Programs & Examples On #Freetextbox

FreeTextBox is a WYSIWYG Rich HTML editor control for ASP.NET.

How to convert an object to a byte array in C#

If you want the serialized data to be really compact, you can write serialization methods yourself. That way you will have a minimum of overhead.


public class MyClass {

   public int Id { get; set; }
   public string Name { get; set; }

   public byte[] Serialize() {
      using (MemoryStream m = new MemoryStream()) {
         using (BinaryWriter writer = new BinaryWriter(m)) {
         return m.ToArray();

   public static MyClass Desserialize(byte[] data) {
      MyClass result = new MyClass();
      using (MemoryStream m = new MemoryStream(data)) {
         using (BinaryReader reader = new BinaryReader(m)) {
            result.Id = reader.ReadInt32();
            result.Name = reader.ReadString();
      return result;


How to retrieve element value of XML using Java?

You can make a class which extends org.xml.sax.helpers.DefaultHandler and call

start_<tag_name>(Attributes attrs);



For it is:



And then extends that class and implement xml configuration file parsers you want. Example:

  public void startElement(String uri, String name, String qname,
                           org.xml.sax.Attributes attrs) 
                  throws org.xml.sax.SAXException {
    Class[] args = new Class[2];
    args[0] = uri.getClass();
    args[1] = org.xml.sax.Attributes.class;
    try {
      String mname = name.replace("-", "");
      java.lang.reflect.Method m = 
            getClass().getDeclaredMethod("start" + mname, args);
      m.invoke(this, new Object[] { uri, (org.xml.sax.Attributes)attrs }); 
catch (IllegalAccessException e) { throw new RuntimeException(e); }
catch (NoSuchMethodException e) { throw new RuntimeException(e); }
catch (java.lang.reflect.InvocationTargetException e) { org.xml.sax.SAXException se = new org.xml.sax.SAXException(e.getTargetException()); se.setStackTrace(e.getTargetException().getStackTrace()); }

and in a particular configuration parser:

   public void start_Request(String uri, org.xml.sax.Attributes attrs) {
     // make sure to read attributes correctly
     System.err.println("Request, name="+ attrs.getValue(0);

How can VBA connect to MySQL database in Excel?

Enable Microsoft ActiveX Data Objects 2.8 Library

Dim oConn As ADODB.Connection 
Private Sub ConnectDB()     
Set oConn = New ADODB.Connection    
oConn.Open "DRIVER={MySQL ODBC 5.1 Driver};" & _        
"SERVER=localhost;" & _         
"DATABASE=yourdatabase;" & _        
"USER=yourdbusername;" & _      
"PASSWORD=yourdbpassword;" & _      
End Sub

There rest is here:

How can I show/hide component with JSF?

Use the "rendered" attribute available on most if not all tags in the h-namespace.

<h:outputText value="Hi George" rendered="#{ == 'George'}" />

Use SELECT inside an UPDATE query

I did want to add one more answer that utilizes a VBA function, but it does get the job done in one SQL statement. Though, it can be slow.

SET FUNCTIONS.Func_TaxRef = DLookUp("MinOfTax_Code", "SELECT
FUNCTIONS.Func_ID,Min(TAX.Tax_Code) AS MinOfTax_Code
WHERE (((FUNCTIONS.Func_Pure)<=[Tax_ToPrice]) AND ((FUNCTIONS.Func_Year)=[Tax_Year]))

Error resolving template "index", template might not exist or might not be accessible by any of the configured Template Resolvers

I am new to spring spent an hour trying to figure this out.

go to --- >

add these :


How do I specify different Layouts in the ASP.NET MVC 3 razor ViewStart file?

This method is the simplest way for beginners to control Layouts rendering in your ASP.NET MVC application. We can identify the controller and render the Layouts as par controller, to do this we can write our code in _ViewStart file in the root directory of the Views folder. Following is an example shows how it can be done.

    var controller = HttpContext.Current.Request.RequestContext.RouteData.Values["Controller"].ToString();
    string cLayout = "";

    if (controller == "Webmaster")
        cLayout = "~/Views/Shared/_WebmasterLayout.cshtml";
        cLayout = "~/Views/Shared/_Layout.cshtml";

    Layout = cLayout;

Read Complete Article here "How to Render different Layout in ASP.NET MVC"

How do I discover memory usage of my application in Android?

Note that memory usage on modern operating systems like Linux is an extremely complicated and difficult to understand area. In fact the chances of you actually correctly interpreting whatever numbers you get is extremely low. (Pretty much every time I look at memory usage numbers with other engineers, there is always a long discussion about what they actually mean that only results in a vague conclusion.)

Note: we now have much more extensive documentation on Managing Your App's Memory that covers much of the material here and is more up-to-date with the state of Android.

First thing is to probably read the last part of this article which has some discussion of how memory is managed on Android:

Service API changes starting with Android 2.0

Now ActivityManager.getMemoryInfo() is our highest-level API for looking at overall memory usage. This is mostly there to help an application gauge how close the system is coming to having no more memory for background processes, thus needing to start killing needed processes like services. For pure Java applications, this should be of little use, since the Java heap limit is there in part to avoid one app from being able to stress the system to this point.

Going lower-level, you can use the Debug API to get raw kernel-level information about memory usage: android.os.Debug.MemoryInfo

Note starting with 2.0 there is also an API, ActivityManager.getProcessMemoryInfo, to get this information about another process: ActivityManager.getProcessMemoryInfo(int[])

This returns a low-level MemoryInfo structure with all of this data:

    /** The proportional set size for dalvik. */
    public int dalvikPss;
    /** The private dirty pages used by dalvik. */
    public int dalvikPrivateDirty;
    /** The shared dirty pages used by dalvik. */
    public int dalvikSharedDirty;

    /** The proportional set size for the native heap. */
    public int nativePss;
    /** The private dirty pages used by the native heap. */
    public int nativePrivateDirty;
    /** The shared dirty pages used by the native heap. */
    public int nativeSharedDirty;

    /** The proportional set size for everything else. */
    public int otherPss;
    /** The private dirty pages used by everything else. */
    public int otherPrivateDirty;
    /** The shared dirty pages used by everything else. */
    public int otherSharedDirty;

But as to what the difference is between Pss, PrivateDirty, and SharedDirty... well now the fun begins.

A lot of memory in Android (and Linux systems in general) is actually shared across multiple processes. So how much memory a processes uses is really not clear. Add on top of that paging out to disk (let alone swap which we don't use on Android) and it is even less clear.

Thus if you were to take all of the physical RAM actually mapped in to each process, and add up all of the processes, you would probably end up with a number much greater than the actual total RAM.

The Pss number is a metric the kernel computes that takes into account memory sharing -- basically each page of RAM in a process is scaled by a ratio of the number of other processes also using that page. This way you can (in theory) add up the pss across all processes to see the total RAM they are using, and compare pss between processes to get a rough idea of their relative weight.

The other interesting metric here is PrivateDirty, which is basically the amount of RAM inside the process that can not be paged to disk (it is not backed by the same data on disk), and is not shared with any other processes. Another way to look at this is the RAM that will become available to the system when that process goes away (and probably quickly subsumed into caches and other uses of it).

That is pretty much the SDK APIs for this. However there is more you can do as a developer with your device.

Using adb, there is a lot of information you can get about the memory use of a running system. A common one is the command adb shell dumpsys meminfo which will spit out a bunch of information about the memory use of each Java process, containing the above info as well as a variety of other things. You can also tack on the name or pid of a single process to see, for example adb shell dumpsys meminfo system give me the system process:

** MEMINFO in pid 890 [system] **
                    native   dalvik    other    total
            size:    10940     7047      N/A    17987
       allocated:     8943     5516      N/A    14459
            free:      336     1531      N/A     1867
           (Pss):     4585     9282    11916    25783
  (shared dirty):     2184     3596      916     6696
    (priv dirty):     4504     5956     7456    17916

           Views:      149        ViewRoots:        4
     AppContexts:       13       Activities:        0
          Assets:        4    AssetManagers:        4
   Local Binders:      141    Proxy Binders:      158
Death Recipients:       49
 OpenSSL Sockets:        0

            heap:      205          dbFiles:        0
       numPagers:        0   inactivePageKB:        0
    activePageKB:        0

The top section is the main one, where size is the total size in address space of a particular heap, allocated is the kb of actual allocations that heap thinks it has, free is the remaining kb free the heap has for additional allocations, and pss and priv dirty are the same as discussed before specific to pages associated with each of the heaps.

If you just want to look at memory usage across all processes, you can use the command adb shell procrank. Output of this on the same system looks like:

  PID      Vss      Rss      Pss      Uss  cmdline
  890   84456K   48668K   25850K   21284K  system_server
 1231   50748K   39088K   17587K   13792K
  947   34488K   28528K   10834K    9308K
  987   26964K   26956K    8751K    7308K
  954   24300K   24296K    6249K    4824K
  948   23020K   23016K    5864K    4748K
  888   25728K   25724K    5774K    3668K  zygote
  977   24100K   24096K    5667K    4340K  android.process.acore
   59     336K     332K      99K      92K  /system/bin/installd
   60     396K     392K      93K      84K  /system/bin/keystore
   51     280K     276K      74K      68K  /system/bin/servicemanager
   54     256K     252K      69K      64K  /system/bin/debuggerd

Here the Vss and Rss columns are basically noise (these are the straight-forward address space and RAM usage of a process, where if you add up the RAM usage across processes you get an ridiculously large number).

Pss is as we've seen before, and Uss is Priv Dirty.

Interesting thing to note here: Pss and Uss are slightly (or more than slightly) different than what we saw in meminfo. Why is that? Well procrank uses a different kernel mechanism to collect its data than meminfo does, and they give slightly different results. Why is that? Honestly I haven't a clue. I believe procrank may be the more accurate one... but really, this just leave the point: "take any memory info you get with a grain of salt; often a very large grain."

Finally there is the command adb shell cat /proc/meminfo that gives a summary of the overall memory usage of the system. There is a lot of data here, only the first few numbers worth discussing (and the remaining ones understood by few people, and my questions of those few people about them often resulting in conflicting explanations):

MemTotal:         395144 kB
MemFree:          184936 kB
Buffers:             880 kB
Cached:            84104 kB
SwapCached:            0 kB

MemTotal is the total amount of memory available to the kernel and user space (often less than the actual physical RAM of the device, since some of that RAM is needed for the radio, DMA buffers, etc).

MemFree is the amount of RAM that is not being used at all. The number you see here is very high; typically on an Android system this would be only a few MB, since we try to use available memory to keep processes running

Cached is the RAM being used for filesystem caches and other such things. Typical systems will need to have 20MB or so for this to avoid getting into bad paging states; the Android out of memory killer is tuned for a particular system to make sure that background processes are killed before the cached RAM is consumed too much by them to result in such paging.

Using LINQ to concatenate strings

Here it is using pure LINQ as a single expression:

static string StringJoin(string sep, IEnumerable<string> strings) {
  return strings
       new StringBuilder().Append(strings.FirstOrDefault() ?? ""), 
       (sb, x) => sb.Append(sep).Append(x));

And its pretty damn fast!

If table exists drop table then create it, if it does not exist just create it

I needed to drop a table and re-create with a data from a view. I was creating a table out of a view and this is what I did:

DROP TABLE <table_name>;
CREATE TABLE <table_name> AS SELECT * FROM <view>;

The above worked for me using MySQL MariaDb.

How to find text in a column and saving the row number where it is first found - Excel VBA

Alternatively you could use a loop, keep the row number (counter should be the row number) and stop the loop when you find the first "ProjTemp".
Then it should look something like this:

Sub find()
    Dim i As Integer
    Dim firstTime As Integer
    Dim bNotFound As Boolean

    i = 1
    bNotFound = True

      Do While bNotFound
        If Cells(i, 2).Value = "ProjTemp" Then
            firstTime = i
            bNotFound = false
        End If
        i = i + 1
End Sub

How to set null value to int in c#?

int does not allow null, use-

int? value = 0  

or use

Nullable<int> value

How to identify object types in java

You forgot the .class:

if (value.getClass() == Integer.class) {
    System.out.println("This is an Integer");
else if (value.getClass() == String.class) {
    System.out.println("This is a String");
else if (value.getClass() == Float.class) {
    System.out.println("This is a Float");

Note that this kind of code is usually the sign of a poor OO design.

Also note that comparing the class of an object with a class and using instanceof is not the same thing. For example:

"foo".getClass() == Object.class

is false, whereas

"foo" instanceof Object

is true.

Whether one or the other must be used depends on your requirements.

Remove padding or margins from Google Charts

There is this possibility like Aman Virk mentioned:

var options = {

But keep in mind that the padding and margin aren't there to bother you. If you have the possibility to switch between different types of charts like a ColumnChart and the one with vertical columns then you need some margin for displaying the labels of those lines.

If you take away that margin then you will end up showing only a part of the labels or no labels at all.

So if you just have one chart type then you can change the margin and padding like Arman said. But if it's possible to switch don't change them.

How to save a base64 image to user's disk using JavaScript?

This Works

function saveBase64AsFile(base64, fileName) {
    var link = document.createElement("a");
    link.setAttribute("type", "hidden");
    link.href = "data:text/plain;base64," + base64; = fileName;;  

Based on the answer above but with some changes

Java - Reading XML file

If using another library is an option, the following may be easier:

package for_so;



public class Q7704827_SimpleRead
    public static void
    main(String[] args)
        String fileName = args[0];

        TagNode emailNode = XmlReader.xmlFileToRoot(new File(fileName), "EmailSettings", XmlReadOptions.DEFAULT);
        String recipient = emailNode.nextTextFieldE("recipient");
        String sender = emailNode.nextTextFieldE("sender");
        String subject = emailNode.nextTextFieldE("subject");
        String description = emailNode.nextTextFieldE("description");

        System.out.println("recipient =  " + recipient);
        System.out.println("sender =     " + sender);
        System.out.println("subject =    " + subject);
        System.out.println("desciption = " + description);

The library and its documentation are at

react-native :app:installDebug FAILED

Just go to the Developer option in your phone and disable and again enable usb debugging. It will work.

Bitwise and in place of modulus operator

Using bitwise_and, bitwise_or, and bitwise_not you can modify any bit configurations to another bit configurations (i.e. these set of operators are "functionally complete"). However, for operations like modulus, the general formula would be necessarily be quite complicated, I wouldn't even bother trying to recreate it.

How to add button inside input

You can use CSS background:url(ur_img.png) for insert image inside input box but for create click event you need to merge your arrow image and input box .

start MySQL server from command line on Mac OS Lion


mysql.server start

mysql.server stop

mysql.server restart

How do I skip a header from CSV files in Spark?

Alternatively, you can use the spark-csv package (or in Spark 2.0 this is more or less available natively as CSV). Note that this expects the header on each file (as you desire):

schema = StructType([

df ='com.databricks.spark.csv'). \

How to choose the right bean scope?


It represents the scope (the lifetime) of the bean. This is easier to understand if you are familiar with "under the covers" working of a basic servlet web application: How do servlets work? Instantiation, sessions, shared variables and multithreading.


A @RequestScoped bean lives as long as a single HTTP request-response cycle (note that an Ajax request counts as a single HTTP request too). A @ViewScoped bean lives as long as you're interacting with the same JSF view by postbacks which call action methods returning null/void without any navigation/redirect. A @FlowScoped bean lives as long as you're navigating through the specified collection of views registered in the flow configuration file. A @SessionScoped bean lives as long as the established HTTP session. An @ApplicationScoped bean lives as long as the web application runs. Note that the CDI @Model is basically a stereotype for @Named @RequestScoped, so same rules apply.

Which scope to choose depends solely on the data (the state) the bean holds and represents. Use @RequestScoped for simple and non-ajax forms/presentations. Use @ViewScoped for rich ajax-enabled dynamic views (ajaxbased validation, rendering, dialogs, etc). Use @FlowScoped for the "wizard" ("questionnaire") pattern of collecting input data spread over multiple pages. Use @SessionScoped for client specific data, such as the logged-in user and user preferences (language, etc). Use @ApplicationScoped for application wide data/constants, such as dropdown lists which are the same for everyone, or managed beans without any instance variables and having only methods.

Abusing an @ApplicationScoped bean for session/view/request scoped data would make it to be shared among all users, so anyone else can see each other's data which is just plain wrong. Abusing a @SessionScoped bean for view/request scoped data would make it to be shared among all tabs/windows in a single browser session, so the enduser may experience inconsitenties when interacting with every view after switching between tabs which is bad for user experience. Abusing a @RequestScoped bean for view scoped data would make view scoped data to be reinitialized to default on every single (ajax) postback, causing possibly non-working forms (see also points 4 and 5 here). Abusing a @ViewScoped bean for request, session or application scoped data, and abusing a @SessionScoped bean for application scoped data doesn't affect the client, but it unnecessarily occupies server memory and is plain inefficient.

Note that the scope should rather not be chosen based on performance implications, unless you really have a low memory footprint and want to go completely stateless; you'd need to use exclusively @RequestScoped beans and fiddle with request parameters to maintain the client's state. Also note that when you have a single JSF page with differently scoped data, then it's perfectly valid to put them in separate backing beans in a scope matching the data's scope. The beans can just access each other via @ManagedProperty in case of JSF managed beans or @Inject in case of CDI managed beans.

