody`- convert Java object to json

### How can I compare strings in C using a `switch` statement?

Hi this is the easy and fast way if you have this case :

[QUICK Mode]

``````int concated;
char ABC[4]="";int a=1,b=4,c=2;            //char[] Initializing
ABC<-sprintf(ABC,"%d%d%d",a,b,c);          //without space between %d%d%d
printf("%s",ABC);                          //value as char[] is =142
concated=atoi(ABC);                        //result is 142 as int, not 1,4,2 (separeted)

//now use switch case on 142 as an integer and all possible cases
``````

[EXPLAINED Mode]

for example : i have many menus, each choice on the 1st menu takes u to the 2nd menu, the same thing with the 2nd menu and the 3rd menu.but the Options are diferent so you know that the user has choised finnaly. exemple :

menu 1: 1 ==> menu 2: 4==> menu 3: 2 (...)the choice is 142. other cases : 111,141,131,122...

sollution: store the first 1st in a,2nd in b,3rd on c. a=1, b=4, c=2

`````` char ABC[4]="";
ABC<-sprintf(ABC,"%d%d%d",a,b,c);              //without space between %d%d%d
printf("%s",ABC);                              //value as char[]=142

//now you want to recover your value(142) from char[] to int as  int value 142

concated=atoi(ABC);                            //result is 142 as int, not 1,4,2 (separeted)
``````

### Python `if x is not None` or `if not x is None`?

The `is not` operator is preferred over negating the result of `is` for stylistic reasons. "`if x is not None:`" reads just like English, but "`if not x is None:`" requires understanding of the operator precedence and does not read like english.

If there is a performance difference my money is on `is not`, but this almost certainly isn't the motivation for the decision to prefer that technique. It would obviously be implementation-dependent. Since `is` isn't overridable, it should be easy to optimise out any distinction anyhow.

### Loop over html table and get checked checkboxes (JQuery)

``````\$('#save').click(function () {
\$('#mytable').find('input[type="checkbox"]:checked') //...
});
``````

Let me explain you what the selector does: `input[type="checkbox"]` means that this will match each `<input />` with type attribute `type` equals to `checkbox` After that: `:checked` will match all checked checkboxes.

You can loop over these checkboxes with:

``````\$('#save').click(function () {
\$('#mytable').find('input[type="checkbox"]:checked').each(function () {
//this is the current checkbox
});
});
``````

Here is demo in JSFiddle.

And here is a demo which solves exactly your problem http://jsfiddle.net/DuE8K/1/.

``````\$('#save').click(function () {
\$('#mytable').find('tr').each(function () {
var row = \$(this);
if (row.find('input[type="checkbox"]').is(':checked') &&
row.find('textarea').val().length <= 0) {
alert('You must fill the text area!');
}
});
});
``````

### Customize the Authorization HTTP header

You can create your own custom auth schemas that use the `Authorization:` header - for example, this is how OAuth works.

As a general rule, if servers or proxies don't understand the values of standard headers, they will leave them alone and ignore them. It is creating your own header keys that can often produce unexpected results - many proxies will strip headers with names they don't recognise.

Having said that, it is possibly a better idea to use cookies to transmit the token, rather than the `Authorization:` header, for the simple reason that cookies were explicitly designed to carry custom values, whereas the specification for HTTP's built in auth methods does not really say either way - if you want to see exactly what it does say, have a look here.

The other point about this is that many HTTP client libraries have built-in support for Digest and Basic auth but may make life more difficult when trying to set a raw value in the header field, whereas they will all provide easy support for cookies and will allow more or less any value within them.

### Eclipse: Enable autocomplete / content assist

By default in Eclipse you only have to press Ctrl-space for autocomplete. Then select the desired method and wait 500ms for the javadoc info to pop up. If this doesn't work go to the Eclipse Windows menu -> Preferences -> Java -> Editor -> Content assist and check your settings here

### Remove part of string after "."

You could do:

``````sub("*\\.[0-9]", "", a)
``````

or

``````library(stringr)
str_sub(a, start=1, end=-3)
``````

### UTF-8 encoding problem in Spring MVC

In Spring 5, or maybe in earlier versions, there is `MediaType` class. It has already correct line, if you want to follow DRY:

``````public static final String APPLICATION_JSON_UTF8_VALUE = "application/json;charset=UTF-8";
``````

So I use this set of controller-related annotations:

``````@RestController
@RequestMapping(value = "my/api/url", produces = APPLICATION_JSON_UTF8_VALUE)
public class MyController {
// ... Methods here
}
``````

It is marked deprecated in the docs, but I've run into this issue and it is better than copy-pastying the aforementioned line on every method/controller throughout your application, I think.

### gradle build fails on lint task

You can select proper options from here

``````android {
lintOptions {
// set to true to turn off analysis progress reporting by lint
quiet true
// if true, stop the gradle build if errors are found
abortOnError false
ignoreWarnings true
// if true, emit full/absolute paths to files with errors (true by default)
//absolutePaths true
// if true, check all issues, including those that are off by default
checkAllWarnings true
// if true, treat all warnings as errors
warningsAsErrors true
// turn off checking the given issue id's
disable 'TypographyFractions','TypographyQuotes'
// turn on the given issue id's
enable 'RtlHardcoded','RtlCompat', 'RtlEnabled'
// check *only* the given issue id's
check 'NewApi', 'InlinedApi'
// if true, don't include source code lines in the error output
noLines true
// if true, show all locations for an error, do not truncate lists, etc.
showAll true
// Fallback lint configuration (default severities, etc.)
lintConfig file("default-lint.xml")
// if true, generate a text report of issues (false by default)
textReport true
// location to write the output; can be a file or 'stdout'
textOutput 'stdout'
// if true, generate an XML report for use by for example Jenkins
xmlReport false
// file to write report to (if not specified, defaults to lint-results.xml)
xmlOutput file("lint-report.xml")
// if true, generate an HTML report (with issue explanations, sourcecode, etc)
htmlReport true
// optional path to report (default will be lint-results.html in the builddir)
htmlOutput file("lint-report.html")

// set to true to have all release builds run lint on issues with severity=fatal
// and abort the build (controlled by abortOnError above) if fatal issues are found
checkReleaseBuilds true
// Set the severity of the given issues to fatal (which means they will be
// checked during release builds (even if the lint target is not included)
fatal 'NewApi', 'InlineApi'
// Set the severity of the given issues to error
error 'Wakelock', 'TextViewEdits'
// Set the severity of the given issues to warning
warning 'ResourceAsColor'
// Set the severity of the given issues to ignore (same as disabling the check)
ignore 'TypographyQuotes'
}
}
``````

### Why binary_crossentropy and categorical_crossentropy give different performances for the same problem?

After commenting @Marcin answer, I have more carefully checked one of my students code where I found the same weird behavior, even after only 2 epochs ! (So @Marcin's explanation was not very likely in my case).

And I found that the answer is actually very simple: the accuracy computed with the Keras method `evaluate` is just plain wrong when using binary_crossentropy with more than 2 labels. You can check that by recomputing the accuracy yourself (first call the Keras method "predict" and then compute the number of correct answers returned by predict): you get the true accuracy, which is much lower than the Keras "evaluate" one.

### How to remove carriage returns and new lines in Postgresql?

In the case you need to remove line breaks from the begin or end of the string, you may use this:

``````UPDATE table
SET field = regexp_replace(field, E'(^[\\n\\r]+)|([\\n\\r]+\$)', '', 'g' );
``````

Have in mind that the hat `^` means the begin of the string and the dollar sign `\$` means the end of the string.

Hope it help someone.

### Servlet returns "HTTP Status 404 The requested resource (/servlet) is not available"

I removed the old web library such that are spring framework libraries. And build a new path of the libraries. Then it works.

### "Class not registered (Exception from HRESULT: 0x80040154 (REGDB_E_CLASSNOTREG))"

After a sequence of attempts I came into a facile solution. You can try Reinstalling ActiveX plugin for Adobe flashplayer.

### pod has unbound PersistentVolumeClaims

You have to define a PersistentVolume providing disc space to be consumed by the PersistentVolumeClaim.

When using `storageClass` Kubernetes is going to enable "Dynamic Volume Provisioning" which is not working with the local file system.

#### To solve your issue:

• Provide a PersistentVolume fulfilling the constraints of the claim (a size >= 100Mi)
• Remove the `storageClass`-line from the PersistentVolumeClaim
• Remove the StorageClass from your cluster

#### How do these pieces play together?

At creation of the deployment state-description it is usually known which kind (amount, speed, ...) of storage that application will need.
To make a deployment versatile you'd like to avoid a hard dependency on storage. Kubernetes' volume-abstraction allows you to provide and consume storage in a standardized way.

The PersistentVolumeClaim is used to provide a storage-constraint alongside the deployment of an application.

The PersistentVolume offers cluster-wide volume-instances ready to be consumed ("`bound`"). One PersistentVolume will be bound to one claim. But since multiple instances of that claim may be run on multiple nodes, that volume may be accessed by multiple nodes.

A PersistentVolume without StorageClass is considered to be static.

"Dynamic Volume Provisioning" alongside with a StorageClass allows the cluster to provision PersistentVolumes on demand. In order to make that work, the given storage provider must support provisioning - this allows the cluster to request the provisioning of a "new" PersistentVolume when an unsatisfied PersistentVolumeClaim pops up.

#### Example PersistentVolume

In order to find how to specify things you're best advised to take a look at the API for your Kubernetes version, so the following example is build from the API-Reference of K8S 1.17:

``````apiVersion: v1
kind: PersistentVolume
name: ckan-pv-home
labels:
type: local
spec:
capacity:
storage: 100Mi
hostPath:
path: "/mnt/data/ckan"
``````

The PersistentVolumeSpec allows us to define multiple attributes. I chose a `hostPath` volume which maps a local directory as content for the volume. The capacity allows the resource scheduler to recognize this volume as applicable in terms of resource needs.

### Install NuGet via PowerShell script

Without having Visual Studio, you can grab Nuget from: http://nuget.org/nuget.exe

For command-line executions using this, check out: http://docs.nuget.org/docs/reference/command-line-reference

With respect to Powershell, just copy the nuget.exe to the machine. No installation required, just execute it using commands from the above documentation.

### Spin or rotate an image on hover

You can use CSS3 transitions with `rotate()` to spin the image on hover.

#### Rotating image :

_x000D_
_x000D_
``````img {_x000D_
-webkit-transition: -webkit-transform .8s ease-in-out;_x000D_
transition:         transform .8s ease-in-out;_x000D_
}_x000D_
img:hover {_x000D_
-webkit-transform: rotate(360deg);_x000D_
transform: rotate(360deg);_x000D_
}``````
_x000D_
``<img src="https://i.stack.imgur.com/BLkKe.jpg" width="100" height="100"/>``
_x000D_
_x000D_
_x000D_

Here is a fiddle DEMO

• a guide about CSS transitions on MDN
• a guide about CSS transforms on MDN
• browser support table for 2d transforms on caniuse.com
• browser support table for transitions on caniuse.com

### How to get values from IGrouping

More clarified version of above answers:

``````IEnumerable<IGrouping<int, ClassA>> groups = list.GroupBy(x => x.PropertyIntOfClassA);

foreach (var groupingByClassA in groups)
{
int propertyIntOfClassA = groupingByClassA.Key;

//iterating through values
foreach (var classA in groupingByClassA)
{
int key = classA.PropertyIntOfClassA;
}
}
``````

### How do I send a JSON string in a POST request in Go

In addition to standard net/http package, you can consider using my GoRequest which wraps around net/http and make your life easier without thinking too much about json or struct. But you can also mix and match both of them in one request! (you can see more details about it in gorequest github page)

So, in the end your code will become like follow:

``````func main() {
url := "http://restapi3.apiary.io/notes"
fmt.Println("URL:>", url)
request := gorequest.New()
titleList := []string{"title1", "title2", "title3"}
for _, title := range titleList {
resp, body, errs := request.Post(url).
Send(`{"title":"` + title + `"}`).
End()
if errs != nil {
fmt.Println(errs)
os.Exit(1)
}
fmt.Println("response Status:", resp.Status)
fmt.Println("response Body:", body)
}
}
``````

This depends on how you want to achieve. I made this library because I have the same problem with you and I want code that is shorter, easy to use with json, and more maintainable in my codebase and production system.

### Prevent scrolling of parent element when inner element scroll position reaches top/bottom?

New web dev here. This worked like a charm for me on both IE and Chrome.

``````static preventScrollPropagation(e: HTMLElement) {
e.onmousewheel = (ev) => {
var preventScroll = false;
var isScrollingDown = ev.wheelDelta < 0;
if (isScrollingDown) {
var isAtBottom = e.scrollTop + e.clientHeight == e.scrollHeight;
if (isAtBottom) {
preventScroll = true;
}
} else {
var isAtTop = e.scrollTop == 0;
if (isAtTop) {
preventScroll = true;
}
}
if (preventScroll) {
ev.preventDefault();
}
}
}
``````

Don't let the number of lines fool you, it is quite simple - just a bit verbose for readability (self documenting code ftw right?)

Also I should mention that the language here is TypeScript, but as always, it is straightforward to convert it to JS.

### Correct way to initialize HashMap and can HashMap hold different value types?

A HashMap can hold any object as a value, even if it is another HashMap. Eclipse is suggesting that you declare the types because that is the recommended practice for Collections. under Java 5. You are free to ignore Eclipse's suggestions.

Under Java 5, an int (or any primitive type) will be autoboxed into an Integer (or other corresponding type) when you add it to a collection. Be careful with this though, as there are some catches to using autoboxing.

### Google Maps API OVER QUERY LIMIT per second limit

By the way, if you wish to proceed anyway, here you can find a code that let you load multiple markers ajax sourced on google maps avoiding OVER_QUERY_LIMIT error.

I've tested on my onw server and it works!:

``````var lost_addresses = [];
geocode_count  = 0;
resNumber = 0;
map = new GMaps({
div: '#gmap_marker',
lat: 43.921493,
lng: 12.337646,
});

}

map.setZoom(6);
\$.ajax({
url: [Insert here your URL] ,
type:'POST',
data: {
},
success:function(result){

/***************************
* Assuming your ajax call
* return something like:
*   array(
*      'status' => 'success',
*      'results'=> \$resultsArray
*   );
**************************/

var res=JSON.parse(result);
if(res.status == 'success') {
resNumber = res.results.length;
//Call the geoCoder function
getGeoCodeFor(map, res.results);
}
}//success
});//ajax

});

//Geocoder function
function getGeoCodeFor(maps, addresses) {
GMaps.geocode({
callback: function(results, status) {
geocode_count++;

if (status == 'OK') {

//if the element is alreay in the array, remove it
return value != e;
});

latlng = results[0].geometry.location;
lat: latlng.lat(),
lng: latlng.lng(),
title: 'MyNewMarker',
} else if (status == 'ZERO_RESULTS') {
} else if(status == 'OVER_QUERY_LIMIT') {

//if the element is not in the losts_addresses array, add it!
if( jQuery.inArray(e,lost_addresses) == -1) {
}

}

if(geocode_count == addresses.length) {
//set counter == 0 so it wont's stop next round
geocode_count = 0;

setTimeout(function() {
}, 2500);
}
}//callback
});//GeoCode
});//each
};//getGeoCodeFor()
``````

Example:

_x000D_
_x000D_
``````map = new GMaps({_x000D_
div: '#gmap_marker',_x000D_
lat: 43.921493,_x000D_
lng: 12.337646,_x000D_
});_x000D_
_x000D_
var jsonData = {  _x000D_
"status":"success",_x000D_
"results":[  _x000D_
{  _x000D_
"customerId":1,_x000D_
"address":"Via Italia 43, Milano (MI)",_x000D_
"customerName":"MyAwesomeCustomer1"_x000D_
},_x000D_
{  _x000D_
"customerId":2,_x000D_
"address":"Via Roma 10, Roma (RM)",_x000D_
"customerName":"MyAwesomeCustomer2"_x000D_
}_x000D_
]_x000D_
};_x000D_
_x000D_
}_x000D_
_x000D_
function loadMarker() { _x000D_
map.setZoom(6);_x000D_
_x000D_
\$.ajax({_x000D_
url: '/echo/html/',_x000D_
type: "POST",_x000D_
data: jsonData,_x000D_
cache: false,_x000D_
success:function(result){_x000D_
_x000D_
var res=JSON.parse(result);_x000D_
if(res.status == 'success') {_x000D_
resNumber = res.results.length;_x000D_
//Call the geoCoder function_x000D_
getGeoCodeFor(map, res.results);_x000D_
}_x000D_
}//success_x000D_
});//ajax_x000D_
_x000D_
_x000D_
});_x000D_
_x000D_
//Geocoder function_x000D_
function getGeoCodeFor(maps, addresses) {_x000D_
GMaps.geocode({_x000D_
callback: function(results, status) {_x000D_
geocode_count++;  _x000D_
_x000D_
console.log('Id: '+e.customerId+' | Status: '+status);_x000D_
_x000D_
if (status == 'OK') {  _x000D_
_x000D_
//if the element is alreay in the array, remove it_x000D_
return value != e;_x000D_
});_x000D_
_x000D_
_x000D_
latlng = results[0].geometry.location;_x000D_
lat: latlng.lat(),_x000D_
lng: latlng.lng(),_x000D_
title: e.customerName,_x000D_
} else if (status == 'ZERO_RESULTS') {_x000D_
} else if(status == 'OVER_QUERY_LIMIT') {_x000D_
_x000D_
//if the element is not in the losts_addresses array, add it! _x000D_
if( jQuery.inArray(e,lost_addresses) == -1) {_x000D_
}_x000D_
_x000D_
} _x000D_
_x000D_
if(geocode_count == addresses.length) {_x000D_
//set counter == 0 so it wont's stop next round_x000D_
geocode_count = 0;_x000D_
_x000D_
setTimeout(function() {_x000D_
}, 2500);_x000D_
}_x000D_
}//callback_x000D_
});//GeoCode_x000D_
});//each_x000D_
};//getGeoCodeFor()``````
_x000D_
``````#gmap_marker {_x000D_
min-height:250px;_x000D_
height:100%;_x000D_
width:100%;_x000D_
position: relative; _x000D_
overflow: hidden;_x000D_
}``````
_x000D_
``````<script src="https://ajax.googleapis.com/ajax/libs/jquery/1.9.1/jquery.min.js"></script>_x000D_
<script src="https://cdnjs.cloudflare.com/ajax/libs/gmaps.js/0.4.24/gmaps.min.js" type="text/javascript"></script>_x000D_
_x000D_
_x000D_
<div id="gmap_marker"></div> <!-- /#gmap_marker -->``````
_x000D_
_x000D_
_x000D_

### How to create a custom attribute in C#

The short answer is for creating an attribute in c# you only need to inherit it from Attribute class, Just this :)

But here I'm going to explain attributes in detail:

basically attributes are classes that we can use them for applying our logic to assemblies, classes, methods, properties, fields, ...

In .Net, Microsoft has provided some predefined Attributes like Obsolete or Validation Attributes like ( [Required], [StringLength(100)], [Range(0, 999.99)]), also we have kind of attributes like ActionFilters in asp.net that can be very useful for applying our desired logic to our codes (read this article about action filters if you are passionate to learn it)

one another point, you can apply a kind of configuration on your attribute via AttibuteUsage.

``````  [AttributeUsage(AttributeTargets.Class | AttributeTargets.Struct, AllowMultiple = true)]
``````

When you decorate an attribute class with AttributeUsage you can tell to c# compiler where I'm going to use this attribute: I'm going to use this on classes, on assemblies on properties or on ... and my attribute is allowed to use several times on defined targets(classes, assemblies, properties,...) or not?!

After this definition about attributes I'm going to show you an example: Imagine we want to define a new lesson in university and we want to allow just admins and masters in our university to define a new Lesson, Ok?

``````namespace ConsoleApp1
{
/// <summary>
/// All Roles in our scenario
/// </summary>
public enum UniversityRoles
{
Master,
Employee,
Student
}

/// <summary>
/// This attribute will check the Max Length of Properties/fields
/// </summary>
[AttributeUsage(AttributeTargets.Class | AttributeTargets.Struct, AllowMultiple = true)]
public class ValidRoleForAccess : Attribute
{
public ValidRoleForAccess(UniversityRoles role)
{
Role = role;
}
public UniversityRoles Role { get; private set; }

}

/// <summary>
/// we suppose that just admins and masters can define new Lesson
/// </summary>
[ValidRoleForAccess(UniversityRoles.Master)]
public class Lesson
{
public Lesson(int id, string name, DateTime startTime, User owner)
{
var lessType = typeof(Lesson);
var validRolesForAccesses = lessType.GetCustomAttributes<ValidRoleForAccess>();

if (validRolesForAccesses.All(x => x.Role.ToString() != owner.GetType().Name))
{
throw new Exception("You are not Allowed to define a new lesson");
}

Id = id;
Name = name;
StartTime = startTime;
Owner = owner;
}
public int Id { get; private set; }
public string Name { get; private set; }
public DateTime StartTime { get; private set; }

/// <summary>
/// Owner is some one who define the lesson in university website
/// </summary>
public User Owner { get; private set; }

}

public abstract class User
{
public int Id { get; set; }
public string Name { get; set; }
public DateTime DateOfBirth { get; set; }
}

public class Master : User
{
public DateTime HireDate { get; set; }
public Decimal Salary { get; set; }
public string Department { get; set; }
}

public class Student : User
{
public float GPA { get; set; }
}

class Program
{
static void Main(string[] args)
{

#region  exampl1

var master = new Master()
{
Name = "Hamid Hasani",
Id = 1,
DateOfBirth = new DateTime(1994, 8, 15),
Department = "Computer Engineering",
HireDate = new DateTime(2018, 1, 1),
Salary = 10000
};
var math = new Lesson(1, "Math", DateTime.Today, master);

#endregion

#region exampl2
var student = new Student()
{
Name = "Hamid Hasani",
Id = 1,
DateOfBirth = new DateTime(1994, 8, 15),
GPA = 16
};
var literature = new Lesson(2, "literature", DateTime.Now.AddDays(7), student);
#endregion

}
}

}
``````

In the real world of programming maybe we don't use this approach for using attributes and I said this because of its educational point in using attributes

### How to parse a JSON file in swift?

Swift 3

``````let parsedResult: [String: AnyObject]
do {
parsedResult = try JSONSerialization.jsonObject(with: data, options: .allowFragments) as! [String:AnyObject]
} catch {
// Display an error or return or whatever
}
``````

data - it's Data type (Structure) (i.e. returned by some server response)

### Createuser: could not connect to database postgres: FATAL: role "tom" does not exist

You need to first run initdb. It will create the database cluster and the initial setup

### Auto line-wrapping in SVG text

I have posted the following walkthrough for adding some fake word-wrapping to an SVG "text" element here:

SVG Word Wrap - Show stopper?

You just need to add a simple JavaScript function, which splits your string into shorter "tspan" elements. Here's an example of what it looks like:

Hope this helps !

### Compiling simple Hello World program on OS X via command line

``````user@host> g++ hw.cpp
user@host> ./a.out
``````

### What are XAND and XOR

XOR is Exclusive Or. It means "One of the two items being XOR'd is true, but not both of them."

``````TRUE XOR TRUE : FALSE
TRUE XOR FALSE : TRUE
FALSE XOR TRUE : TRUE
FALSE XOR FALSE: FALSE
``````

Wikipedia's XOR Article

XAND I have not heard of.

### How to move a file?

The accepted answer is not the right one, because the question is not about renaming a file into a file, but moving many files into a directory. `shutil.move` will do the work, but for this purpose `os.rename` is useless (as stated on comments) because destination must have an explicit file name.

### SQL JOIN, GROUP BY on three tables to get totals

Thank you very much for the replies!

Saggi Malachi, that query unfortunately sums the invoice amount in cases where there is more than one payment. Say there are two payments to a \$39 invoice of \$18 and \$12. So rather than ending up with a result that looks like:

``````1   39.00   9.00
``````

You'll end up with:

``````1   78.00   48.00
``````

Charles Bretana, in the course of trimming my query down to the simplest possible query I (stupidly) omitted an additional table, customerinvoices, which provides a link between customers and invoices. This can be used to see invoices for which payments haven't made.

After much struggling, I think that the following query returns what I need it to:

``````SELECT DISTINCT i.invoiceid, i.amount, ISNULL(i.amount - p.amount, i.amount) AS amountdue
FROM invoices i
LEFT JOIN invoicepayments ip ON i.invoiceid = ip.invoiceid
LEFT JOIN customerinvoices ci ON i.invoiceid = ci.invoiceid
LEFT JOIN (
SELECT invoiceid, SUM(p.amount) amount
FROM invoicepayments ip
LEFT JOIN payments p ON ip.paymentid = p.paymentid
GROUP BY ip.invoiceid
) p
ON p.invoiceid = ip.invoiceid
LEFT JOIN payments p2 ON ip.paymentid = p2.paymentid
LEFT JOIN customers c ON ci.customerid = c.customerid
WHERE c.customernumber='100'
``````

Would you guys concur?

### 403 Forbidden You don't have permission to access /folder-name/ on this server

under `etc/apache2/apache2.conf`, you can find one or more blocks that describe the server directories and permissions

As an example, this is the default configuration

``````<Directory /var/www/>
AllowOverride None
Require all granted
</Directory>
``````

you can replicate this but change the directory path `/var/www/` with the new directory.

Finally, you need to restart the apache server, you can do that from a terminal with the command: `sudo service apache2 restart`

### HTML Table cellspacing or padding just top / bottom

CSS?

``````td {
}
``````

### best way to preserve numpy arrays on disk

I've compared performance (space and time) for a number of ways to store numpy arrays. Few of them support multiple arrays per file, but perhaps it's useful anyway.

Npy and binary files are both really fast and small for dense data. If the data is sparse or very structured, you might want to use npz with compression, which'll save a lot of space but cost some load time.

If portability is an issue, binary is better than npy. If human readability is important, then you'll have to sacrifice a lot of performance, but it can be achieved fairly well using csv (which is also very portable of course).

More details and the code are available at the github repo.

### 'Conda' is not recognized as internal or external command

Go To anaconda prompt(type "anaconda" in search box in your laptop). type following commands

``````where conda
``````

add that location to your environment path variables. Close the cmd and open it again

### Set Font Color, Font Face and Font Size in PHPExcel

I recommend you start reading the documentation (4.6.18. Formatting cells). When applying a lot of formatting it's better to use `applyFromArray()` According to the documentation this method is also suppose to be faster when you're setting many style properties. There's an annex where you can find all the possible keys for this function.

This will work for you:

``````\$phpExcel = new PHPExcel();

\$styleArray = array(
'font'  => array(
'bold'  => true,
'color' => array('rgb' => 'FF0000'),
'size'  => 15,
'name'  => 'Verdana'
));

\$phpExcel->getActiveSheet()->getCell('A1')->setValue('Some text');
\$phpExcel->getActiveSheet()->getStyle('A1')->applyFromArray(\$styleArray);
``````

To apply font style to complete excel document:

`````` \$styleArray = array(
'font'  => array(
'bold'  => true,
'color' => array('rgb' => 'FF0000'),
'size'  => 15,
'name'  => 'Verdana'
));
\$phpExcel->getDefaultStyle()
->applyFromArray(\$styleArray);
``````

### Hibernate: How to fix "identifier of an instance altered from X to Y"?

Are you changing the primary key value of a User object somewhere? You shouldn't do that. Check that your mapping for the primary key is correct.

What does your mapping XML file or mapping annotations look like?

### Android Center text on canvas

Use this in your paint properties:

`````` textPaint.setTextAlign(Paint.Align.CENTER);
``````

### Unit Testing C Code

If you are familiar with JUnit then I recommend CppUnit. http://cppunit.sourceforge.net/cppunit-wiki

That is assuming you have c++ compiler to do the unit tests. if not then I have to agree with Adam Rosenfield that check is what you want.

### Concat a string to SELECT * MySql

You simply can't do that in SQL. You have to explicitly list the fields and concat each one:

``````SELECT CONCAT(field1, '/'), CONCAT(field2, '/'), ... FROM `socials` WHERE 1
``````

If you are using an app, you can use SQL to read the column names, and then use your app to construct a query like above. See this stackoverflow question to find the column names: Get table column names in mysql?