See also:


It's not mentioned in your question, but (legacy) JSF also supports @CustomScoped and @NoneScoped, which are rarely used in real world. The @CustomScoped must refer a custom Map<K, Bean> implementation in some broader scope which has overridden Map#put() and/or Map#get() in order to have more fine grained control over bean creation and/or destroy.

The JSF @NoneScoped and CDI @Dependent basically lives as long as a single EL-evaluation on the bean. Imagine a login form with two input fields referring a bean property and a command button referring a bean action, thus with in total three EL expressions, then effectively three instances will be created. One with the username set, one with the password set and one on which the action is invoked. You normally want to use this scope only on beans which should live as long as the bean where it's being injected. So if a @NoneScoped or @Dependent is injected in a @SessionScoped, then it will live as long as the @SessionScoped bean.

See also:

Flash scope

As last, JSF also supports the flash scope. It is backed by a short living cookie which is associated with a data entry in the session scope. Before the redirect, a cookie will be set on the HTTP response with a value which is uniquely associated with the data entry in the session scope. After the redirect, the presence of the flash scope cookie will be checked and the data entry associated with the cookie will be removed from the session scope and be put in the request scope of the redirected request. Finally the cookie will be removed from the HTTP response. This way the redirected request has access to request scoped data which was been prepared in the initial request.

This is actually not available as a managed bean scope, i.e. there's no such thing as @FlashScoped. The flash scope is only available as a map via ExternalContext#getFlash() in managed beans and #{flash} in EL.

See also:

How can I check if a string is a number?

int value;
if (int.TryParse("your string", out value))

How update the _id of one MongoDB Document?

You can also create a new document from MongoDB compass or using command and set the specific _id value that you want.

Unable to merge dex

For our project, we accidentally added same jar two times with different name. Removing one of them solved the issue.

How to create a showdown.js markdown extension

In your last block you have a comma after 'lang', followed immediately with a function. This is not valid json.


It appears that the readme was incorrect. I had to to pass an array with the string 'twitter'.

var converter = new Showdown.converter({extensions: ['twitter']}); converter.makeHtml('whatever @meandave2020'); // output "<p>whatever <a href="">@meandave2020</a></p>" 

I submitted a pull request to update this.

How do I add multiple "NOT LIKE '%?%' in the WHERE clause of sqlite3?

I'm not sure why you're avoiding the AND clause. It is the simplest solution.

Otherwise, you would need to do an INTERSECT of multiple queries:

SELECT word FROM table WHERE word NOT LIKE '%a%'
SELECT word FROM table WHERE word NOT LIKE '%b%'
SELECT word FROM table WHERE word NOT LIKE '%c%';

Alternatively, you can use a regular expression if your version of SQL supports it.

HTML Tags in Javascript Alert() method

alert() is a method of the window object that cannot interpret HTML tags

Click in OK button inside an Alert (Selenium IDE)

Use the Alert Interface, First switchTo() to alert and then either use accept() to click on OK or use dismiss() to CANCEL it

Alert alert_box = driver.switchTo().alert();


Alert alert_box = driver.switchTo().alert();

What does file:///android_asset/www/index.html mean?

It is actually called file:///android_asset/index.html

file:///android_assets/index.html will give you a build error.

Simplest way to profile a PHP script

If subtracting microtimes gives you negative results, try using the function with the argument true (microtime(true)). With true, the function returns a float instead of a string (as it does if it is called without arguments).

Is an empty href valid?

A word of caution:

In my experience, omitting the href attribute causes problems for accessibility as the keyboard navigation will ignore it and never give it focus like it will when href is present. Manually including your element in the tabindex is a way around that.

str_replace with array

If the text is a simple markup and has existing anchors, stage the existing anchor tags first, swap out the urls, then replace the staged markers.

$text = '
Lorem Ipsum is simply dummy text found by searching in your <a href=>Firefox</a>,
<a href="">Safari</a>, or browser.

Link replacements will first stage existing anchor tags, replace each with a marker, then swap out the remaining links.
Links should be properly encoded.  If links are not separated from surrounding content like a trailing "." period then they it will be included in the link.
Links that are not encoded properly may create a problem, so best to use this when you know the text you are processing is not mixed HTML.

Example:'. urlencode('<a href=""></a>') .'

// Replace existing links with a marker
$linkStore = array();
$text = preg_replace_callback('/(<a.*?a>)/', function($match) use (&$linkStore){ $key = '__linkStore'.count($linkStore).'__'; $linkStore[$key] = $match[0]; return $key; }, $text);

// Replace remaining URLs with an anchor tag
$text = preg_replace_callback("/(http|https|ftp|ftps)\:\/\/[a-zA-Z0-9\-\.]+\.[a-zA-Z]{2,3}(\/\S*)?/", function($match) use (&$linkStore){ return '<a href="'. $match[0] .'">'. $match[0] .'</a>'; }, $text);

// Replace link markers with original
$text = str_replace(array_keys($linkStore), array_values($linkStore), $text);

echo '<pre>'.$text;

How to set the environmental variable LD_LIBRARY_PATH in linux

I do the following in Mint 15 through 17, also works on ubuntu server 12.04 and above:

sudo vi /etc/bash.bashrc 

scroll to the bottom, and add:


All users have the environment variable added.

IF a == true OR b == true statement

check this Twig Reference.

You can do it that simple:

{% if (a or b) %}
{% endif %}

How can I generate a list of files with their absolute path in Linux?

Recursive files can be listed by many ways in Linux. Here I am sharing one liner script to clear all logs of files(only files) from /var/log/ directory and second check recently which logs file has made an entry.


find /var/log/ -type f  #listing file recursively 


for i in $(find $PWD -type f) ; do cat /dev/null > "$i" ; done #empty files recursively 

Third use:

ls -ltr $(find /var/log/ -type f ) # listing file used in recent

Note: for directory location you can also pass $PWD instead of /var/log.

How to loop through elements of forms with JavaScript?

$(function() {
    $('form button').click(function() {
        var allowSubmit = true;
        $.each($('form input:text'), function(index, formField) {
            if($(formField).val().trim().length == 0) {
                alert('field is empty!');
                allowSubmit = false;
        return allowSubmit;


Difference between Activity and FragmentActivity

A FragmentActivity is a subclass of Activity that was built for the Android Support Package.

The FragmentActivity class adds a couple new methods to ensure compatibility with older versions of Android, but other than that, there really isn't much of a difference between the two. Just make sure you change all calls to getLoaderManager() and getFragmentManager() to getSupportLoaderManager() and getSupportFragmentManager() respectively.

How to assign from a function which returns more than one value?

If you want to return the output of your function to the Global Environment, you can use list2env, like in this example:

myfun <- function(x) { a <- 1:x
                       b <- 5:x
                       df <- data.frame(a=a, b=b)

                       newList <- list("my_obj1" = a, "my_obj2" = b, "myDF"=df)
                       list2env(newList ,.GlobalEnv)

This function will create three objects in your Global Environment:

> my_obj1
  [1] 1 2 3

> my_obj2
  [1] 5 4 3

> myDF
    a b
  1 1 5
  2 2 4
  3 3 3

How to upload a file from Windows machine to Linux machine using command lines via PuTTy?

Pscp.exe is painfully slow.

Uploading files using WinSCP is like 10 times faster.

So, to do that from command line, first you got to add the file to your %PATH%. It's not a top-level domain, but an executable .com file, which is located in your WinSCP installation directory.

Then just issue a simple command and your file will be uploaded much faster putty ever could: /command "open sftp://username:[email protected]:22" "put /var/www/somedirectory/" "exit"

And make sure your check the synchronize folders feature, which is basically what rsync does, so you won't ever want to use pscp.exe again. /command "help synchronize"

Unable to convert MySQL date/time value to System.DateTime

If I google for "Unable to convert MySQL date/time value to System.DateTime" I see numerous references to a problem accessing MySQL from Visual Studio. Is that your context?

One solution suggested is:

This is not a bug but expected behavior. Please check manual under connect options and set "Allow Zero Datetime" to true, as on attached pictures, and the error will go away.


When to use EntityManager.find() vs EntityManager.getReference() with JPA

I disagree with the selected answer, and as davidxxx correctly pointed out, getReference does not provide such behaviour of dynamic updations without select. I asked a question concerning the validity of this answer, see here - cannot update without issuing select on using setter after getReference() of hibernate JPA.

I quite honestly haven't seen anybody who's actually used that functionality. ANYWHERE. And i don't understand why it's so upvoted.

Now first of all, no matter what you call on a hibernate proxy object, a setter or a getter, an SQL is fired and the object is loaded.

But then i thought, so what if JPA getReference() proxy doesn't provide that functionality. I can just write my own proxy.

Now, we can all argue that selects on primary keys are as fast as a query can get and it's not really something to go to great lengths to avoid. But for those of us who can't handle it due to one reason or another, below is an implementation of such a proxy. But before i you see the implementation, see it's usage and how simple it is to use.


Order example = ProxyHandler.getReference(Order.class, 3);

And this would fire the following query -

UPDATE Order SET type = 'ABCD' and cost = 10 WHERE id = 3;

and even if you want to insert, you can still do Order("a", 2)); and it would fire an insert as it should.


Add this to your pom.xml -


Make this class to create dynamic proxy -

public class ProxyHandler {

public static <T> T getReference(Class<T> classType, Object id) {
    if (!classType.isAnnotationPresent(Entity.class)) {
        throw new ProxyInstantiationException("This is not an entity!");

    try {
        Enhancer enhancer = new Enhancer();
        enhancer.setCallback(new ProxyMethodInterceptor(classType, id));
        enhancer.setInterfaces((new Class<?>[]{EnhancedProxy.class}));
        return (T) enhancer.create();
    } catch (Exception e) {
        throw new ProxyInstantiationException("Error creating proxy, cause :" + e.getCause());

Make an interface with all the methods -

public interface EnhancedProxy {
    public String getJPQLUpdate();
    public HashMap<String, Object> getModifiedFields();

Now, make an interceptor which will allow you to implement these methods on your proxy -

import javafx.util.Pair;
import net.sf.cglib.proxy.MethodInterceptor;
import net.sf.cglib.proxy.MethodProxy;

import javax.persistence.Id;
import java.lang.reflect.Field;
import java.lang.reflect.Method;
import java.util.*;
* @author Anil Kumar
public class ProxyMethodInterceptor implements MethodInterceptor, EnhancedProxy {

private Object target;
private Object proxy;
private Class classType;
private Pair<String, Object> primaryKey;
private static HashSet<String> enhancedMethods;

ProxyMethodInterceptor(Class classType, Object id) throws IllegalAccessException, InstantiationException {
    this.classType = classType; = classType.newInstance();
    this.primaryKey = new Pair<>(getPrimaryKeyField().getName(), id);

static {
    enhancedMethods = new HashSet<>();
    for (Method method : EnhancedProxy.class.getDeclaredMethods()) {

public Object intercept(Object obj, Method method, Object[] args, MethodProxy proxy) throws Throwable {
    //intercept enhanced methods
    if (enhancedMethods.contains(method.getName())) {
        this.proxy = obj;
        return method.invoke(this, args);
    //else invoke super class method
        return proxy.invokeSuper(obj, args);

public HashMap<String, Object> getModifiedFields() {
    HashMap<String, Object> modifiedFields = new HashMap<>();
    try {
        for (Field field : classType.getDeclaredFields()) {


            Object initialValue = field.get(target);
            Object finalValue = field.get(proxy);

            //put if modified
            if (!Objects.equals(initialValue, finalValue)) {
                modifiedFields.put(field.getName(), finalValue);
    } catch (Exception e) {
        return null;
    return modifiedFields;

public String getJPQLUpdate() {
    HashMap<String, Object> modifiedFields = getModifiedFields();
    if (modifiedFields == null || modifiedFields.isEmpty()) {
        return null;
    StringBuilder fieldsToSet = new StringBuilder();
    for (String field : modifiedFields.keySet()) {
        fieldsToSet.append(field).append(" = :").append(field).append(" and ");
    fieldsToSet.setLength(fieldsToSet.length() - 4);
    return "UPDATE "
            + classType.getSimpleName()
            + " SET "
            + fieldsToSet
            + "WHERE "
            + primaryKey.getKey() + " = " + primaryKey.getValue();

private Field getPrimaryKeyField() throws ProxyInstantiationException {
    for (Field field : classType.getDeclaredFields()) {
        if (field.isAnnotationPresent(Id.class))
            return field;
    throw new ProxyInstantiationException("Entity class doesn't have a primary key!");

And the exception class -

public class ProxyInstantiationException extends RuntimeException {
public ProxyInstantiationException(String message) {

A service to save using this proxy -

public class PersistenceService {

private EntityManager em;

private void save(Object entity) {
    // update entity for proxies
    if (entity instanceof EnhancedProxy) {
        EnhancedProxy proxy = (EnhancedProxy) entity;
        Query updateQuery = em.createQuery(proxy.getJPQLUpdate());
        for (Entry<String, Object> entry : proxy.getModifiedFields().entrySet()) {
            updateQuery.setParameter(entry.getKey(), entry.getValue());
    // insert otherwise
    } else {


Target elements with multiple classes, within one rule

.border-blue.background { ... } is for one item with multiple classes.
.border-blue, .background { ... } is for multiple items each with their own class.
.border-blue .background { ... } is for one item where '.background' is the child of '.border-blue'.

See Chris' answer for a more thorough explanation.

Removing items from a ListBox in

There is a simple method for deleting selected items, and all these people are going for a hard method:


I used this in Visual Basic mode on Visual Studio.

Refresh Excel VBA Function Results

The Application.Volatile doesn't work for recalculating a formula with my own function inside. I use the following function: Application.CalculateFull

Writing BMP image in pure c/c++ without other libraries

this is a example code copied from

void drawbmp (char * filename) {

unsigned int headers[13];
FILE * outfile;
int extrabytes;
int paddedsize;
int x; int y; int n;
int red, green, blue;

extrabytes = 4 - ((WIDTH * 3) % 4);                 // How many bytes of padding to add to each
                                                    // horizontal line - the size of which must
                                                    // be a multiple of 4 bytes.
if (extrabytes == 4)
   extrabytes = 0;

paddedsize = ((WIDTH * 3) + extrabytes) * HEIGHT;

// Headers...
// Note that the "BM" identifier in bytes 0 and 1 is NOT included in these "headers".
headers[0]  = paddedsize + 54;      // bfSize (whole file size)
headers[1]  = 0;                    // bfReserved (both)
headers[2]  = 54;                   // bfOffbits
headers[3]  = 40;                   // biSize
headers[4]  = WIDTH;  // biWidth
headers[5]  = HEIGHT; // biHeight

// Would have biPlanes and biBitCount in position 6, but they're shorts.
// It's easier to write them out separately (see below) than pretend
// they're a single int, especially with endian issues...

headers[7]  = 0;                    // biCompression
headers[8]  = paddedsize;           // biSizeImage
headers[9]  = 0;                    // biXPelsPerMeter
headers[10] = 0;                    // biYPelsPerMeter
headers[11] = 0;                    // biClrUsed
headers[12] = 0;                    // biClrImportant

outfile = fopen(filename, "wb");

// Headers begin...
// When printing ints and shorts, we write out 1 character at a time to avoid endian issues.

fprintf(outfile, "BM");

for (n = 0; n <= 5; n++)
   fprintf(outfile, "%c", headers[n] & 0x000000FF);
   fprintf(outfile, "%c", (headers[n] & 0x0000FF00) >> 8);
   fprintf(outfile, "%c", (headers[n] & 0x00FF0000) >> 16);
   fprintf(outfile, "%c", (headers[n] & (unsigned int) 0xFF000000) >> 24);

// These next 4 characters are for the biPlanes and biBitCount fields.

fprintf(outfile, "%c", 1);
fprintf(outfile, "%c", 0);
fprintf(outfile, "%c", 24);
fprintf(outfile, "%c", 0);

for (n = 7; n <= 12; n++)
   fprintf(outfile, "%c", headers[n] & 0x000000FF);
   fprintf(outfile, "%c", (headers[n] & 0x0000FF00) >> 8);
   fprintf(outfile, "%c", (headers[n] & 0x00FF0000) >> 16);
   fprintf(outfile, "%c", (headers[n] & (unsigned int) 0xFF000000) >> 24);

// Headers done, now write the data...

for (y = HEIGHT - 1; y >= 0; y--)     // BMP image format is written from bottom to top...
   for (x = 0; x <= WIDTH - 1; x++)

      red = reduce(redcount[x][y] + COLOUR_OFFSET) * red_multiplier;
      green = reduce(greencount[x][y] + COLOUR_OFFSET) * green_multiplier;
      blue = reduce(bluecount[x][y] + COLOUR_OFFSET) * blue_multiplier;
      if (red > 255) red = 255; if (red < 0) red = 0;
      if (green > 255) green = 255; if (green < 0) green = 0;
      if (blue > 255) blue = 255; if (blue < 0) blue = 0;
      // Also, it's written in (b,g,r) format...

      fprintf(outfile, "%c", blue);
      fprintf(outfile, "%c", green);
      fprintf(outfile, "%c", red);
   if (extrabytes)      // See above - BMP lines must be of lengths divisible by 4.
      for (n = 1; n <= extrabytes; n++)
         fprintf(outfile, "%c", 0);



failed to load ad : 3

I hadn't published a version of my app with ads yet.