### Check for false

If you want it to check explicit for it to not be false (boolean value) you have to use

``````if(borrar() !== false)
``````

But in JavaScript we usually use falsy and truthy and you could use

``````if(!borrar())
``````

but then values 0, '', null, undefined, null and NaN would not generate the alert.

The following values are always falsy:

``````false,
,0 (zero)
,'' or "" (empty string)
,null
,undefined
,NaN
``````

Everything else is truthy. That includes:

``````'0' (a string containing a single zero)
,'false' (a string containing the text “false”)
,[] (an empty array)
,{} (an empty object)
,function(){} (an “empty” function)
``````

As an extra perk to convert any value to true or false (boolean type), use double exclamation mark:

``````!![] === true
!!'false' === true
!!false === false
!!undefined === false
``````

### Trying to create a file in Android: open failed: EROFS (Read-only file system)

Google have restricted write access to the external sdcard. From API 19 there is a framework called Storage Access Framework which allows you the set up "contracts" to allow write access.

For further info:

Android - How to use new Storage Access Framework to copy files to external sd card

The information schema isn't the place to treat these things (see DDL database commands).

When you add a comment you need to change the table structure (table comments).

From MySQL 5.6 documentation:

INFORMATION_SCHEMA is a database within each MySQL instance, the place that stores information about all the other databases that the MySQL server maintains. The INFORMATION_SCHEMA database contains several read-only tables. They are actually views, not base tables, so there are no files associated with them, and you cannot set triggers on them. Also, there is no database directory with that name.

Although you can select INFORMATION_SCHEMA as the default database with a USE statement, you can only read the contents of tables, not perform INSERT, UPDATE, or DELETE operations on them.

Chapter 21 INFORMATION_SCHEMA Tables

### What is the purpose of backbone.js?

It also adds routing using controllers and views with KVO. You'll be able to develop "AJAXy" applications with it.

See it as a lightweight Sproutcore or Cappuccino framework.

### Sending a notification from a service in Android

If none of these work, try `getBaseContext()`, instead of `context` or `this`.

### Objective-C : BOOL vs bool

I go against convention here. I don't like typedef's to base types. I think it's a useless indirection that removes value.

1. When I see the base type in your source I will instantly understand it. If it's a typedef I have to look it up to see what I'm really dealing with.
2. When porting to another compiler or adding another library their set of typedefs may conflict and cause issues that are difficult to debug. I just got done dealing with this in fact. In one library boolean was typedef'ed to int, and in mingw/gcc it's typedef'ed to a char.

### No Access-Control-Allow-Origin header is present on the requested resource

Solution:
Instead of using `setHeader` method I have used `addHeader`.

``````response.addHeader("Access-Control-Allow-Origin", "*");
``````

`*` in above line will allow access to all domains, For allowing access to specific domain only:

``````response.addHeader("Access-Control-Allow-Origin", "http://www.example.com");
``````

For issues related to IE<=9, Please see here.

### How to find a user's home directory on linux or unix?

I assume you want to find the home directory of a DIFFERENT user. Obviously getting the "user.home" property would be the easiest way to get the current user home directory.

To get an arbitrary user home directory, it takes a bit of finesse with the command line:

``````String[] command = {"/bin/sh", "-c", "echo ~root"}; //substitute desired username
Process outsideProcess = rt.exec(command);
outsideProcess.waitFor();
String tempResult;
StringBuilder sb = new StringBuilder();
while((tempResult = br.readLine()) != null) sb.append(tempResult);
br.close();
return sb.toString().trim();
``````

Now technically, we should have a thread waiting on the stdout and stderr so the buffers don't fill up and lock up the process, but I'd sure hope the buffer could at least hold a single username. Also, you might want to check the result to see if it starts with ~root (or whatever username you used) just to make sure the user does exist and it evaluated correctly.

Hope that helps. Vote for this answer if it does as I'm new to contributing to SO and could use the points.

### Darken background image on hover

``````.image:hover > .overlay {
width:100%;
height:100%;
position:absolute;
background-color:#000;
opacity:0.5;
}
``````

Demo

### Can the Twitter Bootstrap Carousel plugin fade in and out on slide transition

Yes. Although I use the following code.

``````.carousel.fade
{
opacity: 1;

.item
{
-moz-transition: opacity ease-in-out .7s;
-o-transition: opacity ease-in-out .7s;
-webkit-transition: opacity ease-in-out .7s;
transition: opacity ease-in-out .7s;
left: 0 !important;
opacity: 0;
top:0;
position:absolute;
width: 100%;
display:block !important;
z-index:1;
&:first-child{
top:auto;
position:relative;
}

&.active
{
opacity: 1;
-moz-transition: opacity ease-in-out .7s;
-o-transition: opacity ease-in-out .7s;
-webkit-transition: opacity ease-in-out .7s;
transition: opacity ease-in-out .7s;
z-index:2;
}
}
}
``````

Then change the class on the carousel from "carousel slide" to "carousel fade". This works in safari, chrome, firefox, and IE 10. It will correctly downgrade in IE 9, however, the nice face effect doesn't happen.

Edit: Since this answer has gotten so popular I've added the following which rewritten as pure CSS instead of the above which was LESS:

``````.carousel.fade {
opacity: 1;
}
-moz-transition: opacity ease-in-out .7s;
-o-transition: opacity ease-in-out .7s;
-webkit-transition: opacity ease-in-out .7s;
transition: opacity ease-in-out .7s;
left: 0 !important;
opacity: 0;
top:0;
position:absolute;
width: 100%;
display:block !important;
z-index:1;
}
top:auto;
position:relative;
}
opacity: 1;
-moz-transition: opacity ease-in-out .7s;
-o-transition: opacity ease-in-out .7s;
-webkit-transition: opacity ease-in-out .7s;
transition: opacity ease-in-out .7s;
z-index:2;
}
``````

### htaccess redirect all pages to single page

Are you trying to get visitors to old.com/about.htm to go to new.com/about.htm? If so, you can do this with a mod_rewrite rule in .htaccess:

`RewriteEngine on`

`RewriteRule ^(.*)\$ http://www.thenewdomain.com/\$1 [R=permanent,L]`

### Can you use Microsoft Entity Framework with Oracle?

Update:

Oracle now fully supports the Entity Framework. Oracle Data Provider for .NET Release 11.2.0.3 (ODAC 11.2) Release Notes: http://docs.oracle.com/cd/E20434_01/doc/win.112/e23174/whatsnew.htm#BGGJIEIC

More documentation on Linq to Entities and ADO.NET Entity Framework: http://docs.oracle.com/cd/E20434_01/doc/win.112/e23174/featLINQ.htm#CJACEDJG

Note: ODP.NET also supports Entity SQL.

### Java recursive Fibonacci sequence

Fibonacci series is one simple code that shows the power of dynamic programming. All we learned from school days is to run it via iterative or max recursive code. Recursive code works fine till 20 or so, if you give numbers bigger than that you will see it takes a lot of time to compute. In dynamic programming you can code as follows and it takes secs to compute the answer.

``````static double fib(int n) {
if (n < 2)
return n;
if (fib[n] != 0)
return fib[n];
fib[n] = fib(n - 1) + fib(n - 2);
return fib[n];
}
``````

You store values in an array and proceed to fresh computation only when the array cannot provide you the answer.

### How can I make a button have a rounded border in Swift?

``````@IBOutlet weak var button: UIButton!
``````

...

I think for radius just enough this parameter:

``````button.layer.cornerRadius = 5
``````

### How can I show/hide component with JSF?

You can actually accomplish this without JavaScript, using only JSF's `rendered` attribute, by enclosing the elements to be shown/hidden in a component that can itself be re-rendered, such as a panelGroup, at least in JSF2. For example, the following JSF code shows or hides one or both of two dropdown lists depending on the value of a third. An AJAX event is used to update the display:

``````<h:selectOneMenu value="#{workflowProcEditBean.performedBy}">
<f:selectItem itemValue="O" itemLabel="Originator" />
<f:selectItem itemValue="R" itemLabel="Role" />
<f:selectItem itemValue="E" itemLabel="Employee" />
<f:ajax event="change" execute="@this" render="perfbyselection" />
<h:panelGroup id="perfbyselection">
rendered="#{workflowProcEditBean.performedBy eq 'R'}">
<f:selectItem itemLabel="- Choose One -" itemValue="" />
<f:selectItems value="#{workflowProcEditBean.roles}" />
rendered="#{workflowProcEditBean.performedBy eq 'E'}">
<f:selectItem itemLabel="- Choose One -" itemValue="" />
<f:selectItems value="#{workflowProcEditBean.employees}" />
</h:panelGroup>
``````

### Setting the default value of a DateTime Property to DateTime.Now inside the System.ComponentModel Default Value Attrbute

I needed a UTC Timestamp as a default value and so modified Daniel's solution like this:

``````    [Column(TypeName = "datetime2")]
[XmlAttribute]
[DisplayFormat(ApplyFormatInEditMode = true, DataFormatString = "{0:yyyy-MM-dd}")]
[Display(Name = "Date Modified")]
[DateRange(Min = "1900-01-01", Max = "2999-12-31")]
public DateTime DateModified {
get { return dateModified; }
set { dateModified = value; }
}
private DateTime dateModified = DateTime.Now.ToUniversalTime();
``````

For DateRangeAttribute tutorial, see this awesome blog post

### How to remove an element from an array in Swift

If you don't know the index of the element that you want to remove, and the element is conform the Equatable protocol, you can do:

``````animals.remove(at: animals.firstIndex(of: "dogs")!)
``````

See Equatable protocol answer:How do I do indexOfObject or a proper containsObject

### What is HTML5 ARIA?

WAI-ARIA is a spec defining support for accessible web apps. It defines bunch of markup extensions (mostly as attributes on HTML5 elements), which can be used by the web app developer to provide additional information about the semantics of the various elements to assistive technologies like screen readers. Of course, for ARIA to work, the HTTP user agent that interprets the markup needs to support ARIA, but the spec is created in such a way, as to allow down-level user agents to ignore the ARIA-specific markup safely without affecting the web app's functionality.

Here's an example from the ARIA spec:

``````<ul role="menubar">

<!-- Rule 2A: "File" label via aria-labelledby -->
<li role="menuitem" aria-haspopup="true" aria-labelledby="fileLabel"><span id="fileLabel">File</span>

<!-- Rule 2C: "New" label via Namefrom:contents -->
...
</ul>
</li>
...
</ul>
``````

Note the `role` attribute on the outer `<ul>` element. This attribute does not affect in any way how the markup is rendered on the screen by the browser; however, browsers that support ARIA will add OS-specific accessibility information to the rendered UI element, so that the screen reader can interpret it as a menu and read it aloud with enough context for the end-user to understand (for example, an explicit "menu" audio hint) and is able to interact with it (for example, voice navigation).

### How to model type-safe enum types?

In Scala it is very comfortable with https://github.com/lloydmeta/enumeratum

Project is really good with examples and documentation

Just this example from their docs should makes you interested in

``````import enumeratum._

sealed trait Greeting extends EnumEntry

object Greeting extends Enum[Greeting] {

/*
`findValues` is a protected method that invokes a macro to find all `Greeting` object declarations inside an `Enum`

You use it to implement the `val values` member
*/
val values = findValues

case object Hello   extends Greeting
case object GoodBye extends Greeting
case object Hi      extends Greeting
case object Bye     extends Greeting

}

// Object Greeting has a `withName(name: String)` method
Greeting.withName("Hello")
// => res0: Greeting = Hello

Greeting.withName("Haro")
// => java.lang.IllegalArgumentException: Haro is not a member of Enum (Hello, GoodBye, Hi, Bye)

// A safer alternative would be to use `withNameOption(name: String)` method which returns an Option[Greeting]
Greeting.withNameOption("Hello")
// => res1: Option[Greeting] = Some(Hello)

Greeting.withNameOption("Haro")
// => res2: Option[Greeting] = None

// It is also possible to use strings case insensitively
Greeting.withNameInsensitive("HeLLo")
// => res3: Greeting = Hello

Greeting.withNameInsensitiveOption("HeLLo")
// => res4: Option[Greeting] = Some(Hello)

// Uppercase-only strings may also be used
Greeting.withNameUppercaseOnly("HELLO")
// => res5: Greeting = Hello

Greeting.withNameUppercaseOnlyOption("HeLLo")
// => res6: Option[Greeting] = None

// Similarly, lowercase-only strings may also be used
Greeting.withNameLowercaseOnly("hello")
// => res7: Greeting = Hello

Greeting.withNameLowercaseOnlyOption("hello")
// => res8: Option[Greeting] = Some(Hello)
``````

### Comparing two vectors in an if statement

Are they identical?

``````> identical(A,C)
[1] FALSE
``````

Which elements disagree:

``````> which(A != C)
[1] 2 4
``````

### What is the difference between jQuery: text() and html() ?

text function set or retrieve the value as plain text, otherwise, HTML function set or retrieve the value as HTML tags to change or modify that. If you want to just change the content then use text(). But if you need to change the markup then you have to use hmtl().

It's a dummy answer for me after six years, Don't mind.

### Get first letter of a string from column

Cast the `dtype` of the col to `str` and you can perform vectorised slicing calling `str`:

``````In [29]:
df['new_col'] = df['First'].astype(str).str[0]
df

Out[29]:
First  Second new_col
0    123     234       1
1     22    4353       2
2     32     355       3
3    453     453       4
4     45     345       4
5    453     453       4
6     56      56       5
``````

if you need to you can cast the `dtype` back again calling `astype(int)` on the column

### Convert JS object to JSON string

Check out updated/better way by Thomas Frank:

Update May 17, 2008: Small sanitizer added to the toObject-method. Now toObject() will not eval() the string if it finds any malicious code in it.For even more security: Don't set the includeFunctions flag to true.

Douglas Crockford, father of the JSON concept, wrote one of the first stringifiers for JavaScript. Later Steve Yen at Trim Path wrote a nice improved version which I have used for some time. It's my changes to Steve's version that I'd like to share with you. Basically they stemmed from my wish to make the stringifier:

• handle and restore cyclical references
• include the JavaScript code for functions/methods (as an option)
• exclude object members from Object.prototype if needed.

### Error in finding last used cell in Excel with VBA

NOTE: I intend to make this a "one stop post" where you can use the `Correct` way to find the last row. This will also cover the best practices to follow when finding the last row. And hence I will keep on updating it whenever I come across a new scenario/information.

#### Unreliable ways of finding the last row

Some of the most common ways of finding last row which are highly unreliable and hence should never be used.

1. UsedRange
2. xlDown
3. CountA

`UsedRange` should NEVER be used to find the last cell which has data. It is highly unreliable. Try this experiment.

Type something in cell `A5`. Now when you calculate the last row with any of the methods given below, it will give you 5. Now color the cell `A10` red. If you now use the any of the below code, you will still get 5. If you use `Usedrange.Rows.Count` what do you get? It won't be 5.

Here is a scenario to show how `UsedRange` works.

`xlDown` is equally unreliable.

Consider this code

``````lastrow = Range("A1").End(xlDown).Row
``````

What would happen if there was only one cell (`A1`) which had data? You will end up reaching the last row in the worksheet! It's like selecting cell `A1` and then pressing End key and then pressing Down Arrow key. This will also give you unreliable results if there are blank cells in a range.

`CountA` is also unreliable because it will give you incorrect result if there are blank cells in between.

And hence one should avoid the use of `UsedRange`, `xlDown` and `CountA` to find the last cell.

#### Find Last Row in a Column

To find the last Row in Col E use this

``````With Sheets("Sheet1")
LastRow = .Range("E" & .Rows.Count).End(xlUp).Row
End With
``````

If you notice that we have a `.` before `Rows.Count`. We often chose to ignore that. See THIS question on the possible error that you may get. I always advise using `.` before `Rows.Count` and `Columns.Count`. That question is a classic scenario where the code will fail because the `Rows.Count` returns `65536` for Excel 2003 and earlier and `1048576` for Excel 2007 and later. Similarly `Columns.Count` returns `256` and `16384`, respectively.

The above fact that Excel 2007+ has `1048576` rows also emphasizes on the fact that we should always declare the variable which will hold the row value as `Long` instead of `Integer` else you will get an `Overflow` error.

Note that this approach will skip any hidden rows. Looking back at my screenshot above for column A, if row 8 were hidden, this approach would return `5` instead of `8`.

#### Find Last Row in a Sheet

To find the `Effective` last row in the sheet, use this. Notice the use of `Application.WorksheetFunction.CountA(.Cells)`. This is required because if there are no cells with data in the worksheet then `.Find` will give you `Run Time Error 91: Object Variable or With block variable not set`

``````With Sheets("Sheet1")
If Application.WorksheetFunction.CountA(.Cells) <> 0 Then
lastrow = .Cells.Find(What:="*", _
After:=.Range("A1"), _
Lookat:=xlPart, _
LookIn:=xlFormulas, _
SearchOrder:=xlByRows, _
SearchDirection:=xlPrevious, _
MatchCase:=False).Row
Else
lastrow = 1
End If
End With
``````

#### Find Last Row in a Table (ListObject)

The same principles apply, for example to get the last row in the third column of a table:

``````Sub FindLastRowInExcelTableColAandB()
Dim lastRow As Long
Dim ws As Worksheet, tbl as ListObject
Set ws = Sheets("Sheet1")  'Modify as needed
'Assuming the name of the table is "Table1", modify as needed
Set tbl = ws.ListObjects("Table1")

With tbl.ListColumns(3).Range
lastrow = .Find(What:="*", _
After:=.Cells(1), _
Lookat:=xlPart, _
LookIn:=xlFormulas, _
SearchOrder:=xlByRows, _
SearchDirection:=xlPrevious, _
MatchCase:=False).Row
End With

End Sub
``````

### Change font-weight of FontAwesome icons?

2018 Update

Font Awesome 5 now features light, regular and solid variants. The icon featured in this question has the following style under the different variants:

A modern answer to this question would be that different variants of the icon can be used to make the icon appear bolder or lighter. The only downside is that if you're already using solid you will have to fall back to the original answers here to make those bolder, and likewise if you're using light you'd have to do the same to make those lighter.

Font Awesome's How To Use documentation walks through how to use these variants.

Font Awesome makes use of the Private Use region of Unicode. For example, this `.icon-remove` you're using is added in using the `::before` pseudo-selector, setting its content to \f00d (`&#xF00D;`):

``````.icon-remove:before {
content: "\f00d";
}
``````

Font Awesome does only come with one font-weight variant, however browsers will render this as they would render any font with only one variant. If you look closely, the `normal` font-weight isn't as bold as the `bold` font-weight. Unfortunately a normal font weight isn't what you're after.

What you can do however is change its colour to something less dark and reduce its font size to make it stand out a bit less. From your image, the "tags" text appears much lighter than the icon, so I'd suggest using something like:

``````.tag .icon-remove {
color:#888;
font-size:14px;
}
``````

Here's a JSFiddle example, and here is further proof that this is definitely a font.

### How do you strip a character out of a column in SQL Server?

Take a look at the following function - REPLACE():

``````select replace(DataColumn, StringToReplace, NewStringValue)

//example to replace the s in test with the number 1
select replace('test', 's', '1')
//yields te1t
``````

http://msdn.microsoft.com/en-us/library/ms186862.aspx

EDIT
If you want to remove a string, simple use the replace function with an empty string as the third parameter like:

``````select replace(DataColumn, 'StringToRemove', '')
``````

### Where does one get the "sys/socket.h" header/source file?

Given that Windows has no sys/socket.h, you might consider just doing something like this:

``````#ifdef __WIN32__
# include <winsock2.h>
#else
# include <sys/socket.h>
#endif
``````

I know you indicated that you won't use WinSock, but since WinSock is how TCP networking is done under Windows, I don't see that you have any alternative. Even if you use a cross-platform networking library, that library will be calling WinSock internally. Most of the standard BSD sockets API calls are implemented in WinSock, so with a bit of futzing around, you can make the same sockets-based program compile under both Windows and other OS's. Just don't forget to do a

``````#ifdef __WIN32__
WORD versionWanted = MAKEWORD(1, 1);
#endif
``````

at the top of main()... otherwise all of your socket calls will fail under Windows, because the WSA subsystem wasn't initialized for your process.

### jquery animate background position

I guess it might be because it is expecting a single value?

taken from the animate page on jQuery:

#### Animation Properties and Values

All animated properties should be animated to a single numeric value, except as noted below; most properties that are non-numeric cannot be animated using basic jQuery functionality. (For example, width, height, or left can be animated but background-color cannot be.) Property values are treated as a number of pixels unless otherwise specified. The units em and % can be specified where applicable.

### HTML CSS Invisible Button

Use CSS `background:transparent;` to your button/div.

JSFiddle

The info at http://nelenkov.blogspot.com/2012/05/storing-application-secrets-in-androids.html is a fairly pragmatic, but "uses-hidden-android-apis" based approach. It's something to consider when you really can't get around storing credentials/passwords locally on the device.

I've also created a cleaned up gist of that idea at https://gist.github.com/kbsriram/5503519 which might be helpful.

### Split array into chunks of N length

It could be something like that:

_x000D_
_x000D_
``````var a = ['a', 'b', 'c', 'd', 'e', 'f', 'g', 'h', 'i', 'j'];

var arrays = [], size = 3;

while (a.length > 0)
arrays.push(a.splice(0, size));

console.log(arrays);``````
_x000D_
_x000D_
_x000D_

See splice Array's method.

### What is the default text size on Android?

Default values in appcompat-v7

``````<dimen name="abc_text_size_body_1_material">14sp</dimen>
<dimen name="abc_text_size_body_2_material">14sp</dimen>
<dimen name="abc_text_size_button_material">14sp</dimen>
<dimen name="abc_text_size_caption_material">12sp</dimen>
<dimen name="abc_text_size_display_1_material">34sp</dimen>
<dimen name="abc_text_size_display_2_material">45sp</dimen>
<dimen name="abc_text_size_display_3_material">56sp</dimen>
<dimen name="abc_text_size_display_4_material">112sp</dimen>
<dimen name="abc_text_size_large_material">22sp</dimen>
<dimen name="abc_text_size_medium_material">18sp</dimen>
<dimen name="abc_text_size_small_material">14sp</dimen>
<dimen name="abc_text_size_subtitle_material_toolbar">16dp</dimen>
<dimen name="abc_text_size_title_material">20sp</dimen>
<dimen name="abc_text_size_title_material_toolbar">20dp</dimen>
``````

### Undefined index with \$_POST

Use:

``````if (isset(\$_POST['user'])) {
//do something
}
``````

But you probably should be using some more proper validation. Try a simple regex or a rock-solid implementation from Zend Framework or Symfony.

http://framework.zend.com/manual/en/zend.validate.introduction.html

http://symfony.com/doc/current/book/validation.html

Or even the built-in filter extension:

http://php.net/manual/en/function.filter-var.php

Never trust user input, be smart. Don't trust anything. Always make sure what you receive is really what you expect. If it should be a number, make SURE it's a number.

Much improved code:

``````\$user = filter_var(\$_POST['user'], FILTER_SANITIZE_STRING);
\$isValid = filter_var(\$user, FILTER_VALIDATE_REGEXP, array('options' => array('regexp' => "/^[a-zA-Z0-9]+\$/")));

if (\$isValid) {
// do something
}
``````

Sanitization and validation.

### Cosine Similarity between 2 Number Lists

another version based on `numpy` only

``````from numpy import dot
from numpy.linalg import norm

cos_sim = dot(a, b)/(norm(a)*norm(b))
``````

### Grouping into interval of 5 minutes within a time range

I found out that with MySQL probably the correct query is the following:

``````SELECT SUBSTRING( FROM_UNIXTIME( CEILING( timestamp /300 ) *300,
'%Y-%m-%d %H:%i:%S' ) , 1, 19 ) AS ts_CEILING,
SUM(value)
FROM group_interval
GROUP BY SUBSTRING( FROM_UNIXTIME( CEILING( timestamp /300 ) *300,
'%Y-%m-%d %H:%i:%S' ) , 1, 19 )
ORDER BY SUBSTRING( FROM_UNIXTIME( CEILING( timestamp /300 ) *300,
'%Y-%m-%d %H:%i:%S' ) , 1, 19 ) DESC
``````

Let me know what you think.

### How to resolve "local edit, incoming delete upon update" message

You can force to revert your local directory to svn.

`````` svn revert -R your_local_path
``````

### Converting an integer to a string in PHP

``````\$num = 10;
"'".\$num."'"
``````

Try this

### How to use @Nullable and @Nonnull annotations more effectively?

What I do in my projects is to activate the following option in the "Constant conditions & exceptions" code inspection:
Suggest @Nullable annotation for methods that may possibly return null and report nullable values passed to non-annotated parameters

When activated, all non-annotated parameters will be treated as non-null and thus you will also see a warning on your indirect call:

``````clazz.indirectPathToA(null);
``````

For even stronger checks the Checker Framework may be a good choice (see this nice tutorial.
Note: I have not used that yet and there may be problems with the Jack compiler: see this bugreport

### Can I apply a CSS style to an element name?

You can use the attribute selector,

_x000D_
_x000D_
``````input[name="goButton"] {_x000D_
background: red;_x000D_
}``````
_x000D_
``<input name="goButton">``
_x000D_
_x000D_
_x000D_

Be aware that it isn't supported in IE6.

Update: In 2016 you can pretty much use them as you want, since IE6 is dead. http://quirksmode.org/css/selectors/

http://reference.sitepoint.com/css/attributeselector

### How to open this .DB file?

I don't think there is a way to tell which program to use from just the .db extension. It could even be an encrypted database which can't be opened. You can MS Access, or a sqlite manager.

Edit: Try to rename the file to .txt and open it with a text editor. The first couple of words in the file could tell you the DB Type.

If it is a SQLite database, it will start with "SQLite format 3"

### Are there such things as variables within an Excel formula?

You could store intermediate values in a cell or column (which you could hide if you choose)

``````C1: = VLOOKUP(A1, B:B, 1, 0)
D1: = IF(C1 > 10, C1 - 10, C1)
``````

### How to increase the vertical split window size in Vim

Along the same lines, I use the following in my `.vimrc` to let me move through the splits, automatically expanding the one I'm moving to to its full size and shrinking all the rest to their minimum height or width:

``````" Switch between window splits using big J or K and expand the split to its
" full size.
"
" Move vertically in the window through the horizontal splits...
map <C-J> <C-w>j<C-w>_
map <C-K> <C-w>k<C-w>_

" Move horizontally in the window through the vertical splits...
map <C-H> <C-w>h<C-w>\|
map <C-L> <C-w>l<C-w>\|
``````

### How do I count unique values inside a list

``````ipta = raw_input("Word: ") ## asks for input
words = [] ## creates list
unique_words = set(words)
``````

### get all characters to right of last dash

``````string tail = test.Substring(test.LastIndexOf('-') + 1);
``````

### Most efficient way to remove special characters from string

Why do you think that your method is not efficient? It's actually one of the most efficient ways that you can do it.

You should of course read the character into a local variable or use an enumerator to reduce the number of array accesses:

``````public static string RemoveSpecialCharacters(this string str) {
StringBuilder sb = new StringBuilder();
foreach (char c in str) {
if ((c >= '0' && c <= '9') || (c >= 'A' && c <= 'Z') || (c >= 'a' && c <= 'z') || c == '.' || c == '_') {
sb.Append(c);
}
}
return sb.ToString();
}
``````

One thing that makes a method like this efficient is that it scales well. The execution time will be relative to the length of the string. There is no nasty surprises if you would use it on a large string.

Edit:
I made a quick performance test, running each function a million times with a 24 character string. These are the results:

Original function: 54.5 ms.
My suggested change: 47.1 ms.
Mine with setting StringBuilder capacity: 43.3 ms.
Regular expression: 294.4 ms.

Edit 2: I added the distinction between A-Z and a-z in the code above. (I reran the performance test, and there is no noticable difference.)

Edit 3:
I tested the lookup+char[] solution, and it runs in about 13 ms.