I was seeing error code 3: ERROR_CODE_NO_FILL after I switched from emulators with a debug version to a real device with the release version (installed through adb shell commands).

I waited 12+ hours and I could see ad requests on the AdMob portal, but no matches (match rate of 0%). I went to the Play Console > Store Presence > Pricing & distribution and switched the radio button for Contains ads to Yes, it has ads. I even tried uploading my app bundle (without publishing) to the Play Console. Neither of these worked.

Various AdMob help articles (including the one linked below) mention that if you've been seeing test ads (ads labeled with "Test Ad"), then your code is working and real ads should work as expected (once they build up inventory).

With that in mind, I went ahead and published my app to the Play Store and once the update was live, I downloaded it via the Play Store app on my real phone and the ads loaded no problem and my match rate is now sitting at 66% on AdMob. From the AdMob FAQ article, it sounds like it typically takes a few hours and could have taken up to 24 hours for ads to start showing.

ad mob FAQ re: how long does it take ads to show


How to check if a String is numeric in Java

import java.util.Scanner;

public class TestDemo {
    public static void main(String[] args) {
        boolean flag = true;
        Scanner sc = new Scanner(;
        System.out.println("Enter the String:");
        String str = sc.nextLine();

        for (int i = 0; i < str.length(); i++) {
            if(str.charAt(i) > 48 && str.charAt(i) < 58) {
                flag = false;

        if(flag == true) {
            System.out.println("String is a valid String.");
        } else {
            System.out.println("String contains number.");

How to download a file over HTTP?

I wanted do download all the files from a webpage. I tried wget but it was failing so I decided for the Python route and I found this thread.

After reading it, I have made a little command line application, soupget, expanding on the excellent answers of PabloG and Stan and adding some useful options.

It uses BeatifulSoup to collect all the URLs of the page and then download the ones with the desired extension(s). Finally it can download multiple files in parallel.

Here it is:

#!/usr/bin/env python3
# -*- coding: utf-8 -*-
from __future__ import (division, absolute_import, print_function, unicode_literals)
import sys, os, argparse
from bs4 import BeautifulSoup

# --- insert Stan's script here ---
# if sys.version_info >= (3,): 
# def download_file(url, dest=None): 

# --- new stuff ---
def collect_all_url(page_url, extensions):
    Recovers all links in page_url checking for all the desired extensions
    conn = urllib2.urlopen(page_url)
    html =
    soup = BeautifulSoup(html, 'lxml')
    links = soup.find_all('a')

    results = []    
    for tag in links:
        link = tag.get('href', None)
        if link is not None: 
            for e in extensions:
                if e in link:
                    # Fallback for badly defined links
                    # checks for missing scheme or netloc
                    if bool(urlparse.urlparse(link).scheme) and bool(urlparse.urlparse(link).netloc):
    return results

if __name__ == "__main__":  # Only run if this file is called directly
    # Command line arguments
    parser = argparse.ArgumentParser(
        description='Download all files from a webpage.')
        '-u', '--url', 
        help='Page url to request')
        '-e', '--ext', 
        help='Extension(s) to find')    
        '-d', '--dest', 
        help='Destination where to save the files')
        '-p', '--par', 
        action='store_true', default=False, 
        help="Turns on parallel download")
    args = parser.parse_args()

    # Recover files to download
    all_links = collect_all_url(args.url, args.ext)

    # Download
    if not args.par:
        for l in all_links:
                filename = download_file(l, args.dest)
            except Exception as e:
                print("Error while downloading: {}".format(e))
        from multiprocessing.pool import ThreadPool
        results = ThreadPool(10).imap_unordered(
            lambda x: download_file(x, args.dest), all_links)
        for p in results:

An example of its usage is:

python3 -p -e <list of extensions> -d <destination_folder> -u <target_webpage>

And an actual example if you want to see it in action:

python3 -p -e .xlsx .pdf .csv -u

How do I measure execution time of a command on the Windows command line?

Depending on the version of Windows you're using, just running bash will put you into Bash mode. This will allow you to use a bunch of commands that are not available on PowerShell directly (like the time command). Timing your command is now as easy as executing:

# The clause <your-command> (without the angle brackets) denotes the command you want to run.
$ time <your-command>

Note: You can easily quit from Bash mode and return back into your mainstream shell by running exit while in Bash mode.

This worked for me perfectly (Windows 10) after trying out other methods (like Measure-Command) which sometimes produce undesired stats. Hope this works for you as well.

Is it possible to use argsort in descending order?

You can use the flip commands numpy.flipud() or numpy.fliplr() to get the indexes in descending order after sorting using the argsort command. Thats what I usually do.

EXEC sp_executesql with multiple parameters

maybe this help :

@statement AS NVARCHAR(MAX)
,@text1 varchar(50)='hello'
,@text2 varchar(50)='world'

set @statement = '
select '''+@text1+''' + '' beautifull '' + ''' + @text2 + ''' 
exec sp_executesql @statement;

this is same as below :

select @text1 + ' beautifull ' + @text2

RSA: Get exponent and modulus given a public key

It depends on the tools you can use. I doubt there is a JavaScript too that could do it directly within the browser. It also depends if it's a one-off (always the same key) or whether you need to script it.

Command-line / OpenSSL

If you want to use something like OpenSSL on a unix command line, you can do something as follows. I'm assuming you public.key file contains something like this:

-----END PUBLIC KEY-----

Then, the commands would be:

PUBKEY=`grep -v -- ----- public.key | tr -d '\n'`

Then, you can look into the ASN.1 structure:

echo $PUBKEY | base64 -d | openssl asn1parse -inform DER -i

This should give you something like this:

    0:d=0  hl=4 l= 290 cons: SEQUENCE          
    4:d=1  hl=2 l=  13 cons:  SEQUENCE          
    6:d=2  hl=2 l=   9 prim:   OBJECT            :rsaEncryption
   17:d=2  hl=2 l=   0 prim:   NULL              
   19:d=1  hl=4 l= 271 prim:  BIT STRING 

The modulus and public exponent are in the last BIT STRING, offset 19, so use -strparse:

 echo $PUBKEY | base64 -d | openssl asn1parse -inform DER -i -strparse 19

This will give you the modulus and the public exponent, in hexadecimal (the two INTEGERs):

    0:d=0  hl=4 l= 266 cons: SEQUENCE          
    4:d=1  hl=4 l= 257 prim:  INTEGER           :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
  265:d=1  hl=2 l=   3 prim:  INTEGER           :010001

That's probably fine if it's always the same key, but this is probably not very convenient to put in a script.

Alternatively (and this might be easier to put into a script),

openssl rsa -pubin -inform PEM -text -noout < public.key

will return this:

Modulus (2048 bit):
Exponent: 65537 (0x10001)


It depends on the input format. If it's an X.509 certificate in a keystore, use (RSAPublicKey)cert.getPublicKey(): this object has two getters for the modulus and the exponent.

If it's in the format as above, you might want to use BouncyCastle and its PEMReader to read it. I haven't tried the following code, but this would look more or less like this:

PEMReader pemReader = new PEMReader(new FileReader("file.pem"));
Object obj = pemReader.readObject();
if (obj instanceof X509Certificate) {
   // Just in case your file contains in fact an X.509 certificate,
   // useless otherwise.
   obj = ((X509Certificate)obj).getPublicKey();
if (obj instanceof RSAPublicKey) {
   // ... use the getters to get the BigIntegers.

(You can use BouncyCastle similarly in C# too.)

How to convert a .eps file to a high quality 1024x1024 .jpg?

For vector graphics, ImageMagick has both a render resolution and an output size that are independent of each other.

Try something like

convert -density 300 image.eps -resize 1024x1024 image.jpg

Which will render your eps at 300dpi. If 300 * width > 1024, then it will be sharp. If you render it too high though, you waste a lot of memory drawing a really high-res graphic only to down sample it again. I don't currently know of a good way to render it at the "right" resolution in one IM command.

The order of the arguments matters! The -density X argument needs to go before image.eps because you want to affect the resolution that the input file is rendered at.

This is not super obvious in the manpage for convert, but is hinted at:


convert [input-option] input-file [output-option] output-file

Cross-Domain Cookies

function GetOrder(status, filter) {
    var isValid = true; //isValidGuid(customerId);
    if (isValid) {
        var refundhtmlstr = '';
        //varsURL = ApiPath + '/api/Orders/Customer/' + customerId + '?status=' + status + '&filter=' + filter;
        varsURL = ApiPath + '/api/Orders/Customer?status=' + status + '&filter=' + filter;
            type: "GET",
            //url: ApiPath + '/api/Orders/Customer/' + customerId + '?status=' + status + '&filter=' + filter,
            url: ApiPath + '/api/Orders/Customer?status=' + status + '&filter=' + filter,
            dataType: "json",
            crossDomain: true,
            xhrFields: {
                withCredentials: true
            success: function (data) {
                var htmlStr = '';
                if (data == null || data.Count === 0) {
                    htmlStr = '<div class="card"><div class="card-header">Bu kriterlere uygun siparis bulunamadi.</div></div>';
                else {
                    $('#ReturnPolicyBtnUrl').attr('href', data.ReturnPolicyBtnUrl);
                    var groupedData = data.OrderDto.sort(function (x, y) {
                        return new Date(y.OrderDate) - new Date(x.OrderDate);
                    groupedData = _.groupBy(data.OrderDto, function (d) { return toMonthStr(d.OrderDate) });
                    localStorage['orderData'] = JSON.stringify(data.OrderDto);

                    $.each(groupedData, function (key, val) {

                        var sortedData = groupedData[key].sort(function (x, y) {
                            return new Date(y.OrderDate) - new Date(x.OrderDate);
                        htmlStr += '<div class="card-header">' + key + '</div>';
                        $.each(sortedData, function (keyitem, valitem) {
                            //Date Convertions
                            if (valitem.StatusDesc != null) {
                                valitem.StatusDesc = valitem.StatusDesc;

                            var date = valitem.OrderDate;
                            date = date.substring(0, 10).split('-');
                            date = date[2] + '.' + date[1] + '.' + date[0];
                            htmlStr += '<div class="col-lg-12 col-md-12 col-xs-12 col-sm-12 card-item clearfix ">' +
                        //'<div class="card-item-head"><span class="order-head">Siparis No: <a href="ViewOrderDetails.html?CustomerId=' + customerId + '&OrderNo=' + valitem.OrderNumber + '" >' + valitem.OrderNumber + '</a></span><span class="order-date">' + date + '</span></div>' +
                        '<div class="card-item-head"><span class="order-head">Siparis No: <a href="ViewOrderDetails.html?OrderNo=' + valitem.OrderNumber + '" >' + valitem.OrderNumber + '</a></span><span class="order-date">' + date + '</span></div>' +
                        '<div class="card-item-head-desc">' + valitem.StatusDesc + '</div>' +
                        '<div class="card-item-body">' +
                            '<div class="slider responsive">';
                            var i = 0;
                            $.each(valitem.ItemList, function (keylineitem, vallineitem) {
                                var imageUrl = vallineitem.ProductImageUrl.replace('{size}', 200);
                                htmlStr += '<div><img src="' + imageUrl + '" alt="' + vallineitem.ProductName + '"><span class="img-desc">' + ProductNameStr(vallineitem.ProductName) + '</span></div>';
                            htmlStr += '</div>' +
                        '</div>' +

                    $.each(data.OrderDto, function (key, value) {
                        if (value.IsSAPMigrationflag === true) {
                            refundhtmlstr = '<div class="notify-reason"><span class="note"><B>Notification : </B> Geçmis siparisleriniz yükleniyor.  Lütfen kisa bir süre sonra tekrar kontrol ediniz. Tesekkürler. </span></div>';
            error: function () {
                console.log("System Failure");


Include UI origin and set Allow Crentials to true

        <add name="Access-Control-Allow-Origin" value="" />
        <add name="Access-Control-Allow-Headers" value="Content-Type" />
        <add name="Access-Control-Allow-Methods" value="GET, POST, PUT, DELETE, OPTIONS" />
        <add name="Access-Control-Allow-Credentials" value="true" />

How long will my session last?

In general you can say session.gc_maxlifetime specifies the maximum lifetime since the last change of your session data (not the last time session_start was called!). But PHP’s session handling is a little bit more complicated.

Because the session data is removed by a garbage collector that is only called by session_start with a probability of session.gc_probability devided by session.gc_divisor. The default values are 1 and 100, so the garbage collector is only started in only 1% of all session_start calls. That means even if the the session is already timed out in theory (the session data had been changed more than session.gc_maxlifetime seconds ago), the session data can be used longer than that.

Because of that fact I recommend you to implement your own session timeout mechanism. See my answer to How do I expire a PHP session after 30 minutes? for more details.

NotificationCompat.Builder deprecated in Android O

enter image description here

Here is working code for all android versions as of API LEVEL 26+ with backward compatibility.

 NotificationCompat.Builder notificationBuilder = new NotificationCompat.Builder(getContext(), "M_CH_ID");

                .setPriority(Notification.PRIORITY_MAX) // this is deprecated in API 26 but you can still use for below 26. check below update for 26 API
                .setContentTitle("Default notification")
                .setContentText("Lorem ipsum dolor sit amet, consectetur adipiscing elit.")

NotificationManager notificationManager = (NotificationManager) getContext().getSystemService(Context.NOTIFICATION_SERVICE);

UPDATE for API 26 to set Max priority

    NotificationManager notificationManager = (NotificationManager) getSystemService(Context.NOTIFICATION_SERVICE);
    String NOTIFICATION_CHANNEL_ID = "my_channel_id_01";

    if (Build.VERSION.SDK_INT >= Build.VERSION_CODES.O) {
        NotificationChannel notificationChannel = new NotificationChannel(NOTIFICATION_CHANNEL_ID, "My Notifications", NotificationManager.IMPORTANCE_MAX);

        // Configure the notification channel.
        notificationChannel.setDescription("Channel description");
        notificationChannel.setVibrationPattern(new long[]{0, 1000, 500, 1000});

    NotificationCompat.Builder notificationBuilder = new NotificationCompat.Builder(this, NOTIFICATION_CHANNEL_ID);

       //     .setPriority(Notification.PRIORITY_MAX)
            .setContentTitle("Default notification")
            .setContentText("Lorem ipsum dolor sit amet, consectetur adipiscing elit.")

    notificationManager.notify(/*notification id*/1,;

Getting XML Node text value with Java DOM

I'd print out the result of an2.getNodeName() as well for debugging purposes. My guess is that your tree crawling code isn't crawling to the nodes that you think it is. That suspicion is enhanced by the lack of checking for node names in your code.

Other than that, the javadoc for Node defines "getNodeValue()" to return null for Nodes of type Element. Therefore, you really should be using getTextContent(). I'm not sure why that wouldn't give you the text that you want.

Perhaps iterate the children of your tag node and see what types are there?

Tried this code and it works for me:

String xml = "<add job=\"351\">\n" +
             "    <tag>foobar</tag>\n" +
             "    <tag>foobar2</tag>\n" +
DocumentBuilderFactory dbf = DocumentBuilderFactory.newInstance();
DocumentBuilder db = dbf.newDocumentBuilder();
ByteArrayInputStream bis = new ByteArrayInputStream(xml.getBytes());
Document doc = db.parse(bis);
Node n = doc.getFirstChild();
NodeList nl = n.getChildNodes();
Node an,an2;

for (int i=0; i < nl.getLength(); i++) {
    an = nl.item(i);
    if(an.getNodeType()==Node.ELEMENT_NODE) {
        NodeList nl2 = an.getChildNodes();

        for(int i2=0; i2<nl2.getLength(); i2++) {
            an2 = nl2.item(i2);
            // DEBUG PRINTS
            System.out.println(an2.getNodeName() + ": type (" + an2.getNodeType() + "):");
            if(an2.hasChildNodes()) System.out.println(an2.getFirstChild().getTextContent());
            if(an2.hasChildNodes()) System.out.println(an2.getFirstChild().getNodeValue());

Output was:

#text: type (3): foobar foobar
#text: type (3): foobar2 foobar2

How do I unbind "hover" in jQuery?


or more succinctly (thanks @Chad Grant):

$(this).unbind('mouseenter mouseleave')

hash function for string

First, is 40 collisions for 130 words hashed to 0..99 bad? You can't expect perfect hashing if you are not taking steps specifically for it to happen. An ordinary hash function won't have fewer collisions than a random generator most of the time.

A hash function with a good reputation is MurmurHash3.

Finally, regarding the size of the hash table, it really depends what kind of hash table you have in mind, especially, whether buckets are extensible or one-slot. If buckets are extensible, again there is a choice: you choose the average bucket length for the memory/speed constraints that you have.

Visual Studio build fails: unable to copy exe-file from obj\debug to bin\debug

In case somebody is running into this while trying to debug a Unit Test or Run a unit test I had to kill the following two processes in order for it to release the file:

processes to kill.

Can I use a case/switch statement with two variables?

var var1 = "something";
var var2 = "something_else";
switch(var1 + "|" + var2) {
    case "something|something_else":
    case "something|...":
    case "...|...":

If you have 5 possibilities for each one you will get 25 cases.