The price to pay is, of course, the initialization of the huge lookup table and keeping it in memory. Well, it's not that much data, but it's much for such a trivial function...

``````private static bool[] _lookup;

static Program() {
_lookup = new bool[65536];
for (char c = '0'; c <= '9'; c++) _lookup[c] = true;
for (char c = 'A'; c <= 'Z'; c++) _lookup[c] = true;
for (char c = 'a'; c <= 'z'; c++) _lookup[c] = true;
_lookup['.'] = true;
_lookup['_'] = true;
}

public static string RemoveSpecialCharacters(string str) {
char[] buffer = new char[str.Length];
int index = 0;
foreach (char c in str) {
if (_lookup[c]) {
buffer[index] = c;
index++;
}
}
return new string(buffer, 0, index);
}
``````

### How to position a table at the center of div horizontally & vertically

To position horizontally center you can say `width: 50%; margin: auto;`. As far as I know, that's cross browser. For vertical alignment you can try `vertical-align:middle;`, but it may only work in relation to text. It's worth a try though.

### How to generate the JPA entity Metamodel?

For eclipselink, only the following dependency is sufficient to generate metamodel. Nothing else is needed.

``````    <dependency>
<groupId>org.eclipse.persistence</groupId>
<artifactId>org.eclipse.persistence.jpa.modelgen.processor</artifactId>
<version>2.5.1</version>
<scope>provided</scope>
</dependency>
``````

### Number of days in particular month of particular year?

You can use `Calendar.getActualMaximum` method:

``````Calendar calendar = Calendar.getInstance();
calendar.set(Calendar.YEAR, year);
calendar.set(Calendar.MONTH, month);
int numDays = calendar.getActualMaximum(Calendar.DATE);
``````

### How can I insert into a BLOB column from an insert statement in sqldeveloper?

To insert a `VARCHAR2` into a `BLOB` column you can rely on the function `utl_raw.cast_to_raw` as next:

``````insert into mytable(id, myblob) values (1, utl_raw.cast_to_raw('some magic here'));
``````

It will cast your input `VARCHAR2` into `RAW` datatype without modifying its content, then it will insert the result into your `BLOB` column.

More details about the function `utl_raw.cast_to_raw`

### UNIX nonblocking I/O: O_NONBLOCK vs. FIONBIO

As @Sean said, `fcntl()` is largely standardized, and therefore available across platforms. The `ioctl()` function predates `fcntl()` in Unix, but is not standardized at all. That the `ioctl()` worked for you across all the platforms of relevance to you is fortunate, but not guaranteed. In particular, the names used for the second argument are arcane and not reliable across platforms. Indeed, they are often unique to the particular device driver that the file descriptor references. (The `ioctl()` calls used for a bit-mapped graphics device running on an ICL Perq running PNX (Perq Unix) of twenty years ago never translated to anything else anywhere else, for example.)

### URL string format for connecting to Oracle database with JDBC

There are two ways to set this up. If you have an SID, use this (older) format:

``````jdbc:oracle:thin:@[HOST][:PORT]:SID
``````

If you have an Oracle service name, use this (newer) format:

``````jdbc:oracle:thin:@//[HOST][:PORT]/SERVICE
``````

Source: this OraFAQ page

Also, as duffymo said, make sure the actual driver code is present by including `ojdbc6.jar` in the classpath, where the number corresponds to the Java version you're using.

### What does "atomic" mean in programming?

Just found a post Atomic vs. Non-Atomic Operations to be very helpful to me.

"An operation acting on shared memory is atomic if it completes in a single step relative to other threads.

When an atomic store is performed on a shared memory, no other thread can observe the modification half-complete.

When an atomic load is performed on a shared variable, it reads the entire value as it appeared at a single moment in time."

### How to send JSON instead of a query string with \$.ajax?

If you are sending this back to asp.net and need the data in request.form[] then you'll need to set the content type to "application/x-www-form-urlencoded; charset=utf-8"

Original post here

Secondly get rid of the Datatype, if your not expecting a return the POST will wait for about 4 minutes before failing. See here

### Adding click event handler to iframe

iframe doesn't have onclick event but we can implement this by using iframe's onload event and javascript like this...

``````function iframeclick() {
document.getElementById("theiframe").contentWindow.document.body.onclick = function() {
}
}

<iframe id="theiframe" src="youriframe.html" style="width: 100px; height: 100px;" onload="iframeclick()"></iframe>
``````

I hope it will helpful to you....

### Is ini_set('max_execution_time', 0) a bad idea?

At the risk of irritating you;

You're asking the wrong question. You don't need a reason NOT to deviate from the defaults, but the other way around. You need a reason to do so. Timeouts are absolutely essential when running a web server and to disable that setting without a reason is inherently contrary to good practice, even if it's running on a web server that happens to have a timeout directive of its own.

Now, as for the real answer; probably it doesn't matter at all in this particular case, but it's bad practice to go by the setting of a separate system. What if the script is later run on a different server with a different timeout? If you can safely say that it will never happen, fine, but good practice is largely about accounting for seemingly unlikely events and not unnecessarily tying together the settings and functionality of completely different systems. The dismissal of such principles is responsible for a lot of pointless incompatibilities in the software world. Almost every time, they are unforeseen.

What if the web server later is set to run some other runtime environment which only inherits the timeout setting from the web server? Let's say for instance that you later need a 15-year-old CGI program written in C++ by someone who moved to a different continent, that has no idea of any timeout except the web server's. That might result in the timeout needing to be changed and because PHP is pointlessly relying on the web server's timeout instead of its own, that may cause problems for the PHP script. Or the other way around, that you need a lesser web server timeout for some reason, but PHP still needs to have it higher.

It's just not a good idea to tie the PHP functionality to the web server because the web server and PHP are responsible for different roles and should be kept as functionally separate as possible. When the PHP side needs more processing time, it should be a setting in PHP simply because it's relevant to PHP, not necessarily everything else on the web server.

In short, it's just unnecessarily conflating the matter when there is no need to.

Last but not least, 'stillstanding' is right; you should at least rather use `set_time_limit()` than `ini_set()`.

Hope this wasn't too patronizing and irritating. Like I said, probably it's fine under your specific circumstances, but it's good practice to not assume your circumstances to be the One True Circumstance. That's all. :)

### Sys is undefined

You must add these lines in the web.config

``````<httpHandlers>
<remove verb="*" path="*.asmx"/>
<add verb="*" path="*.asmx" validate="false" type="System.Web.Script.Services.ScriptHandlerFactory, System.Web.Extensions, Version=1.0.61025.0, Culture=neutral, PublicKeyToken=31bf3856ad364e35"/>
<add verb="*" path="*_AppService.axd" validate="false" type="System.Web.Script.Services.ScriptHandlerFactory, System.Web.Extensions, Version=1.0.61025.0, Culture=neutral, PublicKeyToken=31bf3856ad364e35"/>
</httpHandlers>
<httpModules>
<add name="ScriptModule" type="System.Web.Handlers.ScriptModule, System.Web.Extensions, Version=1.0.61025.0, Culture=neutral, PublicKeyToken=31bf3856ad364e35"/>
</httpModules>
</system.web>
``````

Hope this helps.

### How do I convert dmesg timestamp to custom date format?

In recent versions of dmesg, you can just call `dmesg -T`.

### How to get indices of a sorted array in Python

``````myList = [1, 2, 3, 100, 5]
sorted(range(len(myList)),key=myList.__getitem__)

[0, 1, 2, 4, 3]
``````

### Best Practice: Software Versioning

I basically follow this pattern:

• start from 0.1.0

• when it's ready I branch the code in the source repo, tag 0.1.0 and create the 0.1.0 branch, the head/trunk becomes 0.2.0-snapshot or something similar

• I add new features only to the trunk, but backport fixes to the branch and in time I release from it 0.1.1, 0.1.2, ...

• I declare version 1.0.0 when the product is considered feature complete and doesn't have major shortcomings

• from then on - everyone can decide when to increment the major version...

### Removing Java 8 JDK from Mac

If you have installed jdk8 on your Mac but now you want to remove it, just run below command "sudo rm -rf /Library/Java/JavaVirtualMachines/jdk1.8.0.jdk"

### LINQ: Distinct values

In addition to Jon Skeet's answer, you can also use the group by expressions to get the unique groups along w/ a count for each groups iterations:

``````var query = from e in doc.Elements("whatever")
group e by new { id = e.Key, val = e.Value } into g
select new { id = g.Key.id, val = g.Key.val, count = g.Count() };
``````

### Incomplete type is not allowed: stringstream

Some of the system headers provide a forward declaration of `std::stringstream` without the definition. This makes it an 'incomplete type'. To fix that you need to include the definition, which is provided in the `<sstream>` header:

``````#include <sstream>
``````

### Disable firefox same origin policy

As of September 2016 this addon is the best to disable CORS: https://github.com/fredericlb/Force-CORS/releases

In the options panel you can configure which header to inject and specific website to have it enabled automatically.

### Disable scrolling when touch moving certain element

Set the touch-action CSS property to `none`, which works even with passive event listeners:

``````touch-action: none;
``````

Applying this property to an element will not trigger the default (scroll) behavior when the event is originating from that element.

### In Excel, sum all values in one column in each row where another column is a specific value

If column A contains the amounts to be reimbursed, and column B contains the "yes/no" indicating whether the reimbursement has been made, then either of the following will work, though the first option is recommended:

``````=SUMIF(B:B,"No",A:A)
``````

or

``````=SUMIFS(A:A,B:B,"No")
``````

Here is an example that will display the amounts paid and outstanding for a small set of sample data.

`````` A         B            C                   D
Amount    Reimbursed?  Total Paid:         =SUMIF(B:B,"Yes",A:A)
\$100      Yes          Total Outstanding:  =SUMIF(B:B,"No",A:A)
\$200      No
\$300      No
\$400      Yes
\$500      No
``````

### HTML display result in text (input) field?

Do you really want the result to come up in an input box? If not, consider a table with borders set to other than transparent and use

document.getElementById('sum').innerHTML = sum;

### jQuery AJAX Call to PHP Script with JSON Return

I recommend you use:

``````var returnedData = JSON.parse(data);
``````

to convert the JSON string (if it is just text) to a JavaScript object.

### No submodule mapping found in .gitmodule for a path that's not a submodule

I just hit this error after trying to "git submodule init" on a new checkout of my repo. Turns out I had specified the module sub-folder with the wrong case initially. Since I'm on a Mac with a case-sensitive filesystem (hurr) it was failing. For example:

``````git submodule add [email protected]:user/project.git MyApp/Resources/Project
Cloning into 'MyApp/Resources/Project'
``````

succeeds but the trouble is that on disk the path is

``````Myapp/Resources/Project
``````

What I don't understand is why git is init'ing the module to wrong folder (ignoring the incorrect case in my command) but then operating correctly (by failing) with subsequent commands.

### How can I insert new line/carriage returns into an element.textContent?

I found that inserting `\\n` works. I.e., you escape the escaped new line character

### chart.js load totally new data

You need to clean old data. No need to re initialize:

``````for (i in myChartLine.datasets[0].points)
myChartLine.removeData();
``````

### Set a button background image iPhone programmatically

Complete code:

``````+ (UIButton *)buttonWithTitle:(NSString *)title
target:(id)target
selector:(SEL)selector
frame:(CGRect)frame
image:(UIImage *)image
imagePressed:(UIImage *)imagePressed
darkTextColor:(BOOL)darkTextColor
{
UIButton *button = [[UIButton alloc] initWithFrame:frame];

button.contentVerticalAlignment = UIControlContentVerticalAlignmentCenter;
button.contentHorizontalAlignment = UIControlContentHorizontalAlignmentCenter;

[button setTitle:title forState:UIControlStateNormal];
[button setTitleColor:[UIColor blackColor] forState:UIControlStateNormal];

UIImage *newImage = [image stretchableImageWithLeftCapWidth:12.0 topCapHeight:0.0];
[button setBackgroundImage:newImage forState:UIControlStateNormal];

UIImage *newPressedImage = [imagePressed stretchableImageWithLeftCapWidth:12.0 topCapHeight:0.0];
[button setBackgroundImage:newPressedImage forState:UIControlStateHighlighted];

[button addTarget:target action:selector forControlEvents:UIControlEventTouchUpInside];

// in case the parent view draws with a custom color or gradient, use a transparent color
button.backgroundColor = [UIColor clearColor];

return button;
}

UIImage *buttonBackground = UIImage imageNamed:@"whiteButton.png";
UIImage *buttonBackgroundPressed = UIImage imageNamed:@"blueButton.png";

CGRect frame = CGRectMake(0.0, 0.0, kStdButtonWidth, kStdButtonHeight);

UIButton *button = [FinishedStatsView buttonWithTitle:title
target:target
selector:action
frame:frame
image:buttonBackground
imagePressed:buttonBackgroundPressed
darkTextColor:YES];

``````

To set an image:

``````UIImage *buttonImage = [UIImage imageNamed:@"Home.png"];
[myButton setBackgroundImage:buttonImage forState:UIControlStateNormal];
``````

To remove an image:

``````[button setBackgroundImage:nil forState:UIControlStateNormal];
``````

### How to turn on WCF tracing?

In your web.config (on the server) add

``````<system.diagnostics>
<sources>
<source name="System.ServiceModel" switchValue="Information, ActivityTracing" propagateActivity="true">
<listeners>
<add name="traceListener" type="System.Diagnostics.XmlWriterTraceListener" initializeData="C:\logs\Traces.svclog"/>
</listeners>
</source>
</sources>
</system.diagnostics>
``````

### Jquery href click - how can I fire up an event?

You are binding the `click` event to anchors with an href attribute with value `sign_new`.

Either bind anchors with class `sign_new` or bind anchors with href value `#sign_up`. I would prefer the former.

### Get user info via Google API

If you only want to fetch the Google user id, name and picture for a visitor of your web app - here is my pure PHP service side solution for the year 2020 with no external libraries used -

If you read the Using OAuth 2.0 for Web Server Applications guide by Google (and beware, Google likes to change links to its own documentation), then you have to perform only 2 steps:

1. Present the visitor a web page asking for the consent to share her name with your web app
2. Then take the "code" passed by the above web page to your web app and fetch a token (actually 2) from Google.

One of the returned tokens is called "id_token" and contains the user id, name and photo of the visitor.

Here is the PHP code of a web game by me. Initially I was using Javascript SDK, but then I have noticed that fake user data could be passed to my web game, when using client side SDK only (especially the user id, which is important for my game), so I have switched to using PHP on the server side:

``````<?php

const APP_ID       = '1234567890-abcdefghijklmnop.apps.googleusercontent.com';
const APP_SECRET   = 'abcdefghijklmnopq';

const REDIRECT_URI = 'https://the/url/of/this/PHP/script/';
const LOCATION     = 'Location: https://accounts.google.com/o/oauth2/v2/auth?';
const TOKEN_URL    = 'https://oauth2.googleapis.com/token';
const ERROR        = 'error';
const CODE         = 'code';
const STATE        = 'state';
const ID_TOKEN     = 'id_token';

# use a "random" string based on the current date as protection against CSRF
\$CSRF_PROTECTION   = md5(date('m.d.y'));

if (isset(\$_REQUEST[ERROR]) && \$_REQUEST[ERROR]) {
exit(\$_REQUEST[ERROR]);
}

if (isset(\$_REQUEST[CODE]) && \$_REQUEST[CODE] && \$CSRF_PROTECTION == \$_REQUEST[STATE]) {
\$tokenRequest = [
'code'          => \$_REQUEST[CODE],
'client_id'     => APP_ID,
'client_secret' => APP_SECRET,
'redirect_uri'  => REDIRECT_URI,
'grant_type'    => 'authorization_code',
];

\$postContext = stream_context_create([
'http' => [
'header'  => "Content-type: application/x-www-form-urlencoded\r\n",
'method'  => 'POST',
'content' => http_build_query(\$tokenRequest)
]
]);

# Step #2: send POST request to token URL and decode the returned JWT id_token
\$tokenResult = json_decode(file_get_contents(TOKEN_URL, false, \$postContext), true);
error_log(print_r(\$tokenResult, true));
\$id_token    = \$tokenResult[ID_TOKEN];
# Beware - the following code does not verify the JWT signature!
\$userResult  = json_decode(base64_decode(str_replace('_', '/', str_replace('-', '+', explode('.', \$id_token)[1]))), true);

\$user_id     = \$userResult['sub'];
\$given_name  = \$userResult['given_name'];
\$family_name = \$userResult['family_name'];
\$photo       = \$userResult['picture'];

if (\$user_id != NULL && \$given_name != NULL) {
# print your web app or game here, based on \$user_id etc.
exit();
}
}

\$userConsent = [
'client_id'     => APP_ID,
'redirect_uri'  => REDIRECT_URI,
'response_type' => 'code',
'scope'         => 'profile',
'state'         => \$CSRF_PROTECTION,
];

# Step #1: redirect user to a the Google page asking for user consent

?>
``````

You could use a PHP library to add additional security by verifying the JWT signature. For my purposes it was unnecessary, because I trust that Google will not betray my little web game by sending fake visitor data.

Also, if you want to get more personal data of the visitor, then you need a third step:

``````const USER_INFO    = 'https://www.googleapis.com/oauth2/v3/userinfo?access_token=';
const ACCESS_TOKEN = 'access_token';

# Step #3: send GET request to user info URL
\$access_token = \$tokenResult[ACCESS_TOKEN];
\$userResult = json_decode(file_get_contents(USER_INFO . \$access_token), true);
``````

Or you could get more permissions on behalf of the user - see the long list at the OAuth 2.0 Scopes for Google APIs doc.

Finally, the APP_ID and APP_SECRET constants used in my code - you get it from the Google API console:

### How can I convert a date to GMT?

After searching for an hour or two ,I've found a simple solution below.

``````const date = new Date(`\${date from client} GMT`);
``````

inside double ticks, there is a date from client side plust GMT.

I'm first time commenting, constructive criticism will be welcomed.

### CSV file written with Python has blank lines between each row

``````with open(destPath+'\\'+csvXML, 'a+') as csvFile:
writer = csv.writer(csvFile, delimiter=';', lineterminator='\r')
writer.writerows(xmlList)
``````

The "lineterminator='\r'" permit to pass to next row, without empty row between two.

### How do I change the default index page in Apache?

You can also set DirectoryIndex in apache's httpd.conf file.

CentOS keeps this file in `/etc/httpd/conf/httpd.conf` Debian: `/etc/apache2/apache2.conf`

Open the file in your text editor and find the line starting with DirectoryIndex

To load landing.html as a default (but index.html if that's not found) change this line to read:

``````DirectoryIndex  landing.html index.html
``````

### HTML forms - input type submit problem with action=URL when URL contains index.aspx

Put the query arguments in hidden input fields:

``````<form action="http://spufalcons.com/index.aspx">
<input type="hidden" name="tab" value="gymnastics" />
<input type="hidden" name="path" value="gym" />
<input type="submit" value="SPU Gymnastics"/>
</form>
``````

### How to check if ping responded or not in a batch file

``````#!/bin/bash
logPath="pinglog.txt"

while(true)
do
# refresh the timestamp before each ping attempt
theTime=\$(date -Iseconds)

# refresh the ping variable
ping google.com -n 1

if [ \$? -eq 0 ]
then
echo \$theTime + '| connection is up' >> \$logPath
else
echo \$theTime + '| connection is down' >> \$logPath
fi
Sleep 1
echo ' '
done
``````

### How can I enable auto complete support in Notepad++?

You can also add your own suggestion.

Open this path:

``````C:\Program Files\Notepad++\plugins\APIs
``````

And open the XML file of the language, such as php.xml. Here suppose, you would like to add addcslashes, so just add this XML code.

``````<KeyWord name="addcslashes" func="yes">
<Param name="void"/>
</KeyWord>
``````

### Looping from 1 to infinity in Python

``````def infinity():
i=0
while True:
i+=1
yield i

for i in infinity():
if there_is_a_reason_to_break(i):
break
``````

### How to set the text/value/content of an `Entry` widget using a button in tkinter

``````e= StringVar()
def fileDialog():
filename = filedialog.askopenfilename(initialdir = "/",title = "Select A
File",filetype = (("jpeg","*.jpg"),("png","*.png"),("All Files","*.*")))
e.set(filename)
la = Entry(self,textvariable = e,width = 30).place(x=230,y=330)
butt=Button(self,text="Browse",width=7,command=fileDialog).place(x=430,y=328)
``````

### Action Image MVC3 Razor

I have joined the answer from Lucas and "ASP.NET MVC Helpers, Merging two object htmlAttributes together" and plus controllerName to following code:

// Sample usage in CSHTML

`````` @Html.ActionImage("Edit",
"EditController"
new { id = MyId },
"~/Content/Images/Image.bmp",
new { width=108, height=129, alt="Edit" })
``````

And the extension class for the code above:

``````using System.Collections.Generic;
using System.Reflection;
using System.Web.Mvc;

namespace MVC.Extensions
{
public static class MvcHtmlStringExt
{
// Extension method
public static MvcHtmlString ActionImage(
this HtmlHelper html,
string action,
string controllerName,
object routeValues,
string imagePath,
object htmlAttributes)
{
//https://stackoverflow.com/questions/4896439/action-image-mvc3-razor
var url = new UrlHelper(html.ViewContext.RequestContext);

// build the <img> tag
var imgBuilder = new TagBuilder("img");
imgBuilder.MergeAttribute("src", url.Content(imagePath));

var dictAttributes = htmlAttributes.ToDictionary();

if (dictAttributes != null)
{
foreach (var attribute in dictAttributes)
{
imgBuilder.MergeAttribute(attribute.Key, attribute.Value.ToString(), true);
}
}

string imgHtml = imgBuilder.ToString(TagRenderMode.SelfClosing);

// build the <a> tag
var anchorBuilder = new TagBuilder("a");
anchorBuilder.MergeAttribute("href", url.Action(action, controllerName, routeValues));
anchorBuilder.InnerHtml = imgHtml; // include the <img> tag inside
string anchorHtml = anchorBuilder.ToString(TagRenderMode.Normal);

return MvcHtmlString.Create(anchorHtml);
}

public static IDictionary<string, object> ToDictionary(this object data)
{
//https://stackoverflow.com/questions/6038255/asp-net-mvc-helpers-merging-two-object-htmlattributes-together

if (data == null) return null; // Or throw an ArgumentNullException if you want

BindingFlags publicAttributes = BindingFlags.Public | BindingFlags.Instance;
Dictionary<string, object> dictionary = new Dictionary<string, object>();

foreach (PropertyInfo property in
data.GetType().GetProperties(publicAttributes))
{
{
}
}
return dictionary;
}
}
}
``````

### How can I mark a foreign key constraint using Hibernate annotations?

There are many answers and all are correct as well. But unfortunately none of them have a clear explanation.

The following works for a non-primary key mapping as well.

Let's say we have parent table A with column 1 and another table, B, with column 2 which references column 1:

``````@ManyToOne
@JoinColumn(name = "TableBColumn", referencedColumnName = "TableAColumn")
``````

``````@ManyToOne
@JoinColumn(name = "bok_aut_id", referencedColumnName = "aut_id")
private Author bok_aut_id;
``````

### How can I list all cookies for the current page with Javascript?

No there isn't. You can only read information associated with the current domain.

### What is the purpose of "&&" in a shell command?

`command_1 && command_2`: execute command_2 only when command_1 is executed successfully.

`command_1 || command_2`: execute command_2 only when command_1 is not successful executed.

Feels similar as how an 'if' condition is executed in a mainstream programming language, like, in `if (condition_1 && condition_2){...}` condition_2 will be omitted if condition_1 is `false` and in `if (condition_1 || condition_2){...}` condition_2 will be omitted if condition_1 is `true`. See, it's the same trick you use for coding :)

### How exactly do you configure httpOnlyCookies in ASP.NET?

Interestingly putting `<httpCookies httpOnlyCookies="false"/>` doesn't seem to disable `httpOnlyCookies` in ASP.NET 2.0. Check this article about SessionID and Login Problems With ASP .NET 2.0.

Looks like Microsoft took the decision to not allow you to disable it from the web.config. Check this post on forums.asp.net

### What does the "+" (plus sign) CSS selector mean?

It's the Adjacent sibling selector.

To define a CSS adjacent selector, the plus sign is used.

``````h1+p {color:blue;}
``````

The above CSS code will format the first paragraph after (not inside) any h1 headings as blue.

`h1>p` selects any `p` element that is a direct (first generation) child (inside) of an `h1` element.

• `h1>p` matches `<h1>` `<p></p>` `</h1>` (`<p>` inside `<h1>`)

`h1+p` will select the first `p` element that is a sibling (at the same level of the dom) as an `h1` element.

• `h1+p` matches `<h1></h1>` `<p><p/>` (`<p>` next to/after `<h1>`)

### Android camera android.hardware.Camera deprecated

Faced with the same issue, supporting older devices via the deprecated camera API and needing the new Camera2 API for both current devices and moving into the future; I ran into the same issues -- and have not found a 3rd party library that bridges the 2 APIs, likely because they are very different, I turned to basic OOP principals.

The 2 APIs are markedly different making interchanging them problematic for client objects expecting the interfaces presented in the old API. The new API has different objects with different methods, built using a different architecture. Got love for Google, but ragnabbit! that's frustrating.

So I created an interface focussing on only the camera functionality my app needs, and created a simple wrapper for both APIs that implements that interface. That way my camera activity doesn't have to care about which platform its running on...

I also set up a Singleton to manage the API(s); instancing the older API's wrapper with my interface for older Android OS devices, and the new API's wrapper class for newer devices using the new API. The singleton has typical code to get the API level and then instances the correct object.

The same interface is used by both wrapper classes, so it doesn't matter if the App runs on Jellybean or Marshmallow--as long as the interface provides my app with what it needs from either Camera API, using the same method signatures; the camera runs in the App the same way for both newer and older versions of Android.

The Singleton can also do some related things not tied to the APIs--like detecting that there is indeed a camera on the device, and saving to the media library.

I hope the idea helps you out.

### "Unable to locate tools.jar" when running ant

Make sure you use the root folder of the JDK. Don't add "\lib" to the end of the path, where tools.jar is physically located. It took me an hour to figure that one out. Also, this post will help show you where Ant is looking for tools.jar:

Why does ANT tell me that JAVA_HOME is wrong when it is not?

### Add element to a list In Scala

Since you want to append elements to existing list, you can use var List[Int] and then keep on adding elements to the same list. Note -> You have to make sure that you insert an element into existing list as follows:-

var l: List[int] = List() // creates an empty list

l = 3 :: l // adds 3 to the head of the list

l = 4 :: l // makes int 4 as the head of the list

// Now when you will print l, you will see two elements in the list ( 4, 3)

### PHP date yesterday

`date()` itself is only for formatting, but it accepts a second parameter.

``````date("F j, Y", time() - 60 * 60 * 24);
``````

To keep it simple I just subtract 24 hours from the unix timestamp.

A modern oop-approach is using `DateTime`

``````\$date = new DateTime();
\$date->sub(new DateInterval('P1D'));
echo \$date->format('F j, Y') . "\n";
``````

``````\$date = new DateTime();
echo \$date->format('F j, Y') . "\n";
``````

(Because `DateInterval` is negative here, we must `add()` it here)

See also: `DateTime::sub()` and `DateInterval`

### How do I convert two lists into a dictionary?

Solution as dictionary comprehension with enumerate:

``````dict = {item : values[index] for index, item in enumerate(keys)}
``````

Solution as for loop with enumerate:

``````dict = {}
for index, item in enumerate(keys):
dict[item] = values[index]
``````

### How to use Angular4 to set focus by element id

Here is an Angular4+ directive that you can re-use in any component. Based on code given in the answer by Niel T in this question.

``````import { NgZone, Renderer, Directive, Input } from '@angular/core';

@Directive({
selector: '[focusDirective]'
})
export class FocusDirective {
@Input() cssSelector: string

constructor(
private ngZone: NgZone,
private renderer: Renderer
) { }

ngOnInit() {
console.log(this.cssSelector);
this.ngZone.runOutsideAngular(() => {
setTimeout(() => {
this.renderer.selectRootElement(this.cssSelector).focus();
}, 0);
});
}
}
``````

You can use it in a component template like this:

``````<input id="new-email" focusDirective cssSelector="#new-email"
formControlName="email" placeholder="Email" type="email" email>
``````

Give the input an id and pass the id to the `cssSelector` property of the directive. Or you can pass any cssSelector you like.