Store an array in HashMap

If you want to store multiple values for a key (if I understand you correctly), you could try a MultiHashMap (available in various libraries, not only commons-collections).

How to build minified and uncompressed bundle with webpack?

You can format your webpack.config.js like this:

var debug = process.env.NODE_ENV !== "production";
var webpack = require('webpack');

module.exports = {
    context: __dirname,
    devtool: debug ? "inline-sourcemap" : null,
    entry: "./entry.js",
    output: {
        path: __dirname + "/dist",
        filename: "library.min.js"
    plugins: debug ? [] : [
        new webpack.optimize.DedupePlugin(),
        new webpack.optimize.OccurenceOrderPlugin(),
        new webpack.optimize.UglifyJsPlugin({ mangle: false, sourcemap: false }),

And then to build it unminified run (while in the project's main directory):

$ webpack

To build it minified run:

$ NODE_ENV=production webpack

Notes: Make sure that for the unminified version you change the output file name to library.js and for the minified library.min.js so they do not overwrite each other.

Default value for field in Django model

You can also use a callable in the default field, such as:

b = models.CharField(max_length=7, default=foo)

And then define the callable:

def foo():
    return 'bar'

Useful example of a shutdown hook in Java?

Shutdown Hooks are unstarted threads that are registered with Runtime.addShutdownHook().JVM does not give any guarantee on the order in which shutdown hooks are started.For more info refer

Does HTML5 <video> playback support the .avi format?

Short answer: No. Use WebM or Ogg instead.

This article covers just about everything you need to know about the <video> element, including which browsers support which container formats and codecs.

how to sync windows time from a ntp time server in command

Use net time net time \\timesrv /set /yes

after your comment try this one in evelated prompt :

w32tm /config /update /manualpeerlist:yourtimerserver

Zip lists in Python

zip takes a bunch of lists likes

a: a1 a2 a3 a4 a5 a6 a7...
b: b1 b2 b3 b4 b5 b6 b7...
c: c1 c2 c3 c4 c5 c6 c7...

and "zips" them into one list whose entries are 3-tuples (ai, bi, ci). Imagine drawing a zipper horizontally from left to right.

Spring RestTemplate GET with parameters

Converting of a hash map to a string of query parameters:

Map<String, String> params = new HashMap<>();
params.put("msisdn", msisdn);
params.put("email", email);
params.put("clientVersion", clientVersion);
params.put("clientType", clientType);
params.put("issuerName", issuerName);
params.put("applicationName", applicationName);

UriComponentsBuilder builder = UriComponentsBuilder.fromHttpUrl(url);
for (Map.Entry<String, String> entry : params.entrySet()) {
    builder.queryParam(entry.getKey(), entry.getValue());

HttpHeaders headers = new HttpHeaders();
headers.set("Accept", "application/json");

HttpEntity<String> response =, HttpMethod.GET, new HttpEntity(headers), String.class);

VBA test if cell is in a range

@mywolfe02 gives a static range code so his inRange works fine but if you want to add dynamic range then use this one with inRange function of him.this works better with when you want to populate data to fix starting cell and last column is also fixed.

Sub DynamicRange()

Dim sht As Worksheet
Dim LastRow As Long
Dim StartCell As Range
Dim rng As Range

Set sht = Worksheets("xyz")
LastRow = sht.Cells.Find("*", SearchOrder:=xlByRows, SearchDirection:=xlPrevious).row
Set rng = Workbooks("Record.xlsm").Worksheets("xyz").Range(Cells(12, 2), Cells(LastRow, 12))

Debug.Print LastRow

If InRange(ActiveCell, rng) Then
'        MsgBox "Active Cell In Range!"
      MsgBox "Please select the cell within the range!"
  End If

End Sub 

How to view the committed files you have not pushed yet?

Assuming you're on local branch master, which is tracking origin/master:

git diff --stat origin/master..

Cannot deserialize instance of object out of START_ARRAY token in Spring Webservice

Your json contains an array, but you're trying to parse it as an object. This error occurs because objects must start with {.

You have 2 options:

  1. You can get rid of the ShopContainer class and use Shop[] instead

    ShopContainer response  = restTemplate.getForObject(
        url, ShopContainer.class);

    replace with

    Shop[] response  = restTemplate.getForObject(url, Shop[].class);

    and then make your desired object from it.

  2. You can change your server to return an object instead of a list

    return mapper.writerWithDefaultPrettyPrinter().writeValueAsString(list);

    replace with

    return mapper.writerWithDefaultPrettyPrinter().writeValueAsString(
        new ShopContainer(list));

What exactly does numpy.exp() do?

exp(x) = e^x where e= 2.718281(approx)

import numpy as np

print ar


[ 2.71828183  7.3890561  20.08553692]

How to get twitter bootstrap modal to close (after initial launch)

I had problems closing the bootstrap modal dialog, if it was opened with:


I solved this problem opening the dialog by the following link:

<a href="#myModal" data-toggle="modal">Open my dialog</a>

Do not forget the initialization:

$('#myModal').modal({show: false});

I also used the following attributes for the closing button:

data-dismiss="modal" data-target="#myModal"

How to pretty print XML from Java?

Using jdom2 :

import org.jdom2.input.SAXBuilder;
import org.jdom2.output.Format;
import org.jdom2.output.XMLOutputter;

String prettyXml = new XMLOutputter(Format.getPrettyFormat()).
                         outputString(new SAXBuilder().build(new StringReader(uglyXml)));

Could not determine the dependencies of task ':app:crashlyticsStoreDeobsDebug' if I enable the proguard

You can run this command in your project directory. Basically it just cleans the build and gradle.

   cd android && rm -R .gradle && cd app && rm -R build

In my case, I was using react-native using this as a script in package.json

"scripts": { "clean-android": "cd android && rm -R .gradle && cd app && rm -R build" }

How can I make a program wait for a variable change in javascript?

The question was posted long time ago, many answers pool the target periodically and produces unnecessary waste of resources if the target is unchanged. In addition, most answers do not block the program while waiting for changes as required by the original post.

We can now apply a solution that is purely event-driven.

The solution uses onClick event to deliver event triggered by value change.

The solution can be run on modern browsers that support Promise and async/await. If you are using Node.js, consider EventEmitter as a better solution.

<!-- This div is the trick.  -->_x000D_
<div id="trick" onclick="onTrickClick()" />_x000D_
<!-- Someone else change the value you monitored. In this case, the person will click this button. -->_x000D_
<button onclick="changeValue()">Change value</button>_x000D_
    // targetObj.x is the value you want to monitor._x000D_
    const targetObj = {_x000D_
        _x: 0,_x000D_
        get x() {_x000D_
            return this._x;_x000D_
        set x(value) {_x000D_
            this._x = value;_x000D_
            // The following line tells your code targetObj.x has been changed._x000D_
    // Someone else click the button above and change targetObj.x._x000D_
    function changeValue() {_x000D_
        targetObj.x = targetObj.x + 1;_x000D_
    // This is called by the trick div. We fill the details later._x000D_
    let onTrickClick = function () { };_x000D_
    // Use Promise to help you "wait". This function is called in your code._x000D_
    function waitForChange() {_x000D_
        return new Promise(resolve => {_x000D_
            onTrickClick = function () {_x000D_
    // Your main code (must be in an async function)._x000D_
    (async () => {_x000D_
        while (true) { // The loop is not for pooling. It receives the change event passively._x000D_
            await waitForChange(); // Wait until targetObj.x has been changed._x000D_
            alert(targetObj.x); // Show the dialog only when targetObj.x is changed._x000D_
            await new Promise(resolve => setTimeout(resolve, 0)); // Making the dialog to show properly. You will not need this line in your code._x000D_

Take a list of numbers and return the average

You want to iterate through the list, sum all the numbers, and then divide the sum by the number of elements in the list. You can use a for loop to accomplish this.

average = 0
sum = 0    
for n in numbers:
    sum = sum + n
average = sum / len(numbers)

The for loop looks at each element in the list, and then adds it to the current sum. You then divide by the length of the list (or the number of elements in the list) to find the average.

I would recommend googling a python reference to find out how to use common programming concepts like loops and conditionals so that you feel comfortable when starting out. There are lots of great resources online that you could look up.

Good luck!

Java FileOutputStream Create File if not exists

You can potentially get a FileNotFoundException if the file does not exist.

Java documentation says:

Whether or not a file is available or may be created depends upon the underlying platform

If you're using Java 7 you can use the java.nio package:

The options parameter specifies how the the file is created or opened... it opens the file for writing, creating the file if it doesn't exist...

What's the difference between ViewData and ViewBag?

It uses the C# 4.0 dynamic feature. It achieves the same goal as viewdata and should be avoided in favor of using strongly typed view models (the same way as viewdata should be avoided).

So basically it replaces magic strings:


with magic properties:


for which you have no compile time safety.

I continue to blame Microsoft for ever introducing this concept in MVC.

The name of the properties are case sensitive.

jQuery - How to dynamically add a validation rule

To validate all dynamically generated elements could add a special class to each of these elements and use each() function, something like

$("#DivIdContainer .classToValidate").each(function () {
    $(this).rules('add', {
        required: true

How do I make UITableViewCell's ImageView a fixed size even when the image is smaller

This worked for me in swift:

Create a subclass of UITableViewCell (make sure you link up your cell in the storyboard)

class MyTableCell:UITableViewCell{
    override func layoutSubviews() {

        if(self.imageView?.image != nil){

            let cellFrame = self.frame
            let textLabelFrame = self.textLabel?.frame
            let detailTextLabelFrame = self.detailTextLabel?.frame
            let imageViewFrame = self.imageView?.frame

            self.imageView?.contentMode = .ScaleAspectFill
            self.imageView?.clipsToBounds = true
            self.imageView?.frame = CGRectMake((imageViewFrame?.origin.x)!,(imageViewFrame?.origin.y)! + 1,40,40)
            self.textLabel!.frame = CGRectMake(50 + (imageViewFrame?.origin.x)! , (textLabelFrame?.origin.y)!, cellFrame.width-(70 + (imageViewFrame?.origin.x)!), textLabelFrame!.height)
            self.detailTextLabel!.frame = CGRectMake(50 + (imageViewFrame?.origin.x)!, (detailTextLabelFrame?.origin.y)!, cellFrame.width-(70 + (imageViewFrame?.origin.x)!), detailTextLabelFrame!.height)

In cellForRowAtIndexPath , dequeue the cell as your new cell type:

    let cell = tableView.dequeueReusableCellWithIdentifier("MyCell", forIndexPath: indexPath) as! MyTableCell

Obviously change number values to suit your layout

XML Document to String

Assuming doc is your instance of org.w3c.dom.Document:

TransformerFactory tf = TransformerFactory.newInstance();
Transformer transformer = tf.newTransformer();
transformer.setOutputProperty(OutputKeys.OMIT_XML_DECLARATION, "yes");
StringWriter writer = new StringWriter();
transformer.transform(new DOMSource(doc), new StreamResult(writer));
String output = writer.getBuffer().toString().replaceAll("\n|\r", "");

How to get child element by ID in JavaScript?

If jQuery is okay, you can use find(). It's basically equivalent to the way you are doing it right now.


You can also use jQuery selectors to basically achieve the same thing:

$('#note #textid');

Using these methods to get something that already has an ID is kind of strange, but I'm supplying these assuming it's not really how you plan on using it.

On a side note, you should know ID's should be unique in your webpage. If you plan on having multiple elements with the same "ID" consider using a specific class name.

Update 2020.03.10

It's a breeze to use native JS for this:

document.querySelector('#note #textid');

If you want to first find #note then #textid you have to check the first querySelector result. If it fails to match, chaining is no longer possible :(

var parent = document.querySelector('#note');
var child = parent ? parent.querySelector('#textid') : null;

How to display a JSON representation and not [Object Object] on the screen

  .subscribe(response => 
  this.records=JSON.stringify(response) // impoprtant

Export table to file with column headers (column names) using the bcp utility and SQL Server 2008

I was trying to figure how to do this recently and while I like the most popular solution at the top, it simply would not work for me as I needed the names to be the alias's that I entered in the script so I used some batch files (with some help from a colleague) to accomplish custom table names.

The batch file that initiates the bcp has a line at the bottom of the script that executes another script that merges a template file with the header names and the file that was just exported with bcp using the code below. Hope this helps someone else that was in my situation.

echo Add headers from template file to exported sql files....
Echo School 0031
copy e:\genin\templates\TEMPLATE_Courses.csv + e:\genin\0031\courses0031.csv e:\genin\finished\courses0031.csv /b

How do I tell Matplotlib to create a second (new) plot, then later plot on the old one?

One way I found after some struggling is creating a function which gets data_plot matrix, file name and order as parameter to create boxplots from the given data in the ordered figure (different orders = different figures) and save it under the given file_name.

def plotFigure(data_plot,file_name,order):
    fig = plt.figure(order, figsize=(9, 6))
    ax = fig.add_subplot(111)
    bp = ax.boxplot(data_plot)
    fig.savefig(file_name, bbox_inches='tight')

How to set OnClickListener on a RadioButton in Android?

Just in case someone else was struggeling with the accepted answer:

There are different OnCheckedChangeListener-Interfaces. I added to first one to see if a CheckBox was changed.

import android.widget.CompoundButton.OnCheckedChangeListener;


import android.widget.RadioGroup.OnCheckedChangeListener;

When adding the snippet from Ricky I had errors:

The method setOnCheckedChangeListener(RadioGroup.OnCheckedChangeListener) in the type RadioGroup is not applicable for the arguments (new CompoundButton.OnCheckedChangeListener(){})

Can be fixed with answer from Ali :

new RadioGroup.OnCheckedChangeListener()

Perl: function to trim string leading and trailing whitespace

This is available in String::Util with the trim method:

Editor's note: String::Util is not a core module, but you can install it from CPAN with [sudo] cpan String::Util.

use String::Util 'trim';
my $str = "  hello  ";
$str = trim($str);
print "string is now: '$str'\n";


string is now 'hello'

However it is easy enough to do yourself:

$str =~ s/^\s+//;
$str =~ s/\s+$//;

Watch multiple $scope attributes

how about:

scope.$watch(function() { 
   return { 
      a: thing-one, 
      b: thing-two, 
      c: red-fish, 
      d: blue-fish 
}, listener...);

Bulk Insertion in Laravel using eloquent ORM

For category relations insertion I came across the same problem and had no idea, except that in my eloquent model I used Self() to have an instance of the same class in foreach to record multiple saves and grabing ids.

foreach($arCategories as $v)
        $obj = new Self(); // this is to have new instance of own
        $obj->page_id = $page_id;
        $obj->category_id = $v;

without "$obj = new Self()" it only saves single record (when $obj was $this)

How to replace case-insensitive literal substrings in Java

Regular expressions are quite complex to manage due to the fact that some characters are reserved: for example, "".replaceAll(".") produces an empty string, because the dot means "anything" If you want to replace only the point should be indicated as a parameter "\\.".

A simpler solution is to use StringBuilder objects to search and replace text. It takes two: one that contains the text in lowercase version while the second contains the original version. The search is performed on the lowercase contents and the index detected will also replace the original text.

public class LowerCaseReplace 
    public static String replace(String source, String target, String replacement)
        StringBuilder sbSource = new StringBuilder(source);
        StringBuilder sbSourceLower = new StringBuilder(source.toLowerCase());
        String searchString = target.toLowerCase();

        int idx = 0;
        while((idx = sbSourceLower.indexOf(searchString, idx)) != -1) {
            sbSource.replace(idx, idx + searchString.length(), replacement);
            sbSourceLower.replace(idx, idx + searchString.length(), replacement);
            idx+= replacement.length();
        sbSourceLower = null;

        return sbSource.toString();

    public static void main(String[] args)
        System.out.println(replace("xXXxyyyXxxuuuuoooo", "xx", "**"));
        System.out.println(replace("FOoBaR", "bar", "*"));

anaconda - graphviz - can't import after installation

for me the problem was solved by installing another supportive package.

so I installed graphviz package through anaconda then I failed to import it

after that I installed a second package named python-graphviz also through anaconda

then I succeeded in importing graphviz module into my code

I hope this will help someone :)

Can't ignore UserInterfaceState.xcuserstate

All Answer is great but here is the one will remove for every user if you work in different Mac (Home and office)

git rm --cache */UserInterfaceState.xcuserstate
git commit -m "Never see you again, UserInterfaceState"

Calculate distance between 2 GPS coordinates

C# Version of Haversine

double _eQuatorialEarthRadius = 6378.1370D;
double _d2r = (Math.PI / 180D);

private int HaversineInM(double lat1, double long1, double lat2, double long2)
    return (int)(1000D * HaversineInKM(lat1, long1, lat2, long2));

private double HaversineInKM(double lat1, double long1, double lat2, double long2)
    double dlong = (long2 - long1) * _d2r;
    double dlat = (lat2 - lat1) * _d2r;
    double a = Math.Pow(Math.Sin(dlat / 2D), 2D) + Math.Cos(lat1 * _d2r) * Math.Cos(lat2 * _d2r) * Math.Pow(Math.Sin(dlong / 2D), 2D);
    double c = 2D * Math.Atan2(Math.Sqrt(a), Math.Sqrt(1D - a));
    double d = _eQuatorialEarthRadius * c;

    return d;

Here's a .NET Fiddle of this, so you can test it out with your own Lat/Longs.