Comments from Niel T:

Since the only thing I'm doing is setting the focus on an element, I don't need to concern myself with change detection, so I can actually run the call to renderer.selectRootElement outside of Angular. Because I need to give the new sections time to render, the element section is wrapped in a timeout to allow the rendering threads time to catch up before the element selection is attempted. Once all that is setup, I can simply call the element using basic CSS selectors.

### How to implode array with key and value without foreach in PHP

You could use http_build_query, like this:

``````<?php
\$a=array("item1"=>"object1", "item2"=>"object2");
echo http_build_query(\$a,'',', ');
?>
``````

Output:

``````item1=object1, item2=object2
``````

Demo

### How to reset AUTO_INCREMENT in MySQL?

``````SET @num := 0;
UPDATE your_table SET id = @num := (@num+1);
ALTER TABLE your_table AUTO_INCREMENT =1;
``````

### Lua String replace

Try:

``````name = "^aH^ai"
name = name:gsub("%^a", "")
``````

### How to get a Color from hexadecimal Color String

XML file saved at res/values/colors.xml:

``````<?xml version="1.0" encoding="utf-8"?>
<resources>
<color name="opaque_red">#f00</color>
<color name="translucent_red">#80ff0000</color>
</resources>
``````

This application code retrieves the color resource:

``````Resources res = getResources();
int color = res.getColor(R.color.opaque_red);
``````

This layout XML applies the color to an attribute:

``````<TextView
android:layout_width="fill_parent"
android:layout_height="wrap_content"
android:textColor="@color/translucent_red"
android:text="Hello"/>
``````

### jQuery Ajax PUT with parameters

Use:

``````\$.ajax({
url: 'feed/4', type: 'POST', data: "_METHOD=PUT&accessToken=63ce0fde", success: function(data) {
console.log(data);
}
});
``````

Always remember to use `_METHOD=PUT`.

### How are zlib, gzip and zip related? What do they have in common and how are they different?

ZIP is a file format used for storing an arbitrary number of files and folders together with lossless compression. It makes no strict assumptions about the compression methods used, but is most frequently used with DEFLATE.

Gzip is both a compression algorithm based on DEFLATE but less encumbered with potential patents et al, and a file format for storing a single compressed file. It supports compressing an arbitrary number of files and folders when combined with tar. The resulting file has an extension of `.tgz` or `.tar.gz` and is commonly called a tarball.

zlib is a library of functions encapsulating DEFLATE in its most common LZ77 incarnation.

### How can I update a single row in a ListView?

I used the code that provided Erik, works great, but i have a complex custom adapter for my listview and i was confronted with twice implementation of the code that updates the UI. I've tried to get the new view from my adapters getView method(the arraylist that holds the listview data has allready been updated/changed):

``````View cell = lvOptim.getChildAt(index - lvOptim.getFirstVisiblePosition());
if(cell!=null){
cell = adapter.getView(index, cell, lvOptim); //public View getView(final int position, View convertView, ViewGroup parent)
cell.startAnimation(animationLeftIn());
}
``````

It's working well, but i dont know if this is a good practice. So i don't need to implement the code that updates the list item two times.

### How to set table name in dynamic SQL query?

Building on a previous answer by @user1172173 that addressed SQL Injection vulnerabilities, see below:

``````CREATE PROCEDURE [dbo].[spQ_SomeColumnByCustomerId](
@CustomerId int,
@SchemaName varchar(20),
@TableName nvarchar(200)) AS
SET Nocount ON
DECLARE @SQLQuery AS NVARCHAR(500)
DECLARE @ParameterDefinition AS NVARCHAR(100)
DECLARE @Table_ObjectId int;
DECLARE @Schema_ObjectId int;
DECLARE @Schema_Table_SecuredFromSqlInjection NVARCHAR(125)

SET @Table_ObjectId = OBJECT_ID(@TableName)
SET @Schema_ObjectId = SCHEMA_ID(@SchemaName)
SET @Schema_Table_SecuredFromSqlInjection = SCHEMA_NAME(@Schema_ObjectId) + '.' + OBJECT_NAME(@Table_ObjectId)

SET @SQLQuery = N'SELECT TOP 1 ' + @Schema_Table_SecuredFromSqlInjection + '.SomeColumn
FROM dbo.Customer
INNER JOIN ' + @Schema_Table_SecuredFromSqlInjection + '
ON dbo.Customer.Customerid = ' + @Schema_Table_SecuredFromSqlInjection + '.CustomerId
WHERE dbo.Customer.CustomerID = @CustomerIdParam
ORDER BY ' + @Schema_Table_SecuredFromSqlInjection + '.SomeColumn DESC'
SET @ParameterDefinition =  N'@CustomerIdParam INT'

EXECUTE sp_executesql @SQLQuery, @ParameterDefinition, @CustomerIdParam = @CustomerId; RETURN
``````

### Check free disk space for current partition in bash

A complete example for someone who may want to use this to monitor a mount point on a server. This example will check if /var/spool is under 5G and email the person :

``````  #!/bin/bash
# -----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
# SUMMARY: Check if MOUNT is under certain quota, mail us if this is the case
# DETAILS: If under 5G we have it alert us via email. blah blah
# -----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
# CRON: 0 0,4,8,12,16 * * * /var/www/httpd-config/server_scripts/clear_root_spool_log.bash

MOUNTP=/var/spool  # mount drive to check
LIMITSIZE=5485760 # 5G = 10*1024*1024k   # limit size in GB   (FLOOR QUOTA)
FREE=\$(df -k --output=avail "\$MOUNTP" | tail -n1) # df -k not df -h
LOG=/tmp/log-\$(basename \${0}).log
MAILCMD=mail
EMAILIDS="[email protected]"
MAILMESSAGE=/tmp/tmp-\$(basename \${0})

# -----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------

function email_on_failure(){

sMess="\$1"
echo "" >\$MAILMESSAGE
echo "Hostname: \$(hostname)" >>\$MAILMESSAGE
echo "Date & Time: \$(date)" >>\$MAILMESSAGE

# Email letter formation here:
echo -e "\n[ \$(date +%Y%m%d_%H%M%S%Z) ] Current Status:\n\n" >>\$MAILMESSAGE
cat \$sMess >>\$MAILMESSAGE

echo "" >>\$MAILMESSAGE
echo "*** This email generated by \$(basename \$0) shell script ***" >>\$MAILMESSAGE
echo "*** Please don't reply this email, this is just notification email ***" >>\$MAILMESSAGE

# sending email (need to have an email client set up or sendmail)
\$MAILCMD -s "Urgent MAIL Alert For \$(hostname) AWS Server" "\$EMAILIDS" < \$MAILMESSAGE

[[ -f \$MAILMESSAGE ]] && rm -f \$MAILMESSAGE

}

# -----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------

if [[ \$FREE -lt \$LIMITSIZE ]]; then
echo "Writing to \$LOG"
echo "MAIL ERROR: Less than \$(((\$FREE/1000))) MB free (QUOTA) on \$MOUNTP!" | tee \${LOG}
echo -e "\nPotential Files To Delete:" | tee -a \${LOG}
find \$MOUNTP -xdev -type f -size +500M -exec du -sh {} ';' | sort -rh | head -n20 | tee -a \${LOG}
email_on_failure \${LOG}
else
echo "Currently \$((((\$FREE-\$LIMITSIZE)/1000))) MB of QUOTA available of on \$MOUNTP. "
fi
``````

### How to delete an SMS from the inbox in Android programmatically?

Use one of this method to select the last received SMS and delete it, here in this case i am getting the top most sms and going to delete using thread and id value of sms,

``````try {
Uri uri = Uri.parse("content://sms/inbox");
Cursor c = v.getContext().getContentResolver().query(uri, null, null, null, null);
int i = c.getCount();

if (c.moveToFirst()) {
}
} catch (CursorIndexOutOfBoundsException ee) {
Toast.makeText(v.getContext(), "Error :" + ee.getMessage(), Toast.LENGTH_LONG).show();
}
``````

### Excel 2007: How to display mm:ss format not as a DateTime (e.g. 73:07)?

Excel shows 24:03 as 3 minutes when you format it as time, because 24:03 is the same as 12:03 AM (in military time).

#### Use General Format to Add Times

Instead of trying to format as Time, use the General Format and the following formula:

`=number of minutes + (number of seconds / 60)`

Ex: for 24 minutes and 3 seconds:

`=24+3/60`

This will give you a value of 24.05.

Do this for each time period. Let's say you enter this formula in cells `A1` and `A2`. Then, to get the total sum of elapsed time, use this formula in cell `A3`:

`=INT(A1+A2)+MOD(A1+A2,1)`

#### Convert back to minutes and seconds

If you put `=24+3/60` into each cell, you will have a value of 48.1 in cell `A3`.

Now you need to convert this back to minutes and seconds. Use the following formula in cell `A4`:

`=MOD(A3,1)*60`

This takes the decimal portion and multiples it by 60. Remember, we divided by 60 in the beginning, so to convert it back to seconds we need to multiply.

You could have also done this separately, i.e. in cell A3 use this formula:

`=INT(A1+A2)`

and this formula in cell `A4`:

`=MOD(A1+A2,1)*60`

Here's a screenshot showing the final formulas:

### Get the position of a div/span tag

As Alex noted you can use jQuery offset() to get the position relative to the document flow. Use position() for its x,y coordinates relative to the parent.

EDIT: Switched `document.ready` for `window.load` because `load` waits for all of the elements so you get their size instead of simply preparing the DOM. In my experience, `load` results in fewer incorrectly Javascript positioned elements.

``````\$(window).load(function(){
// Log the position with jQuery
var position = \$('#myDivInQuestion').position();
console.log('X: ' + position.left + ", Y: " + position.top );
});
``````

### How to build a RESTful API?

Another framework which has not been mentioned so far is Laravel. It's great for building PHP apps in general but thanks to the great router it's really comfortable and simple to build rich APIs. It might not be that slim as Slim or Sliex but it gives you a solid structure.

See Aaron Kuzemchak - Simple API Development With Laravel on YouTube and

Laravel 4: A Start at a RESTful API on NetTuts+

### How to show a GUI message box from a bash script in linux?

There is also `dialog` and the KDE version `kdialog`. `dialog` is used by slackware, so it might not be immediately available on other distributions.

### Simplest PHP example for retrieving user_timeline with Twitter API version 1.1

Go to dev.twitter.com and create an application. This will provide you with the credentials you need. Here is an implementation I've recently written with PHP and cURL.

``````<?php
function buildBaseString(\$baseURI, \$method, \$params) {
\$r = array();
ksort(\$params);
foreach(\$params as \$key=>\$value){
\$r[] = "\$key=" . rawurlencode(\$value);
}
return \$method."&" . rawurlencode(\$baseURI) . '&' . rawurlencode(implode('&', \$r));
}

\$r = 'Authorization: OAuth ';
\$values = array();
foreach(\$oauth as \$key=>\$value)
\$values[] = "\$key=\"" . rawurlencode(\$value) . "\"";
\$r .= implode(', ', \$values);
return \$r;
}

\$oauth_access_token = "YOURVALUE";
\$oauth_access_token_secret = "YOURVALUE";
\$consumer_key = "YOURVALUE";
\$consumer_secret = "YOURVALUE";

\$oauth = array( 'oauth_consumer_key' => \$consumer_key,
'oauth_nonce' => time(),
'oauth_signature_method' => 'HMAC-SHA1',
'oauth_token' => \$oauth_access_token,
'oauth_timestamp' => time(),
'oauth_version' => '1.0');

\$base_info = buildBaseString(\$url, 'GET', \$oauth);
\$composite_key = rawurlencode(\$consumer_secret) . '&' . rawurlencode(\$oauth_access_token_secret);
\$oauth_signature = base64_encode(hash_hmac('sha1', \$base_info, \$composite_key, true));
\$oauth['oauth_signature'] = \$oauth_signature;

// Make requests
//CURLOPT_POSTFIELDS => \$postfields,
CURLOPT_URL => \$url,
CURLOPT_RETURNTRANSFER => true,
CURLOPT_SSL_VERIFYPEER => false);

\$feed = curl_init();
curl_setopt_array(\$feed, \$options);
\$json = curl_exec(\$feed);
curl_close(\$feed);

//print it out

?>
``````

This can be run from the command line:

``````\$ php <name of PHP script>.php
``````

### Android button background color

This is my way to do custom Button with different color.`

``````<?xml version="1.0" encoding="utf-8"?>
<shape xmlns:android="http://schemas.android.com/apk/res/android" >
<stroke android:width="3dp"
android:color="#80FFFFFF" />

android:centerColor="#90150517"
android:endColor="#90150517"
android:startColor="#90150517" />
</shape>
``````

This way you set as background.

``````<Button android:id="@+id/button"
android:layout_width="wrap_content"
android:layout_height="wrap_content"
android:text="Button"
android:layout_marginBottom="25dp"
android:layout_centerInParent="true"
android:background="@drawable/button"/>
``````

### How to use zIndex in react-native

I believe there are different ways to do this based on what you need exactly, but one way would be to just put both Elements A and B inside Parent A.

``````    <View style={{ position: 'absolute' }}>    // parent of A
<View style={{ zIndex: 1 }} />  // element A
<View style={{ zIndex: 1 }} />  // element A
<View style={{ zIndex: 0, position: 'absolute' }} />  // element B
</View>
``````

### MySQL SELECT x FROM a WHERE NOT IN ( SELECT x FROM b ) - Unexpected result

... or if you really want to use `NOT IN` you can use

``````SELECT * FROM match WHERE id NOT IN ( SELECT id FROM email WHERE id IS NOT NULL)
``````

### How to Sign an Already Compiled Apk

check apk-signer a nice way to sign your app

### Android Device not recognized by adb

Find drivers for your device and install them That will be the end of your device not detected problems Windows have driver problems, sometimes messed by overriding the existing driver

You can also try uninstalling driver from Win7 and reinstalling

### Run react-native on android emulator

Try

• brew cask install android-platform-tools
• adb reverse tcp:9090 tcp:9090
• run the app

### How can I make a UITextField move up when the keyboard is present - on starting to edit?

1. You will only need a `ScrollView` if the contents you have now do not fit in the iPhone screen. (If you are adding the `ScrollView` as the superview of the components just to make the `TextField` scroll up when keyboard comes up, then it's not needed.)

2. The standard way to prevent the `TextField`s from being covered by the keyboard is to move the view up/down whenever the keyboard is shown.