Get Today's date in Java at midnight time

Date date = new Date();
SimpleDateFormat sdf = new SimpleDateFormat("yyyy/MM/dd HH:mm");

jQuery/Javascript function to clear all the fields of a form

You can simply use the reset button type.

<input type="text" />
<input type="reset" />


Edit: Remember that, the reset button, reset the form for the original values, so, if the field has some value set on the field <input type="text" value="Name" /> after press reset the field will reset the value inserted by user and come back with the word "name" in this example.


How to make a <div> appear in front of regular text/tables

It moves table down because there is no much space, try to decrease/increase width of certain elements so that it finds some space and does not push the table down. Also you may want to use absolute positioning to position the div at exactly the place you want, for example:

   top:100px; /* set top value */
   left:100px; /* set left value */
   width:100px;  /* set width value */

If you want to appear it over something, you also need to give it z-index, so it might look like this:

   top:100px; /* set top value */
   left:100px; /* set left value */
   width:100px;  /* set width value */

What is the difference between <%, <%=, <%# and -%> in ERB in Rails?

<% %>

Executes the ruby code within the brackets.

<%= %>

Prints something into erb file.

<%== %>

Equivalent to <%= raw %>. Prints something verbatim (i.e. w/o escaping) into erb file. (Taken from Ruby on Rails Guides.)

<% -%>

Avoids line break after expression.

<%# %>

Comments out code within brackets; not sent to client (as opposed to HTML comments).

Visit Ruby Doc for more infos about ERB.

Recursive query in SQL Server

Try this:

        M1.Product_ID Group_ID,
    FROM matches M1
        LEFT JOIN matches M2
            ON M1.Product_Id = M2.matching_Product_Id
    WHERE M2.matching_Product_Id IS NULL
        JOIN matches M
            ON C.Product_ID = M.Product_ID

You can use OPTION(MAXRECURSION n) to control recursion depth.


How do you clear a stringstream variable?

I am always scoping it:

    std::stringstream ss;
    ss << "what";

    std::stringstream ss;
    ss << "the";

    std::stringstream ss;
    ss << "heck";

How to read AppSettings values from a .json file in ASP.NET Core

For ASP.NET Core 3.1 you can follow this documentation:

When you create a new ASP.NET Core 3.1 project you will have the following configuration line in Program.cs:


This enables the following:

  1. ChainedConfigurationProvider : Adds an existing IConfiguration as a source. In the default configuration case, adds the host configuration and setting it as the first source for the app configuration.
  2. appsettings.json using the JSON configuration provider.
  3. appsettings.Environment.json using the JSON configuration provider. For example, appsettings.Production.json and appsettings.Development.json.
  4. App secrets when the app runs in the Development environment.
  5. Environment variables using the Environment Variables configuration provider.
  6. Command-line arguments using the Command-line configuration provider.

This means you can inject IConfiguration and fetch values with a string key, even nested values. Like IConfiguration ["Parent:Child"];





public class WeatherForecastController : ControllerBase
    private static readonly string[] Summaries = new[]
        "Freezing", "Bracing", "Chilly", "Cool", "Mild", "Warm", "Balmy", "Hot", "Sweltering", "Scorching"

    private readonly ILogger<WeatherForecastController> _logger;
    private readonly IConfiguration _configuration;

    public WeatherForecastController(ILogger<WeatherForecastController> logger, IConfiguration configuration)
        _logger = logger;
        _configuration = configuration;

    public IEnumerable<WeatherForecast> Get()
        var key = _configuration["ApplicationInsights:InstrumentationKey"];

        var rng = new Random();
        return Enumerable.Range(1, 5).Select(index => new WeatherForecast
            Date = DateTime.Now.AddDays(index),
            TemperatureC = rng.Next(-20, 55),
            Summary = Summaries[rng.Next(Summaries.Length)]

JavaScript: How to find out if the user browser is Chrome?

even shorter: var is_chrome = /chrome/i.test( navigator.userAgent );

Twitter Bootstrap Multilevel Dropdown Menu

Since Bootstrap 3 removed the submenu part and we need to adapt ourselves the style, I think it's better to go with SmartMenu Bootstrap:

That would save us time on mobile responsive and style.

This plugin also very promising.

What is the difference between <html lang="en"> and <html lang="en-US">?

XML Schema requires that the xml namespace be declared and imported before using xml:lang (and other xml namespace values) RELAX NG predeclares the xml namespace, as in XML, so no additional declaration is needed.

How should I store GUID in MySQL tables?

I would store it as a char(36).

Pandas (python): How to add column to dataframe for index?

How about this:

from pandas import *

idx = Int64Index([171, 174, 173])
df = DataFrame(index = idx, data =([1,2,3]))
print df

It gives me:

171  1
174  2
173  3

Is this what you are looking for?

How should I use try-with-resources with JDBC?

As others have stated, your code is basically correct though the outer try is unneeded. Here are a few more thoughts.


Other answers here are correct and good, such the accepted Answer by bpgergo. But none of the show the use of DataSource, commonly recommended over use of DriverManager in modern Java.

So for the sake of completeness, here is a complete example that fetches the current date from the database server. The database used here is Postgres. Any other database would work similarly. You would replace the use of org.postgresql.ds.PGSimpleDataSource with an implementation of DataSource appropriate to your database. An implementation is likely provided by your particular driver, or connection pool if you go that route.

A DataSource implementation need not be closed, because it is never “opened”. A DataSource is not a resource, is not connected to the database, so it is not holding networking connections nor resources on the database server. A DataSource is simply information needed when making a connection to the database, with the database server's network name or address, the user name, user password, and various options you want specified when a connection is eventually made. So your DataSource implementation object does not go inside your try-with-resources parentheses.

Nested try-with-resources

Your code makes proper used of nested try-with-resources statements.

Notice in the example code below that we also use the try-with-resources syntax twice, one nested inside the other. The outer try defines two resources: Connection and PreparedStatement. The inner try defines the ResultSet resource. This is a common code structure.

If an exception is thrown from the inner one, and not caught there, the ResultSet resource will automatically be closed (if it exists, is not null). Following that, the PreparedStatement will be closed, and lastly the Connection is closed. Resources are automatically closed in reverse order in which they were declared within the try-with-resource statements.

The example code here is overly simplistic. As written, it could be executed with a single try-with-resources statement. But in a real work you will likely be doing more work between the nested pair of try calls. For example, you may be extracting values from your user-interface or a POJO, and then passing those to fulfill ? placeholders within your SQL via calls to PreparedStatement::set… methods.

Syntax notes

Trailing semicolon

Notice that the semicolon trailing the last resource statement within the parentheses of the try-with-resources is optional. I include it in my own work for two reasons: Consistency and it looks complete, and it makes copy-pasting a mix of lines easier without having to worry about end-of-line semicolons. Your IDE may flag the last semicolon as superfluous, but there is no harm in leaving it.

Java 9 – Use existing vars in try-with-resources

New in Java 9 is an enhancement to try-with-resources syntax. We can now declare and populate the resources outside the parentheses of the try statement. I have not yet found this useful for JDBC resources, but keep it in mind in your own work.

ResultSet should close itself, but may not

In an ideal world the ResultSet would close itself as the documentation promises:

A ResultSet object is automatically closed when the Statement object that generated it is closed, re-executed, or used to retrieve the next result from a sequence of multiple results.

Unfortunately, in the past some JDBC drivers infamously failed to fulfill this promise. As a result, many JDBC programmers learned to explicitly close all their JDBC resources including Connection, PreparedStatement, and ResultSet too. The modern try-with-resources syntax has made doing so easier, and with more compact code. Notice that the Java team went to the bother of marking ResultSet as AutoCloseable, and I suggest we make use of that. Using a try-with-resources around all your JDBC resources makes your code more self-documenting as to your intentions.

Code example

package work.basil.example;

import java.sql.Connection;
import java.sql.PreparedStatement;
import java.sql.ResultSet;
import java.sql.SQLException;
import java.time.LocalDate;
import java.util.Objects;

public class App
    public static void main ( String[] args )
        App app = new App();

    private void doIt ( )
        System.out.println( "Hello World!" );

        org.postgresql.ds.PGSimpleDataSource dataSource = new org.postgresql.ds.PGSimpleDataSource();

        dataSource.setServerName( "" );
        dataSource.setPortNumber( 5432 );

        dataSource.setDatabaseName( "example_db_" );
        dataSource.setUser( "scott" );
        dataSource.setPassword( "tiger" );

        dataSource.setApplicationName( "ExampleApp" );

        System.out.println( "INFO - Attempting to connect to database: " );
        if ( Objects.nonNull( dataSource ) )
            String sql = "SELECT CURRENT_DATE ;";
            try (
                    Connection conn = dataSource.getConnection() ;
                    PreparedStatement ps = conn.prepareStatement( sql ) ;
                … make `PreparedStatement::set…` calls here.
                try (
                        ResultSet rs = ps.executeQuery() ;
                    if ( )
                        LocalDate ld = rs.getObject( 1 , LocalDate.class );
                        System.out.println( "INFO - date is " + ld );
            catch ( SQLException e )

        System.out.println( "INFO - all done." );

How can I build multiple submit buttons django form?

You can use in the clean_email method to access the POST data before validation. It should contain a key called newsletter_sub or newsletter_unsub depending on which button was pressed.

# in the context of a django.forms form

def clean(self):
    if 'newsletter_sub' in
        # do subscribe
    elif 'newsletter_unsub' in
        # do unsubscribe

IntelliJ does not show 'Class' when we right click and select 'New'

The directory or one of the parent directories must be marked as Source Root (In this case, it appears in blue).

If this is not the case, right click your root source directory -> Mark As -> Source Root.

CodeIgniter Active Record - Get number of returned rows

$sql = "SELECT count(id) as value FROM your_table WHERE your_field = ?";
$your_count = $this->db->query($sql, array($your_field))->row(0)->value;
echo $your_count;

Could not create work tree dir ''.: Permission denied

Most common reason for this error is that you don't have permission to create file in the current directory. Ensure you are in the right directory. try this on mac system to list the directory

ls, then cd right_folder_name

"use database_name" command in PostgreSQL

Use this commad when first connect to psql

=# psql <databaseName> <usernamePostgresql>

In C++, what is a virtual base class?

Regular Inheritance

With typical 3 level non-diamond non-virtual-inheritance inheritance, when you instantiate a new most-derived-object, new is called and the size required for the object on the heap is resolved from the class type by the compiler and passed to new.

new has a signature:

operator new (std::size_t sz) _GLIBCXX_THROW (std::bad_alloc)

And makes a call to malloc, returning the void pointer

This address is then passed to the constructor of the most derived object, which will immediately call the middle constructor and then the middle constructor will immediately call the base constructor. The base then stores a pointer to its virtual table at the start of the object and then its attributes after it. This then returns to the middle constructor which will store its virtual table pointer at the same location and then its attributes after the attributes that would have been stored by the base constructor. It then returns to the most derived constructor, which stores a pointer to its virtual table at the same location and and then stores its attributes after the attributes that would have been stored by the middle constructor.

Because the virtual table pointer is overwritten, the virtual table pointer ends up always being the one of the most derived class. Virtualness propagates towards the most derived class so if a function is virtual in the middle class, it will be virtual in the most derived class but not the base class. If you polymorphically cast an instance of the most derived class to a pointer to the base class then the compiler will not resolve this to an indirect call to the virtual table and instead will call the function directly A::function(). If a function is virtual for the type you have cast it to then it will resolve to a call into the virtual table which will always be that of the most derived class. If it is not virtual for that type then it will just call Type::function() and pass the object pointer to it, cast to Type.

Actually when I say pointer to its virtual table, it's actually always an offset of 16 into the virtual table.

vtable for Base:
        .quad   0
        .quad   typeinfo for Base
        .quad   Base::CommonFunction()
        .quad   Base::VirtualFunction()

pointer is typically to the first function i.e. 

        mov     edx, OFFSET FLAT:vtable for Base+16

virtual is not required again in more-derived classes if it is virtual in a less-derived class because it propagates downwards in the direction of the most derived class. But it can be used to show that the function is indeed a virtual function, without having to check the classes it inherits's type definitions. When a function is declared virtual, from that point on, only the last implementation in the inheritance chain is used, but before that, it can still be used non-virtually if the object is cast to a type of a class before that in the inheritance chain that defines that method. It can be defined non-virtually in multiple classes before it in the chain before the virtualhood begins for a method of that name and signature, and they will use their own methods when referenced (and all classes after that definition in the chain will use that definition if they do not have their own definition, as opposed to virtual, which always uses the final definition). When a method is declared virtual, it must be implemented in that class or a more derived class in the inheritance chain for the full object that was constructed in order to be used.

override is another compiler guard that says that this function is overriding something and if it isn't then throw a compiler error.

= 0 means that this is an abstract function

final prevents a virtual function from being implemented again in a more derived class and will make sure that the virtual table of the most derived class contains the final function of that class.

= default makes it explicit in documentation that the compiler will use the default implementation

= delete give a compiler error if a call to this is attempted

If you call a non-virtual function, it will resolve to the correct method definition without going through the virtual table. If you call a virtual-function that has its final definition in an inherited class then it will use its virtual table and will pass the subobject to it automatically if you don't cast the object pointer to that type when calling the method. If you call a virtual function defined in the most derived class on a pointer of that type then it will use its virtual table, which will be the one at the start of the object. If you call it on a pointer of an inherited type and the function is also virtual in that class then it will use the vtable pointer of that subobject, which in the case of the first subobject will be the same pointer as the most derived class, which will not contain a thunk as the address of the object and the subobject are the same, and therefore it's just as simple as the method automatically recasting this pointer, but in the case of a 2nd sub object, its vtable will contain a non-virtual thunk to convert the pointer of the object of inherited type to the type the implementation in the most derived class expects, which is the full object, and therefore offsets the subobject pointer to point to the full object, and in the case of base subobject, will require a virtual thunk to offset the pointer to the base to the full object, such that it can be recast by the method hidden object parameter type.

Using the object with a reference operator and not through a pointer (dereference operator) breaks polymorphism and will treat virtual methods as regular methods. This is because polymorphic casting on non-pointer types can't occur due to slicing.

Virtual Inheritance


class Base
      int a = 1;
      int b = 2;
      void virtual CommonFunction(){} ; //define empty method body
      void virtual VirtualFunction(){} ;

class DerivedClass1: virtual public Base
      int c = 3;
    void virtual DerivedCommonFunction(){} ;
     void virtual VirtualFunction(){} ;
  class DerivedClass2 : virtual public Base
     int d = 4;
     //void virtual DerivedCommonFunction(){} ;    
     void virtual VirtualFunction(){} ;
     void virtual DerivedCommonFunction2(){} ;

class DerivedDerivedClass :  public DerivedClass1, public DerivedClass2
   int e = 5;
     void virtual DerivedDerivedCommonFunction(){} ;
     void virtual VirtualFunction(){} ;
 int main () {
   DerivedDerivedClass* d = new DerivedDerivedClass;

Without virtually inheriting the bass class you will get an object that looks like this:

Instead of this:

I.e. there will be 2 base objects.

In the virtual diamond inheritance situation above, after new is called, it passes the address of the allocated space for the object to the most derived constructor DerivedDerivedClass::DerivedDerivedClass(), which calls Base::Base() first, which writes its vtable in the base's dedicated subobject, it then DerivedDerivedClass::DerivedDerivedClass() calls DerivedClass1::DerivedClass1(), which writes its virtual table pointer to its subobject as well as overwriting the base subobject's pointer at the end of the object by consulting the passed VTT, and then calls DerivedClass1::DerivedClass1() to do the same, and finally DerivedDerivedClass::DerivedDerivedClass() overwrites all 3 pointers with its virtual table pointer for that inherited class. This is instead of (as illustrated in the 1st image above) DerivedDerivedClass::DerivedDerivedClass() calling DerivedClass1::DerivedClass1() and that calling Base::Base() (which overwrites the virtual pointer), returning, offsetting the address to the next subobject, calling DerivedClass2::DerivedClass2() and then that also calling Base::Base(), overwriting that virtual pointer, returning and then DerivedDerivedClass constructor overwriting both virtual pointers with its virtual table pointer (in this instance, the virtual table of the most derived constructor contains 2 subtables instead of 3).

The following is all compiled in debug mode -O0 so there will be redundant assembly

        push    rbp
        mov     rbp, rsp
        push    rbx
        sub     rsp, 24
        mov     edi, 48 //pass size to new
        call    operator new(unsigned long) //call new
        mov     rbx, rax  //move the address of the allocation to rbx
        mov     rdi, rbx  //move it to rdi i.e. pass to the call
        call    DerivedDerivedClass::DerivedDerivedClass() [complete object constructor] //construct on this address
        mov     QWORD PTR [rbp-24], rbx  //store the address of the object on the stack as the d pointer variable on -O0, will be optimised off on -Ofast if the address of the pointer itself isn't taken in the code, because this address does not need to be on the stack, it can just be passed in a register to the subsequent methods

Parenthetically, if the code were DerivedDerivedClass d = DerivedDerivedClass(), the main function would look like this:

        push    rbp
        mov     rbp, rsp
        sub     rsp, 48 // make room for and zero 48 bytes on the stack for the 48 byte object, no extra padding required as the frame is 64 bytes with `rbp` and return address of the function it calls (no stack params are passed to any function it calls), hence rsp will be aligned by 16 assuming it was aligned at the start of this frame
        mov     QWORD PTR [rbp-48], 0
        mov     QWORD PTR [rbp-40], 0
        mov     QWORD PTR [rbp-32], 0
        mov     QWORD PTR [rbp-24], 0
        mov     QWORD PTR [rbp-16], 0
        mov     QWORD PTR [rbp-8], 0
        lea     rax, [rbp-48] // load the address of the cleared 48 bytes
        mov     rdi, rax // pass the address as a pointer to the 48 bytes cleared as the first parameter to the constructor
        call    DerivedDerivedClass::DerivedDerivedClass() [complete object constructor]
        //address is not stored on the stack because the object is used directly -- there is no pointer variable -- d refers to the object on the stack as opposed to being a pointer

Moving back to the original example, the DerivedDerivedClass constructor:

DerivedDerivedClass::DerivedDerivedClass() [complete object constructor]:
        push    rbp
        mov     rbp, rsp
        sub     rsp, 16
        mov     QWORD PTR [rbp-8], rdi
        mov     rax, QWORD PTR [rbp-8] // object address now in rax 
        add     rax, 32 //increment address by 32
        mov     rdi, rax // move object address+32 to rdi i.e. pass to call
        call    Base::Base() [base object constructor]
        mov     rax, QWORD PTR [rbp-8] //move object address to rax
        mov     edx, OFFSET FLAT:VTT for DerivedDerivedClass+8 //move address of VTT+8 to edx
        mov     rsi, rdx //pass VTT+8 address as 2nd parameter 
        mov     rdi, rax //object address as first (DerivedClass1 subobject)
        call    DerivedClass1::DerivedClass1() [base object constructor]
        mov     rax, QWORD PTR [rbp-8] //move object address to rax
        add     rax, 16  //increment object address by 16
        mov     edx, OFFSET FLAT:VTT for DerivedDerivedClass+24  //store address of VTT+24 in edx
        mov     rsi, rdx //pass address of VTT+24 as second parameter
        mov     rdi, rax //address of DerivedClass2 subobject as first
        call    DerivedClass2::DerivedClass2() [base object constructor]
        mov     edx, OFFSET FLAT:vtable for DerivedDerivedClass+24 //move this to edx
        mov     rax, QWORD PTR [rbp-8] // object address now in rax
        mov     QWORD PTR [rax], rdx. //store address of vtable for DerivedDerivedClass+24 at the start of the object
        mov     rax, QWORD PTR [rbp-8] // object address now in rax
        add     rax, 32  // increment object address by 32
        mov     edx, OFFSET FLAT:vtable for DerivedDerivedClass+120 //move this to edx
        mov     QWORD PTR [rax], rdx  //store vtable for DerivedDerivedClass+120 at object+32 (Base) 
        mov     edx, OFFSET FLAT:vtable for DerivedDerivedClass+72 //store this in edx
        mov     rax, QWORD PTR [rbp-8] //move object address to rax
        mov     QWORD PTR [rax+16], rdx //store vtable for DerivedDerivedClass+72 at object+16 (DerivedClass2)
        mov     rax, QWORD PTR [rbp-8]
        mov     DWORD PTR [rax+28], 5 // stores e = 5 in the object

The DerivedDerivedClass constructor calls Base::Base() with a pointer to the object offset 32. Base stores a pointer to its virtual table at the address it receives and its members after it.

Base::Base() [base object constructor]:
        push    rbp
        mov     rbp, rsp
        mov     QWORD PTR [rbp-8], rdi //stores address of object on stack (-O0)
        mov     edx, OFFSET FLAT:vtable for Base+16  //puts vtable for Base+16 in edx
        mov     rax, QWORD PTR [rbp-8] //copies address of object from stack to rax
        mov     QWORD PTR [rax], rdx  //stores it address of object
        mov     rax, QWORD PTR [rbp-8] //copies address of object on stack to rax again
        mov     DWORD PTR [rax+8], 1 //stores a = 1 in the object
        mov     rax, QWORD PTR [rbp-8] //junk from -O0
        mov     DWORD PTR [rax+12], 2  //stores b = 2 in the object
        pop     rbp

DerivedDerivedClass::DerivedDerivedClass() then calls DerivedClass1::DerivedClass1() with a pointer to the object offset 0 and also passes the address of VTT for DerivedDerivedClass+8

DerivedClass1::DerivedClass1() [base object constructor]:
        push    rbp
        mov     rbp, rsp
        mov     QWORD PTR [rbp-8], rdi //address of object
        mov     QWORD PTR [rbp-16], rsi  //address of VTT+8
        mov     rax, QWORD PTR [rbp-16]  //address of VTT+8 now in rax
        mov     rdx, QWORD PTR [rax]     //address of DerivedClass1-in-DerivedDerivedClass+24 now in rdx
        mov     rax, QWORD PTR [rbp-8]   //address of object now in rax
        mov     QWORD PTR [rax], rdx     //store address of DerivedClass1-in-.. in the object
        mov     rax, QWORD PTR [rbp-8]  // address of object now in rax
        mov     rax, QWORD PTR [rax]    //address of DerivedClass1-in.. now implicitly in rax
        sub     rax, 24                 //address of DerivedClass1-in-DerivedDerivedClass+0 now in rax
        mov     rax, QWORD PTR [rax]    //value of 32 now in rax
        mov     rdx, rax                // now in rdx
        mov     rax, QWORD PTR [rbp-8]  //address of object now in rax
        add     rdx, rax                //address of object+32 now in rdx
        mov     rax, QWORD PTR [rbp-16]  //address of VTT+8 now in rax
        mov     rax, QWORD PTR [rax+8]   //derference VTT+8+8; address of DerivedClass1-in-DerivedDerivedClass+72 (Base::CommonFunction()) now in rax
        mov     QWORD PTR [rdx], rax     //store at address object+32 (offset to Base)
        mov     rax, QWORD PTR [rbp-8]  //store address of object in rax, return
        mov     DWORD PTR [rax+8], 3    //store its attribute c = 3 in the object
        pop     rbp
VTT for DerivedDerivedClass:
        .quad   vtable for DerivedDerivedClass+24
        .quad   construction vtable for DerivedClass1-in-DerivedDerivedClass+24 //(DerivedClass1 uses this to write its vtable pointer)
        .quad   construction vtable for DerivedClass1-in-DerivedDerivedClass+72 //(DerivedClass1 uses this to overwrite the base vtable pointer)
        .quad   construction vtable for DerivedClass2-in-DerivedDerivedClass+24
        .quad   construction vtable for DerivedClass2-in-DerivedDerivedClass+72
        .quad   vtable for DerivedDerivedClass+120 // DerivedDerivedClass supposed to use this to overwrite Bases's vtable pointer
        .quad   vtable for DerivedDerivedClass+72 // DerivedDerivedClass supposed to use this to overwrite DerivedClass2's vtable pointer
//although DerivedDerivedClass uses vtable for DerivedDerivedClass+72 and DerivedDerivedClass+120 directly to overwrite them instead of going through the VTT

construction vtable for DerivedClass1-in-DerivedDerivedClass:
        .quad   32
        .quad   0
        .quad   typeinfo for DerivedClass1
        .quad   DerivedClass1::DerivedCommonFunction()
        .quad   DerivedClass1::VirtualFunction()
        .quad   -32
        .quad   0
        .quad   -32
        .quad   typeinfo for DerivedClass1
        .quad   Base::CommonFunction()
        .quad   virtual thunk to DerivedClass1::VirtualFunction()
construction vtable for DerivedClass2-in-DerivedDerivedClass:
        .quad   16
        .quad   0
        .quad   typeinfo for DerivedClass2
        .quad   DerivedClass2::VirtualFunction()
        .quad   DerivedClass2::DerivedCommonFunction2()
        .quad   -16
        .quad   0
        .quad   -16
        .quad   typeinfo for DerivedClass2
        .quad   Base::CommonFunction()
        .quad   virtual thunk to DerivedClass2::VirtualFunction()
vtable for DerivedDerivedClass:
        .quad   32
        .quad   0
        .quad   typeinfo for DerivedDerivedClass
        .quad   DerivedClass1::DerivedCommonFunction()
        .quad   DerivedDerivedClass::VirtualFunction()
        .quad   DerivedDerivedClass::DerivedDerivedCommonFunction()
        .quad   16
        .quad   -16
        .quad   typeinfo for DerivedDerivedClass
        .quad   non-virtual thunk to DerivedDerivedClass::VirtualFunction()
        .quad   DerivedClass2::DerivedCommonFunction2()
        .quad   -32
        .quad   0
        .quad   -32
        .quad   typeinfo for DerivedDerivedClass
        .quad   Base::CommonFunction()
        .quad   virtual thunk to DerivedDerivedClass::VirtualFunction()

virtual thunk to DerivedClass1::VirtualFunction():
        mov     r10, QWORD PTR [rdi]
        add     rdi, QWORD PTR [r10-32]
        jmp     .LTHUNK0
virtual thunk to DerivedClass2::VirtualFunction():
        mov     r10, QWORD PTR [rdi]
        add     rdi, QWORD PTR [r10-32]
        jmp     .LTHUNK1
virtual thunk to DerivedDerivedClass::VirtualFunction():
        mov     r10, QWORD PTR [rdi]
        add     rdi, QWORD PTR [r10-32]
        jmp     .LTHUNK2
non-virtual thunk to DerivedDerivedClass::VirtualFunction():
        sub     rdi, 16
        jmp     .LTHUNK3

        .set    .LTHUNK0,DerivedClass1::VirtualFunction()
        .set    .LTHUNK1,DerivedClass2::VirtualFunction()
        .set    .LTHUNK2,DerivedDerivedClass::VirtualFunction()
        .set    .LTHUNK3,DerivedDerivedClass::VirtualFunction()

Each inherited class has its own construction virtual table and the most derived class, DerivedDerivedClass, has a virtual table with a subtable for each, and it uses the pointer to the subtable to overwrite construction vtable pointer that the inherited class's constructor stored for each subobject. Each virtual method that needs a thunk (virtual thunk offsets the object pointer from the base to the start of the object and a non-virtual thunk offsets the object pointer from an inherited class's object that isn't the base object to the start of the whole object of the type DerivedDerivedClass). The DerivedDerivedClass constructor also uses a virtual table table (VTT) as a serial list of all the virtual table pointers that it needs to use and passes it to each constructor (along with the subobject address that the constructor is for), which they use to overwrite their and the base's vtable pointer.

DerivedDerivedClass::DerivedDerivedClass() then passes the address of the object+16 and the address of VTT for DerivedDerivedClass+24 to DerivedClass2::DerivedClass2() whose assembly is identical to DerivedClass1::DerivedClass1() except for the line mov DWORD PTR [rax+8], 3 which obviously has a 4 instead of 3 for d = 4.

After this, it replaces all 3 virtual table pointers in the object with pointers to offsets in DerivedDerivedClass's vtable to the representation for that class.

The call to d->VirtualFunction() in main:

        mov     rax, QWORD PTR [rbp-24] //store pointer to object (and hence vtable pointer) in rax
        mov     rax, QWORD PTR [rax] //dereference this pointer to vtable pointer and store virtual table pointer in rax
        add     rax, 8 // add 8 to the pointer to get the 2nd function pointer in the table
        mov     rdx, QWORD PTR [rax] //dereference this pointer to get the address of the method to call
        mov     rax, QWORD PTR [rbp-24] //restore pointer to object in rax (-O0 is inefficient, yes)
        mov     rdi, rax  //pass object to the method
        call    rdx


        mov     rax, QWORD PTR [rbp-24]
        mov     rdx, QWORD PTR [rbp-24]
        mov     rdx, QWORD PTR [rdx]
        mov     rdx, QWORD PTR [rdx]
        mov     rdi, rax  //pass object to method
        call    rdx  //call the first function in the table


        mov     rax, QWORD PTR [rbp-24] //get the object pointer
        lea     rdx, [rax+16]  //get the address of the 2nd subobject in the object
        mov     rax, QWORD PTR [rbp-24] //get the object pointer
        mov     rax, QWORD PTR [rax+16] // get the vtable pointer of the 2nd subobject
        add     rax, 8  //call the 2nd function in this table
        mov     rax, QWORD PTR [rax]  //get the address of the 2nd function
        mov     rdi, rdx  //call it and pass the 2nd subobject to it
        call    rax


        mov     rax, QWORD PTR [rbp-24] //get the object pointer
        mov     rax, QWORD PTR [rax] //get the vtable pointer
        add     rax, 16 //get the 3rd function in the first virtual table (which is where virtual functions that that first appear in the most derived class go, because they belong to the full object which uses the virtual table pointer at the start of the object)
        mov     rdx, QWORD PTR [rax] //get the address of the object
        mov     rax, QWORD PTR [rbp-24]
        mov     rdi, rax  //call it and pass the whole object to it
        call    rdx


//it casts the object to its subobject and calls the corresponding method in its virtual table, which will be a non-virtual thunk

        cmp     QWORD PTR [rbp-24], 0
        je      .L14
        mov     rax, QWORD PTR [rbp-24]
        add     rax, 16
        jmp     .L15
        mov     eax, 0
        cmp     QWORD PTR [rbp-24], 0
        cmp     QWORD PTR [rbp-24], 0
        je      .L18
        mov     rdx, QWORD PTR [rbp-24]
        add     rdx, 16
        jmp     .L19
        mov     edx, 0
        mov     rdx, QWORD PTR [rdx]
        add     rdx, 8
        mov     rdx, QWORD PTR [rdx]
        mov     rdi, rax
        call    rdx


//it casts the object to its subobject and calls the corresponding function in its virtual table, which will be a virtual thunk

        cmp     QWORD PTR [rbp-24], 0
        je      .L20
        mov     rax, QWORD PTR [rbp-24]
        mov     rax, QWORD PTR [rax]
        sub     rax, 24
        mov     rax, QWORD PTR [rax]
        mov     rdx, rax
        mov     rax, QWORD PTR [rbp-24]
        add     rax, rdx
        jmp     .L21
        mov     eax, 0
        cmp     QWORD PTR [rbp-24], 0
        cmp     QWORD PTR [rbp-24], 0
        je      .L24
        mov     rdx, QWORD PTR [rbp-24]
        mov     rdx, QWORD PTR [rdx]
        sub     rdx, 24
        mov     rdx, QWORD PTR [rdx]
        mov     rcx, rdx
        mov     rdx, QWORD PTR [rbp-24]
        add     rdx, rcx
        jmp     .L25
        mov     edx, 0
        mov     rdx, QWORD PTR [rdx]
        add     rdx, 8
        mov     rdx, QWORD PTR [rdx]
        mov     rdi, rax
        call    rdx

Laravel csrf token mismatch for ajax POST Request

guys in new laravel you just need to do this anywhere. in JS or blade file and you will have csrf token.

var csrf = document.querySelector('meta[name="csrf-token"]').content;

it is vanilla JS. For Ajax you need to do this.

var csrf = document.querySelector('meta[name="csrf-token"]').content;
        url: 'my-own-url',
        type: "POST",
        data: { 'value': value, '_token': csrf },
        success: function (response) {

What is SELF JOIN and when would you use it?

Well, one classic example is where you wanted to get a list of employees and their immediate managers:

select e.employee as employee, b.employee as boss
from emptable e, emptable b
where e.manager_id = b.empolyee_id
order by 1

It's basically used where there is any relationship between rows stored in the same table.

  • employees.
  • multi-level marketing.
  • machine parts.

And so on...

Error : ORA-01704: string literal too long

INSERT INTO table(clob_column) SELECT TO_CLOB(q'[chunk1]') || TO_CLOB(q'[chunk2]') ||
            TO_CLOB(q'[chunk3]') || TO_CLOB(q'[chunk4]') FROM DUAL;

ADB error: cannot connect to daemon

I had this problem on my ubuntu. I just ran adb from sdk/platform-tools instead of pre-installed version on my system and it worked fine. Getting the error "Access to the path is denied." while trying to upload files to my Windows Server 2008 R2 Web server

Verify what are you attempting to write. I was having the same issue, but I realized i was trying to write a byte array with length of 0.

It doesn't make sense to me, but I get: "Access to the path "

How to return more than one value from a function in Python?

Here is also the code to handle the result:

def foo (a):
    return (x,y)

(x,y) = foo(50)

Drawing a simple line graph in Java

Override the paintComponent method of your panel so you can custom draw. Like this:

public void paintComponent(Graphics g) {
    Graphics2D gr = (Graphics2D) g; //this is if you want to use Graphics2D
    //now do the drawing here

How to update /etc/hosts file in Docker image during "docker build"

Following worked for me by mounting the file during docker run instead of docker build

docker service create --name <name>  --mount type=bind,source=/etc/hosts,dst=/etc/hosts   <image>

use current date as default value for a column

Table creation Syntax can be like:

Create table api_key(api_key_id INT NOT NULL IDENTITY(1,1) 
PRIMARY KEY, date_added date DEFAULT 

Insertion query syntax can be like:

Insert into api_key values(GETDATE());

The easiest way to transform collection to array?