Here is some sample code:

``````#define kOFFSET_FOR_KEYBOARD 80.0

-(void)keyboardWillShow {
// Animate the current view out of the way
if (self.view.frame.origin.y >= 0)
{
[self setViewMovedUp:YES];
}
else if (self.view.frame.origin.y < 0)
{
[self setViewMovedUp:NO];
}
}

-(void)keyboardWillHide {
if (self.view.frame.origin.y >= 0)
{
[self setViewMovedUp:YES];
}
else if (self.view.frame.origin.y < 0)
{
[self setViewMovedUp:NO];
}
}

-(void)textFieldDidBeginEditing:(UITextField *)sender
{
if ([sender isEqual:mailTf])
{
//move the main view, so that the keyboard does not hide it.
if  (self.view.frame.origin.y >= 0)
{
[self setViewMovedUp:YES];
}
}
}

//method to move the view up/down whenever the keyboard is shown/dismissed
-(void)setViewMovedUp:(BOOL)movedUp
{
[UIView beginAnimations:nil context:NULL];
[UIView setAnimationDuration:0.3]; // if you want to slide up the view

CGRect rect = self.view.frame;
if (movedUp)
{
// 1. move the view's origin up so that the text field that will be hidden come above the keyboard
// 2. increase the size of the view so that the area behind the keyboard is covered up.
rect.origin.y -= kOFFSET_FOR_KEYBOARD;
rect.size.height += kOFFSET_FOR_KEYBOARD;
}
else
{
// revert back to the normal state.
rect.origin.y += kOFFSET_FOR_KEYBOARD;
rect.size.height -= kOFFSET_FOR_KEYBOARD;
}
self.view.frame = rect;

[UIView commitAnimations];
}

- (void)viewWillAppear:(BOOL)animated
{
[super viewWillAppear:animated];
// register for keyboard notifications
selector:@selector(keyboardWillShow)
object:nil];

selector:@selector(keyboardWillHide)
object:nil];
}

- (void)viewWillDisappear:(BOOL)animated
{
[super viewWillDisappear:animated];
// unregister for keyboard notifications while not visible.
object:nil];

object:nil];
}
``````

### Java: parse int value from a char

That's probably the best from the performance point of view, but it's rough:

``````String element = "el5";
String s;
int x = element.charAt(2)-'0';
``````

It works if you assume your character is a digit, and only in languages always using Unicode, like Java...

### Comment out HTML and PHP together

Instead of using HTML comments (which have no effect on PHP code -- which will still be executed), you should use PHP comments:

``````<?php /*
<tr>
<td><?php echo \$entry_keyword; ?></td>
<td><input type="text" name="keyword" value="<?php echo \$keyword; ?>" /></td>
</tr>
<tr>
<td><?php echo \$entry_sort_order; ?></td>
<td><input name="sort_order" value="<?php echo \$sort_order; ?>" size="1" /></td>
</tr>
*/ ?>
``````

With that, the PHP code inside the HTML will not be executed; and nothing (not the HTML, not the PHP, not the result of its non-execution) will be displayed.

Just one note: you cannot nest C-style comments... which means the comment will end at the first `*/` encountered.

### HTTP GET in VB.NET

``````Public Function getLoginresponce(ByVal email As String, ByVal password As String) As String
Dim requestUrl As String = "your api"
Dim request As HttpWebRequest = TryCast(WebRequest.Create(requestUrl), HttpWebRequest)
Dim response As HttpWebResponse = TryCast(request.GetResponse(), HttpWebResponse)
Dim dataStream As Stream = response.GetResponseStream()
Dim result = responseFromServer
response.Close()
Return result
End Function
``````

### Extracting the top 5 maximum values in excel

There 3 functions you want to look at here:

I ran a sample in Excel with your OPS values in Column B and Players in Column C, see below:

• In Cells A13 to A17, the values 1 to 5 were inserted to specify the nth highest value.
• In Cell B13, the following formula was added: `=LARGE(\$B\$2:\$B\$11, A13)`
• In Cell C13, the following formula was added: `=INDEX(\$C\$2:\$C\$11,MATCH(B13,\$B\$2:\$B\$11,0))`
• These formulae get the highest ranking OPS and Player based on the value in A13.
• Simply select and drag to copy these formulae down to the next 4 cells which will reference the corresponding ranking in Column A.

### Render HTML in React Native

i uses Js function replace simply.

``````<Text>{item.excerpt.rendered.replace(/<\/?[^>]+(>|\$)/g, "")}</Text>
``````

In wamp/alias/mySite.conf, be careful to add a slash "/" at the end of the alias' adress :

Replace :

``````Alias /mySite/ "D:/Work/Web/mySite/www"
``````

By :

``````Alias /mySite/ "D:/Work/Web/mySite/www/"
``````

Or the index.php is not read correctly.

### Change the location of an object programmatically

Use either:

``````balancePanel.Left = optionsPanel.Location.X;
``````

or

``````balancePanel.Location = new Point(optionsPanel.Location.X, balancePanel.Location.Y);
``````

See the documentation of Location:

Because the Point class is a value type (Structure in Visual Basic, struct in Visual C#), it is returned by value, meaning accessing the property returns a copy of the upper-left point of the control. So, adjusting the X or Y properties of the Point returned from this property will not affect the Left, Right, Top, or Bottom property values of the control. To adjust these properties set each property value individually, or set the Location property with a new Point.

### Android: Getting "Manifest merger failed" error after updating to a new version of gradle

It happen the same thing to me. See on Gradle -> Build Gradle -> and make sure that the compatibility matches in both compile "app compat" and "support design" lines, they should have the same version.

Then to be super sure, that it will launch with no problem, go to File -> Project Structure ->app and check on tab propertie the build Tools version, it should be the same as your support compile line, just in case i put the target SDK version as 25 as well on the tab Flavors.

``````dependencies {
compile fileTree(include: ['*.jar'], dir: 'libs')
androidTestCompile('com.android.support.test.espresso:espresso-
core:2.2.2', {
exclude group: 'com.android.support', module: 'support-annotations'
})
*compile 'com.android.support:appcompat-v7:25.3.1'*
compile 'com.android.support.constraint:constraint-layout:1.0.2'
testCompile 'junit:junit:4.12'
*compile 'com.android.support:design:25.3.1'*
}
``````

Thats what I did and worked. Good luck!

### What is the current directory in a batch file?

Just my 2 cents. The following command fails if called from batch file (Windows 7) placed on pendrive:

``````xcopy /s /e /i %cd%Ala C:\KS\Ala
``````

But this does the job:

``````xcopy /s /e /i %~dp0Ala C:\KS\Ala
``````

### Lotus Notes email as an attachment to another email

Click on email which you want to forward

Edit - > Copy As -> Document Link

create new mail and paste.

it will work

### What's the proper value for a checked attribute of an HTML checkbox?

HTML5 spec:

The disabled content attribute is a boolean attribute.

The presence of a boolean attribute on an element represents the true value, and the absence of the attribute represents the false value.

If the attribute is present, its value must either be the empty string or a value that is an ASCII case-insensitive match for the attribute's canonical name, with no leading or trailing whitespace.

Conclusion:

The following are valid, equivalent and true:

``````<input type="checkbox" checked />
<input type="checkbox" checked="" />
<input type="checkbox" checked="checked" />
<input type="checkbox" checked="ChEcKeD" />
``````

The following are invalid:

``````<input type="checkbox" checked="0" />
<input type="checkbox" checked="1" />
<input type="checkbox" checked="false" />
<input type="checkbox" checked="true" />
``````

The absence of the attribute is the only valid syntax for false:

``````<input />
``````

Recommendation

If you care about writing valid XHTML, use `checked="checked"`, since `<input checked>` is invalid XHTML (but valid HTML) and other alternatives are less readable. Else, just use `<input checked>` as it is shorter.

### Adding a new line/break tag in XML

The solution to this question is:

``````<?xml version="1.0" encoding="utf-8"?>
<?xml-stylesheet type="text/xsl" href="dummy.xsl"?>
<item>
<summary>
<![CDATA[Tootsie roll tiramisu macaroon wafer carrot cake. <br />
Danish topping sugar plum tart bonbon caramels cake.]]>
</summary>
</item>
``````

by adding the `<br />` inside the the `<![CDATA]]>` this allows the line to break, thus creating a new line!

### Making a WinForms TextBox behave like your browser's address bar

I find this work best, when mouse click and not release immediately:

``````    private bool SearchBoxInFocusAlready = false;
private void SearchBox_LostFocus(object sender, RoutedEventArgs e)
{
}

private void SearchBox_PreviewMouseUp(object sender, MouseButtonEventArgs e)
{
if (e.ButtonState == MouseButtonState.Released && e.ChangedButton == MouseButton.Left &&
SearchBox.SelectionLength == 0 && SearchBoxInFocusAlready == false)
{
SearchBox.SelectAll();
}

}
``````

### How should I validate an e-mail address?

Next pattern is used in K-9 mail:

``````public static final Pattern EMAIL_ADDRESS_PATTERN = Pattern.compile(
"[a-zA-Z0-9\\+\\.\\_\\%\\-\\+]{1,256}" +
"\\@" +
"[a-zA-Z0-9][a-zA-Z0-9\\-]{0,64}" +
"(" +
"\\." +
"[a-zA-Z0-9][a-zA-Z0-9\\-]{0,25}" +
")+"
);
``````

You can use function

``````private boolean checkEmail(String email) {
}
``````

### How to access the value of a promise?

There are some good answer above and here is the ES6 Arrow function version

``````var something = async() => {
let result = await functionThatReturnsPromiseA();
return result + 1;
}
``````

### Python pandas Filtering out nan from a data selection of a column of strings

Just drop them:

``````nms.dropna(thresh=2)
``````

this will drop all rows where there are at least two non-`NaN`.

Then you could then drop where name is `NaN`:

``````In [87]:

nms
Out[87]:
movie    name  rating
0   thg    John       3
1   thg     NaN       4
3   mol  Graham     NaN
4   lob     NaN     NaN
5   lob     NaN     NaN

[5 rows x 3 columns]
In [89]:

nms = nms.dropna(thresh=2)
In [90]:

nms[nms.name.notnull()]
Out[90]:
movie    name  rating
0   thg    John       3
3   mol  Graham     NaN

[2 rows x 3 columns]
``````

EDIT

Actually looking at what you originally want you can do just this without the `dropna` call:

``````nms[nms.name.notnull()]
``````

UPDATE

Looking at this question 3 years later, there is a mistake, firstly `thresh` arg looks for at least `n` non-`NaN` values so in fact the output should be:

``````In [4]:
nms.dropna(thresh=2)

Out[4]:
movie    name  rating
0   thg    John     3.0
1   thg     NaN     4.0
3   mol  Graham     NaN
``````

It's possible that I was either mistaken 3 years ago or that the version of pandas I was running had a bug, both scenarios are entirely possible.

### How to initialize all members of an array to the same value?

Cutting through all the chatter, the short answer is that if you turn on optimization at compile time you won't do better than this:

``````int i,value=5,array[1000];
for(i=0;i<1000;i++) array[i]=value;
``````

Added bonus: the code is actually legible :)

### Java converting int to hex and back again

It overflows, because the number is negative.

Try this and it will work:

``````int n = (int) Long.parseLong("ffff8000", 16);
``````

### RegEx to match stuff between parentheses

You need to make your regex pattern 'non-greedy' by adding a '?' after the '.+'

By default, '*' and '+' are greedy in that they will match as long a string of chars as possible, ignoring any matches that might occur within the string.

Non-greedy makes the pattern only match the shortest possible match.

See Watch Out for The Greediness! for a better explanation.

Or alternately, change your regex to

``````\(([^\)]+)\)
``````

which will match any grouping of parens that do not, themselves, contain parens.

### How do I activate a virtualenv inside PyCharm's terminal?

For conda virtual environments on Windows, make sure your batch file is NOT named `activate.bat` as this will cause a conflict with the conda `activate` command, resulting in a recursive calling of the batch file.

What works for me is the following Shell path:

``````"cmd.exe" /k ""C:\FullPathToYourProject\activate-env.bat""
``````

And in the activate-env.bat file:

``````call activate myenvname
``````

### Is there a way to provide named parameters in a function call in JavaScript?

No - the object approach is JavaScript's answer to this. There is no problem with this provided your function expects an object rather than separate params.

### How to count items in JSON object using command line?

Just throwing another solution in the mix...

Try `jq`, a lightweight and flexible command-line JSON processor:

``````jq length /tmp/test.json
``````

Prints the length of the array of objects.

### How to Correctly Check if a Process is running and Stop it

Thanks @Joey. It's what I am looking for.

I just bring some improvements:

• to take into account multiple processes
• to avoid reaching the timeout when all processes have terminated
• to package the whole in a function

``````function Stop-Processes {
param(
[parameter(Mandatory=\$true)] \$processName,
\$timeout = 5
)
\$processList = Get-Process \$processName -ErrorAction SilentlyContinue
if (\$processList) {
# Try gracefully first
\$processList.CloseMainWindow() | Out-Null

# Wait until all processes have terminated or until timeout
for (\$i = 0 ; \$i -le \$timeout; \$i ++){
\$AllHaveExited = \$True
\$processList | % {
\$process = \$_
If (!\$process.HasExited){
\$AllHaveExited = \$False
}
}
If (\$AllHaveExited){
Return
}
sleep 1
}
# Else: kill
\$processList | Stop-Process -Force
}
}
``````

### Finding and removing non ascii characters from an Oracle Varchar2

Do this, it will work.

``````trim(replace(ntwk_slctor_key_txt, chr(0), ''))
``````

### How to remove a field completely from a MongoDB document?

{ name: 'book', tags: { words: ['abc','123'], lat: 33, long: 22 } }

Ans:

db.tablename.remove({'tags.words':['abc','123']})

### How to find all positions of the maximum value in a list?

``````a.index(max(a))
``````

will tell you the index of the first instance of the largest valued element of list `a`.

### Simple check for SELECT query empty result

Use @@ROWCOUNT:

``````SELECT * FROM service s WHERE s.service_id = ?;

IF @@ROWCOUNT > 0
-- do stuff here.....
``````

According to SQL Server Books Online:

Returns the number of rows affected by the last statement. If the number of rows is more than 2 billion, use ROWCOUNT_BIG.