Alternative solution to the updated question using Java 8:

Bar[] result =
    .map(x -> new Bar(x))
    .toArray(size -> new Bar[size]);

Where is GACUTIL for .net Framework 4.0 in windows 7?

VS 2012/13 Win 7 64 bit gacutil.exe is located in

C:\Program Files (x86)\Microsoft SDKs\Windows\v8.0A\bin\NETFX 4.0 Tools

customize Android Facebook Login button

This is very simple. Add a button in the layout file like

   android:text="Login with facebook"

And in the onClick place the LoginManager's registercallback() method Becuse the this method automatically executes.

  public void fbLogin(View view)
    LoginManager.getInstance().logInWithReadPermissions(this, Arrays.asList("user_photos", "email", "public_profile", "user_posts" , "AccessToken"));
    LoginManager.getInstance().logInWithPublishPermissions(this, Arrays.asList("publish_actions"));
            new FacebookCallback<LoginResult>()
                public void onSuccess(LoginResult loginResult)
                    // App code

                public void onCancel()
                    // App code

                public void onError(FacebookException exception)
                    // App code

How to set an environment variable from a Gradle build?

In my project I have Gradle task for integration test in sub-module:

task intTest(type: Test) {

this is the main point to inject all your system params into test environment. So, now you can run gradle like this to pass param with ABC value and use its value by ${param} in your code

gradle :some-service:intTest -Dparam=ABC

How to check if input file is empty in jQuery

Here is the jQuery version of it:

if ($('#videoUploadFile').get(0).files.length === 0) {
    console.log("No files selected.");

In what situations would AJAX long/short polling be preferred over HTML5 WebSockets?

XHR polling vs SSE vs WebSockets

  • XHR polling A Request is answered when the event occurs (could be straight away, or after a delay). Subsequent requests will need to made to receive further events.

    The browser makes an asynchronous request of the server, which may wait for data to be available before responding. The response can contain encoded data (typically XML or JSON) or Javascript to be executed by the client. At the end of the processing of the response, the browser creates and sends another XHR, to await the next event. Thus the browser always keeps a request outstanding with the server, to be answered as each event occurs. Wikipedia

  • Server Sent Events Client sends request to server. Server sends new data to webpage at any time.

    Traditionally, a web page has to send a request to the server to receive new data; that is, the page requests data from the server. With server-sent events, it's possible for a server to send new data to a web page at any time, by pushing messages to the web page. These incoming messages can be treated as Events + data inside the web page. Mozilla

  • WebSockets After the initial handshake (via HTTP protocol). Communication is done bidirectionally using the WebSocket protocol.

    The handshake starts with an HTTP request/response, allowing servers to handle HTTP connections as well as WebSocket connections on the same port. Once the connection is established, communication switches to a bidirectional binary protocol which does not conform to the HTTP protocol. Wikipedia

XAMPP installation on Win 8.1 with UAC Warning

change User Account Control setting via control panel

step 1 -: Go to control panel

step 2-: select 'user Accounts'

step 3-: select 'User Accounts' (Control Panel\User Accounts\User Accounts)

step 4 -: select 'Change User Account Control settings'

step 5 -: Drag the slider down to Never notify and after click ok.

Custom li list-style with font-awesome icon

I'd like to provide an alternate, easier solution that is specific to FontAwesome. If you're using a different iconic font, JOPLOmacedo's answer is still perfectly fine for use.

FontAwesome now handles list styles internally with CSS classes.

Here's the official example:

<ul class="fa-ul">
  <li><span class="fa-li"><i class="fas fa-check-square"></i></span>List icons can</li>
  <li><span class="fa-li"><i class="fas fa-check-square"></i></span>be used to</li>
  <li><span class="fa-li"><i class="fas fa-spinner fa-pulse"></i></span>replace bullets</li>
  <li><span class="fa-li"><i class="far fa-square"></i></span>in lists</li>

Eclipse Optimize Imports to Include Static Imports

If you highlight the method Assert.assertEquals(val1, val2) and hit Ctrl + Shift + M (Add Import), it will add it as a static import, at least in Eclipse 3.4.

Scroll to bottom of Div on page load (jQuery)

All the answers that I can see here, including the currently "accepted" one, is actually wrong in that they set:

scrollTop = scrollHeight

Whereas the correct approach is to set:

scrollTop = scrollHeight - clientHeight

In other words:

$('#div1').scrollTop($('#div1')[0].scrollHeight - $('#div1')[0].clientHeight);

Or animated:

  scrollTop: $('#div1')[0].scrollHeight - $('#div1')[0].clientHeight
}, 1000);

Using sudo with Python script

I used this for python 3.5. I did it using subprocess module.Using the password like this is very insecure.

The subprocess module takes command as a list of strings so either create a list beforehand using split() or pass the whole list later. Read the documentation for moreinformation.

#!/usr/bin/env python
import subprocess

sudoPassword = 'mypass'
command = 'mount -t vboxsf myfolder /home/myuser/myfolder'.split()

cmd1 = subprocess.Popen(['echo',sudoPassword], stdout=subprocess.PIPE)
cmd2 = subprocess.Popen(['sudo','-S'] + command, stdin=cmd1.stdout, stdout=subprocess.PIPE)

output =

Authentication failed because remote party has closed the transport stream

If you want to use an older version of .net, create your own flag and cast it.

    // Summary:
    //     Specifies the security protocols that are supported by the Schannel security
    //     package.
    private enum MySecurityProtocolType
        // Summary:
        //     Specifies the Secure Socket Layer (SSL) 3.0 security protocol.
        Ssl3 = 48,
        // Summary:
        //     Specifies the Transport Layer Security (TLS) 1.0 security protocol.
        Tls = 192,
        // Summary:
        //     Specifies the Transport Layer Security (TLS) 1.1 security protocol.
        Tls11 = 768,
        // Summary:
        //     Specifies the Transport Layer Security (TLS) 1.2 security protocol.
        Tls12 = 3072
    public Session()
        System.Net.ServicePointManager.SecurityProtocol = (SecurityProtocolType)(MySecurityProtocolType.Tls12 | MySecurityProtocolType.Tls11 | MySecurityProtocolType.Tls);

List of tuples to dictionary

Functional decision for @pegah answer:

from itertools import groupby

mylist = [('a', 1), ('b', 3), ('a', 2), ('b', 4)]
#mylist = iter([('a', 1), ('b', 3), ('a', 2), ('b', 4)])

result = { k : [*map(lambda v: v[1], values)]
    for k, values in groupby(sorted(mylist, key=lambda x: x[0]), lambda x: x[0])

# {'a': [1, 2], 'b': [3, 4]}

Injection of autowired dependencies failed; nested exception is org.springframework.beans.factory.BeanCreationException:

You need to provide a candidate for autowire. That means that an instance of PasswordHint must be known to spring in a way that it can guess that it must reference it.

Please provide the class head of PasswordHint and/or the spring bean definition of that class for further assistance.

Try changing the name of

PasswordHintAction action;


PasswordHintAction passwordHintAction;

so that it matches the bean definition.

go get results in 'terminal prompts disabled' error for github private repo

If you configure your gitconfig with this option, you will later have a problem cloning other repos of GitHub

git config --global --add url. "[email protected]". Instead, ""

Instead, I recommend that you use this option

echo "export GIT_TERMINAL_PROMPT=1" >> ~/.bashrc || ~/.zshrc

and do not forget to generate an access token from your private repository. When prompted to enter your password, just paste the access token. Happy clone :)

Rollback to last git commit

Caveat Emptor - Destructive commands ahead.

Mitigation - git reflog can save you if you need it.

1) UNDO local file changes and KEEP your last commit

git reset --hard

2) UNDO local file changes and REMOVE your last commit

git reset --hard HEAD^

3) KEEP local file changes and REMOVE your last commit

git reset --soft HEAD^

How do I return a string from a regex match in python? or This returns the entire match as a string. You are not capturing anything else either.

Calculate difference in keys contained in two Python dictionaries

The top answer by hughdbrown suggests using set difference, which is definitely the best approach:

diff = set(dictb.keys()) - set(dicta.keys())

The problem with this code is that it builds two lists just to create two sets, so it's wasting 4N time and 2N space. It's also a bit more complicated than it needs to be.

Usually, this is not a big deal, but if it is:

diff = dictb.keys() - dicta

Python 2

In Python 2, keys() returns a list of the keys, not a KeysView. So you have to ask for viewkeys() directly.

diff = dictb.viewkeys() - dicta

For dual-version 2.7/3.x code, you're hopefully using six or something similar, so you can use six.viewkeys(dictb):

diff = six.viewkeys(dictb) - dicta

In 2.4-2.6, there is no KeysView. But you can at least cut the cost from 4N to N by building your left set directly out of an iterator, instead of building a list first:

diff = set(dictb) - dicta


I have a dictA which can be the same as dictB or may have some keys missing as compared to dictB or else the value of some keys might be different

So you really don't need to compare the keys, but the items. An ItemsView is only a Set if the values are hashable, like strings. If they are, it's easy:

diff = dictb.items() - dicta.items()

Recursive diff

Although the question isn't directly asking for a recursive diff, some of the example values are dicts, and it appears the expected output does recursively diff them. There are already multiple answers here showing how to do that.

PHP json_encode json_decode UTF-8

Try sending the UTF-8 Charset header:

<?php header ('Content-type: text/html; charset=utf-8'); ?>

And the HTML meta:

<meta http-equiv="Content-Type" content="text/html; charset=UTF-8" />

unable to dequeue a cell with identifier Cell - must register a nib or a class for the identifier or connect a prototype cell in a storyboard

In Swift 3.0, register a class for your UITableViewCell like this :

tableView.register(UINib(nibName: "YourCellXibName", bundle: nil), forCellReuseIdentifier: "Cell")

Share application "link" in Android


You would want to provide your users with a market:// link which will bring them directly to the details page of your app. The following is from

Loading an application's Details page

In Android Market, every application has a Details page that provides an overview of the application for users. For example, the page includes a short description of the app and screen shots of it in use, if supplied by the developer, as well as feedback from users and information about the developer. The Details page also includes an "Install" button that lets the user trigger the download/purchase of the application.

If you want to refer the user to a specific application, your application can take the user directly to the application's Details page. To do so, your application sends an ACTION_VIEW Intent that includes a URI and query parameter in this format:


In this case, the packagename parameter is target application's fully qualified package name, as declared in the package attribute of the manifest element in the application's manifest file. For example:



Get timezone from users browser using moment(timezone).js

When using moment.js, use:

var tz =;

It will return an IANA time zone identifier, such as America/Los_Angeles for the US Pacific time zone.

It is documented here.

Internally, it first tries to get the time zone from the browser using the following call:


If you are targeting only modern browsers that support this function, and you don't need Moment-Timezone for anything else, then you can just call that directly.

If Moment-Timezone doesn't get a valid result from that function, or if that function doesn't exist, then it will "guess" the time zone by testing several different dates and times against the Date object to see how it behaves. The guess is usually a good enough approximation, but not guaranteed to exactly match the time zone setting of the computer.

Sending and Receiving SMS and MMS in Android (pre Kit Kat Android 4.4)

I dont think there is any sdk support for sending mms in android. Look here Atleast I havent found yet. But a guy claimed to have it. Have a look at this post.

Send MMS from My application in android

Run a mySQL query as a cron job?

This was a very handy page as I have a requirement to DELETE records from a mySQL table where the expiry date is < Today.

I am on a shared host and CRON did not like the suggestion AndrewKDay. it also said (and I agree) that exposing the password in this way could be insecure.

I then tried turning Events ON in phpMyAdmin but again being on a shared host this was a no no. Sorry fancyPants.

So I turned to embedding the SQL script in a PHP file. I used the example [here][1]

[1]: stored it in a sub folder somewhere safe and added an empty index.php for good measure. I was then able to test that this PHP file (and my SQL script) was working from the browser URL line.

All good so far. On to CRON. Following the above example almost worked. I ended up calling PHP before the path for my *.php file. Otherwise CRON didn't know what to do with the file.

my cron is set to run once per day and looks like this, modified for security.

00 * * * * php

For the final testing with CRON I initially set it to run each minute and had email alerts turned on. This quickly confirmed that it was running as planned and I changed it back to once per day.

Hope this helps.

Run CSS3 animation only once (at page loading)

If I understand correctly that you want to play the animation on A only once youu have to add

animation-iteration-count: 1

to the style for the a.

Explanation of 'String args[]' and static in 'public static void main(String[] args)'

public static void main(string [] args)

public -its the access specifier means from every where we can access it; static -access modifier means we can call this method directly using a class name without creating an object of it; void- its the return type; main- method name string [] args - it accepts only string type of argument... and stores it in a string array

Disable arrow key scrolling in users browser

I've tried different ways of blocking scrolling when the arrow keys are pressed, both jQuery and native Javascript - they all work fine in Firefox, but don't work in recent versions of Chrome.
Even the explicit {passive: false} property for window.addEventListener, which is recommended as the only working solution, for example here.

In the end, after many tries, I found a way that works for me in both Firefox and Chrome:

window.addEventListener('keydown', (e) => {
    if ( != 'input') {   // if you need to filter <input> elements
        switch (e.keyCode) {
            case 37: // left
            case 39: // right
            case 38: // up
            case 40: // down
}, {
    capture: true,   // this disables arrow key scrolling in modern Chrome
    passive: false   // this is optional, my code works without it

Quote for EventTarget.addEventListener() from MDN

options Optional
   An options object specifies characteristics about the event listener. The available options are:

   A Boolean indicating that events of this type will be dispatched to the registered listener before being dispatched to any EventTarget beneath it in the DOM tree.
   A Boolean that, if true, indicates that the function specified by listener will never call preventDefault(). If a passive listener does call preventDefault(), the user agent will do nothing other than generate a console warning. ...

How can I remove a child node in HTML using JavaScript?

You should probably use a JavaScript library to do things like this.

For example, MochiKit has a function removeElement, and jQuery has remove.

Declare an array in TypeScript

Here are the different ways in which you can create an array of booleans in typescript:

let arr1: boolean[] = [];
let arr2: boolean[] = new Array();
let arr3: boolean[] = Array();

let arr4: Array<boolean> = [];
let arr5: Array<boolean> = new Array();
let arr6: Array<boolean> = Array();

let arr7 = [] as boolean[];
let arr8 = new Array() as Array<boolean>;
let arr9 = Array() as boolean[];

let arr10 = <boolean[]> [];
let arr11 = <Array<boolean>> new Array();
let arr12 = <boolean[]> Array();

let arr13 = new Array<boolean>();
let arr14 = Array<boolean>();

You can access them using the index:


and you add elements using push:


When creating the array you can supply the initial values:

let arr1: boolean[] = [true, false];
let arr2: boolean[] = new Array(true, false);

Check if table exists in SQL Server

    SELECT   * 
    FROM     sys.objects 
    WHERE    object_id = OBJECT_ID(N'[dbo].[Mapping_APCToFANavigator]') 
             type in (N'U')

    -- Do whatever you need to here.


Here in the above code, the table name is Mapping_APCToFANavigator.

Replacing blank values (white space) with NaN in pandas

This should work

df.loc[df.Variable == '', 'Variable'] = 'Value'


df.loc[df.Variable1 == '', 'Variable2'] = 'Value'

How to dynamically add a style for text-align using jQuery

suppose below is the html paragraph tag:

<p style="background-color:#ff0000">This is a paragraph.</p>

and we want to change the paragraph color in jquery.

The client side code will be:

    $("p").css("background-color", "yellow");

Force hide address bar in Chrome on Android


this will help you but this javascript is may not work in all browsers

How to recompile with -fPIC

In addirion to the good answers here, specifically Robert Lujo's.

I want to say in my case I've been deliberately trying to statically compile a version of ffmpeg. All the required dependencies and what else heretofore required, I've done static compilation.

When I ran ./configure for the ffmpeg process I didnt notice --enable-shared was on the commandline. Removing it and running ./configure is only then I was able to compile correctly (All 56 mbs of an ffmpeg binary). Check that out as well if your intention is static compilation

Facebook Graph API, how to get users email?

Assuming you've requested email permissions when the user logged in from your app and you have a valid token,

With the fetch api you can just

const token = "some_valid_token";
const response = await fetch(
const result = await response.json();

result will be:

    "id": "some_id",
    "email": "[email protected]"

id will be returned anyway.

You can add to the fields query param more stuff, but you need permissions for them if they are not on the public profile (name is public).


"Fade" borders in CSS

You can specify gradients for colours in certain circumstances in CSS3, and of course borders can be set to a colour, so you should be able to use a gradient as a border colour. This would include the option of specifying a transparent colour, which means you should be able to achieve the effect you're after.

However, I've never seen it used, and I don't know how well supported it is by current browsers. You'll certainly need to accept that at least some of your users won't be able to see it.

A quick google turned up these two pages which should help you on your way:

Hope that helps.

Get string between two strings in a string

As I always say nothing is impossible:

string value =  "super exemple of string key : text I want to keep - end of my string";
Regex regex = new Regex(@"(key \: (.*?) _ )");
Match match = regex.Match(value);
if (match.Success)

Remeber that should add reference of System.Text.RegularExpressions

Hope That I Helped.

Send email using the GMail SMTP server from a PHP page

SwiftMailer can send E-Mail using external servers.

here is an example that shows how to use a Gmail server:

require_once "lib/Swift.php";
require_once "lib/Swift/Connection/SMTP.php";

//Connect to localhost on port 25
$swift =& new Swift(new Swift_Connection_SMTP("localhost"));

//Connect to an IP address on a non-standard port
$swift =& new Swift(new Swift_Connection_SMTP("", 419));

//Connect to Gmail (PHP5)
$swift = new Swift(new Swift_Connection_SMTP(
    "", Swift_Connection_SMTP::PORT_SECURE, Swift_Connection_SMTP::ENC_TLS));

Bash: Echoing a echo command with a variable in bash

The immediate problem is you have is with quoting: by using double quotes ("..."), your variable references are instantly expanded, which is probably not what you want.

Use single quotes instead - strings inside single quotes are not expanded or interpreted in any way by the shell.

(If you want selective expansion inside a string - i.e., expand some variable references, but not others - do use double quotes, but prefix the $ of references you do not want expanded with \; e.g., \$var).

However, you're better off using a single here-doc[ument], which allows you to create multi-line stdin input on the spot, bracketed by two instances of a self-chosen delimiter, the opening one prefixed by <<, and the closing one on a line by itself - starting at the very first column; search for Here Documents in man bash or at

If you quote the here-doc delimiter (EOF in the code below), variable references are also not expanded. As @chepner points out, you're free to choose the method of quoting in this case: enclose the delimiter in single quotes or double quotes, or even simply arbitrarily escape one character in the delimiter with \:

echo "creating new script file."

cat <<'EOF'  > "$servfile"
read -p "Please enter a service: " ser
servicetest=`getsebool -a | grep ${ser}` 
if [ $servicetest > /dev/null ]; then 
  echo "we are now going to work with ${ser}"
  exit 1

As @BruceK notes, you can prefix your here-doc delimiter with - (applied to this example: <<-"EOF") in order to have leading tabs stripped, allowing for indentation that makes the actual content of the here-doc easier to discern. Note, however, that this only works with actual tab characters, not leading spaces.

Employing this technique combined with the afterthoughts regarding the script's content below, we get (again, note that actual tab chars. must be used to lead each here-doc content line for them to get stripped):

cat <<-'EOF' > "$servfile"
    read -p "Please enter a service name: " ser
    if [[ -n $(getsebool -a | grep "${ser}") ]]; then 
      echo "We are now going to work with ${ser}."
      exit 1

Finally, note that in bash even normal single- or double-quoted strings can span multiple lines, but you won't get the benefits of tab-stripping or line-block scoping, as everything inside the quotes becomes part of the string.

Thus, note how in the following #!/bin/bash has to follow the opening ' immediately in order to become the first line of output:

echo '#!/bin/bash
read -p "Please enter a service: " ser
servicetest=$(getsebool -a | grep "${ser}")
if [[ -n $servicetest ]]; then 
  echo "we are now going to work with ${ser}"
  exit 1
fi' > "$servfile"

Afterthoughts regarding the contents of your script:

  • The syntax $(...) is preferred over `...` for command substitution nowadays.
  • You should double-quote ${ser} in the grep command, as the command will likely break if the value contains embedded spaces (alternatively, make sure that the valued read contains no spaces or other shell metacharacters).
  • Use [[ -n $servicetest ]] to test whether $servicetest is empty (or perform the command substitution directly inside the conditional) - [[ ... ]] - the preferred form in bash - protects you from breaking the conditional if the $servicetest happens to have embedded spaces; there's NEVER a need to suppress stdout output inside a conditional (whether [ ... ] or [[ ... ]], as no stdout output is passed through; thus, the > /dev/null is redundant (that said, with a command substitution inside a conditional, stderr output IS passed through).

What should be the package name of android app?

As you stated, package names are usually in the form of 'com.organizationName.appName' - all lowercase and no spaces. It sounds like the package name that you entered when uploading the app was different from the one declared in the AndroidManifest.

Difference between Java SE/EE/ME?

According to the Oracle's documentation, there are actually four Java platforms:

  • Java Platform, Standard Edition (Java SE)
  • Java Platform, Enterprise Edition (Java EE)
  • Java Platform, Micro Edition (Java ME)
  • JavaFX

Java SE is for developing desktop applications and it is the foundation for developing in Java language. It consists of development tools, deployment technologies, and other class libraries and toolkits used in Java applications. Java EE is built on top of Java SE, and it is used for developing web applications and large-scale enterprise applications. Java ME is a subset of the Java SE. It provides an API and a small-footprint virtual machine for running Java applications on small devices. JavaFX is a platform for creating rich internet applications using a lightweight user-interface API. It is a recent addition to the family of Java platforms.

Strictly speaking, these platforms are specifications; they are norms, not software. The Java Platform, Standard Edition Development Kit (JDK) is an official implementation of the Java SE specification, provided by Oracle. There are also other implementations, like OpenJDK and IBM's J9.

People new to Java download a JDK for their platform and operating system (Oracle's JDK is available for download here.)

Keep overflow div scrolled to bottom unless user scrolls up


Live demo:

How do I set the version information for an existing .exe, .dll?

While it's not a batch process, Visual Studio can also add/edit file resources.

Just use File->Open->File on the .EXE or .DLL. This is handy for fixing version information post-build, or adding it to files that don't have these resources to begin with.

How do you stop tracking a remote branch in Git?

To remove the association between the local and remote branch run:

git config --unset branch.<local-branch-name>.remote
git config --unset branch.<local-branch-name>.merge

Optionally delete the local branch afterwards if you don't need it:

git branch -d <branch>

This won't delete the remote branch.

Python function pointer

modname, funcname = myvar.rsplit('.', 1)
getattr(sys.modules[modname], funcname)(parameter1, parameter2)

TypeError: 'in <string>' requires string as left operand, not int

You simply need to make cab a string:

cab = '6176'

As the error message states, you cannot do <int> in <string>:

>>> 1 in '123'
Traceback (most recent call last):
  File "<stdin>", line 1, in <module>
TypeError: 'in <string>' requires string as left operand, not int

because integers and strings are two totally different things and Python does not embrace implicit type conversion ("Explicit is better than implicit.").

In fact, Python only allows you to use the in operator with a right operand of type string if the left operand is also of type string:

>>> '1' in '123'  # Works!
>>> [] in '123'
Traceback (most recent call last):
  File "<stdin>", line 1, in <module>
TypeError: 'in <string>' requires string as left operand, not list
>>> 1.0 in '123'
Traceback (most recent call last):
  File "<stdin>", line 1, in <module>
TypeError: 'in <string>' requires string as left operand, not float
>>> {} in '123'
Traceback (most recent call last):
  File "<stdin>", line 1, in <module>
TypeError: 'in <string>' requires string as left operand, not dict

How do you write to a folder on an SD card in Android?

File sdCard = Environment.getExternalStorageDirectory();
File dir = new File (sdCard.getAbsolutePath() + "/dir1/dir2");
File file = new File(dir, "filename");

FileOutputStream f = new FileOutputStream(file);

Send and Receive a file in socket programming in Linux with C/C++ (GCC/G++)

Minimal runnable POSIX read + write example


  1. get two computers on a LAN.

    For example, this will work if both computers are connected to your home router in most cases, which is how I tested it.

  2. On the server computer:

    1. Find the server local IP with ifconfig, e.g.

    2. Run:

      ./server output.tmp 12345
  3. On the client computer:

    printf 'ab\ncd\n' > input.tmp
    ./client input.tmp 12345
  4. Outcome: a file output.tmp is created on the sever computer containing 'ab\ncd\n'!


Receive a file over a socket.

Saves it to output.tmp by default.


    ./executable [<output_file> [<port>]]


- output_file: output.tmp
- port: 12345

#define _XOPEN_SOURCE 700

#include <stdio.h>
#include <stdlib.h>

#include <arpa/inet.h>
#include <fcntl.h>
#include <netdb.h> /* getprotobyname */
#include <netinet/in.h>
#include <sys/stat.h>
#include <sys/socket.h>
#include <unistd.h>

int main(int argc, char **argv) {
    char *file_path = "output.tmp";
    char buffer[BUFSIZ];
    char protoname[] = "tcp";
    int client_sockfd;
    int enable = 1;
    int filefd;
    int i;
    int server_sockfd;
    socklen_t client_len;
    ssize_t read_return;
    struct protoent *protoent;
    struct sockaddr_in client_address, server_address;
    unsigned short server_port = 12345u;

    if (argc > 1) {
        file_path = argv[1];
        if (argc > 2) {
            server_port = strtol(argv[2], NULL, 10);

    /* Create a socket and listen to it.. */
    protoent = getprotobyname(protoname);
    if (protoent == NULL) {
    server_sockfd = socket(
    if (server_sockfd == -1) {
    if (setsockopt(server_sockfd, SOL_SOCKET, SO_REUSEADDR, &enable, sizeof(enable)) < 0) {
        perror("setsockopt(SO_REUSEADDR) failed");
    server_address.sin_family = AF_INET;
    server_address.sin_addr.s_addr = htonl(INADDR_ANY);
    server_address.sin_port = htons(server_port);
    if (bind(
            (struct sockaddr*)&server_address,
        ) == -1
    ) {
    if (listen(server_sockfd, 5) == -1) {
    fprintf(stderr, "listening on port %d\n", server_port);

    while (1) {
        client_len = sizeof(client_address);
        puts("waiting for client");
        client_sockfd = accept(
            (struct sockaddr*)&client_address,
        filefd = open(file_path,
                O_WRONLY | O_CREAT | O_TRUNC,
                S_IRUSR | S_IWUSR);
        if (filefd == -1) {
        do {
            read_return = read(client_sockfd, buffer, BUFSIZ);
            if (read_return == -1) {
            if (write(filefd, buffer, read_return) == -1) {
        } while (read_return > 0);
    return EXIT_SUCCESS;


Send a file over a socket.


    ./executable [<input_path> [<sever_hostname> [<port>]]]


- input_path: input.tmp
- server_hostname:
- port: 12345

#define _XOPEN_SOURCE 700

#include <stdio.h>
#include <stdlib.h>

#include <arpa/inet.h>
#include <fcntl.h>
#include <netdb.h> /* getprotobyname */
#include <netinet/in.h>
#include <sys/stat.h>
#include <sys/socket.h>
#include <unistd.h>

int main(int argc, char **argv) {
    char protoname[] = "tcp";
    struct protoent *protoent;
    char *file_path = "input.tmp";
    char *server_hostname = "";
    char *server_reply = NULL;
    char *user_input = NULL;
    char buffer[BUFSIZ];
    in_addr_t in_addr;
    in_addr_t server_addr;
    int filefd;
    int sockfd;
    ssize_t i;
    ssize_t read_return;
    struct hostent *hostent;
    struct sockaddr_in sockaddr_in;
    unsigned short server_port = 12345;

    if (argc > 1) {
        file_path = argv[1];
        if (argc > 2) {
            server_hostname = argv[2];
            if (argc > 3) {
                server_port = strtol(argv[3], NULL, 10);

    filefd = open(file_path, O_RDONLY);
    if (filefd == -1) {

    /* Get socket. */
    protoent = getprotobyname(protoname);
    if (protoent == NULL) {
    sockfd = socket(AF_INET, SOCK_STREAM, protoent->p_proto);
    if (sockfd == -1) {
    /* Prepare sockaddr_in. */
    hostent = gethostbyname(server_hostname);
    if (hostent == NULL) {
        fprintf(stderr, "error: gethostbyname(\"%s\")\n", server_hostname);
    in_addr = inet_addr(inet_ntoa(*(struct in_addr*)*(hostent->h_addr_list)));
    if (in_addr == (in_addr_t)-1) {
        fprintf(stderr, "error: inet_addr(\"%s\")\n", *(hostent->h_addr_list));
    sockaddr_in.sin_addr.s_addr = in_addr;
    sockaddr_in.sin_family = AF_INET;
    sockaddr_in.sin_port = htons(server_port);
    /* Do the actual connection. */
    if (connect(sockfd, (struct sockaddr*)&sockaddr_in, sizeof(sockaddr_in)) == -1) {
        return EXIT_FAILURE;

    while (1) {
        read_return = read(filefd, buffer, BUFSIZ);
        if (read_return == 0)
        if (read_return == -1) {
        /* TODO use write loop: */
        if (write(sockfd, buffer, read_return) == -1) {

GitHub upstream.

Further comments

Possible improvements:

  • Currently output.tmp gets overwritten each time a send is done.

    This begs for the creation of a simple protocol that allows to pass a filename so that multiple files can be uploaded, e.g.: filename up to the first newline character, max filename 256 chars, and the rest until socket closure are the contents. Of course, that would require sanitation to avoid a path transversal vulnerability.

    Alternatively, we could make a server that hashes the files to find filenames, and keeps a map from original paths to hashes on disk (on a database).

  • Only one client can connect at a time.

    This is specially harmful if there are slow clients whose connections last for a long time: the slow connection halts everyone down.

    One way to work around that is to fork a process / thread for each accept, start listening again immediately, and use file lock synchronization on the files.

  • Add timeouts, and close clients if they take too long. Or else it would be easy to do a DoS.

    poll or select are some options: How to implement a timeout in read function call?

A simple HTTP wget implementation is shown at: How to make an HTTP get request in C without libcurl?

Tested on Ubuntu 15.10.

link_to image tag. how to add class to a tag


<%= link_to image_tag("Search.png", :border=>0), :action => 'search', :controller => 'pages', :class => 'dock-item' %>

The first param of link_to is the text/html to link (inside the a tag). The next set of parameters is the url properties and the link attributes themselves.

Whats the CSS to make something go to the next line in the page?

Have the element display as a block:

display: block;

How to debug Apache mod_rewrite

There's the htaccess tester.

It shows which conditions were tested for a certain URL, which ones met the criteria and which rules got executed.

It seems to have some glitches, though.

How to check if directory exist using C++ and winAPI

This code might work:

//if the directory exists
 DWORD dwAttr = GetFileAttributes(str);
 if(dwAttr != 0xffffffff && (dwAttr & FILE_ATTRIBUTE_DIRECTORY)) 

Issue pushing new code in Github

A simpler answer is to manually upload the README.MD file from your computer to GitHub. Worked very well for me.

How to turn on front flash light programmatically in Android?

I Got AutoFlash light with below simple Three Steps.

  • I just added Camera and Flash Permission in Manifest.xml file
<uses-permission android:name="android.permission.CAMERA" />
<uses-feature android:name="" />

<uses-permission android:name="android.permission.FLASHLIGHT"/>
<uses-feature android:name="" android:required="false" />
  • In your Camera Code do this way.

    //Open Camera
    Camera  mCamera =; 
    //Get Camera Params for customisation
    Camera.Parameters parameters = mCamera.getParameters();
    //Check Whether device supports AutoFlash, If you YES then set AutoFlash
    List<String> flashModes = parameters.getSupportedFlashModes();
    if (flashModes.contains(android.hardware.Camera.Parameters.FLASH_MODE_AUTO))
  • Build + Run —> Now Go to Dim light area and Snap photo, you should get auto flash light if device supports.

What is a good pattern for using a Global Mutex in C#?

I want to make sure this is out there, because it's so hard to get right:

using System.Runtime.InteropServices;   //GuidAttribute
using System.Reflection;                //Assembly
using System.Threading;                 //Mutex
using System.Security.AccessControl;    //MutexAccessRule
using System.Security.Principal;        //SecurityIdentifier

static void Main(string[] args)
    // get application GUID as defined in AssemblyInfo.cs
    string appGuid =
            GetCustomAttributes(typeof(GuidAttribute), false).

    // unique id for global mutex - Global prefix means it is global to the machine
    string mutexId = string.Format( "Global\\{{{0}}}", appGuid );

    // Need a place to store a return value in Mutex() constructor call
    bool createdNew;

    // edited by Jeremy Wiebe to add example of setting up security for multi-user usage
    // edited by 'Marc' to work also on localized systems (don't use just "Everyone") 
    var allowEveryoneRule =
        new MutexAccessRule( new SecurityIdentifier( WellKnownSidType.WorldSid
                                                   , null)
                           , MutexRights.FullControl
                           , AccessControlType.Allow
    var securitySettings = new MutexSecurity();

   // edited by MasonGZhwiti to prevent race condition on security settings via VanNguyen
    using (var mutex = new Mutex(false, mutexId, out createdNew, securitySettings))
        // edited by acidzombie24
        var hasHandle = false;
                // note, you may want to time out here instead of waiting forever
                // edited by acidzombie24
                // mutex.WaitOne(Timeout.Infinite, false);
                hasHandle = mutex.WaitOne(5000, false);
                if (hasHandle == false)
                    throw new TimeoutException("Timeout waiting for exclusive access");
            catch (AbandonedMutexException)
                // Log the fact that the mutex was abandoned in another process,
                // it will still get acquired
                hasHandle = true;

            // Perform your work here.
            // edited by acidzombie24, added if statement

Jenkins pipeline if else not working

It requires a bit of rearranging, but when does a good job to replace conditionals above. Here's the example from above written using the declarative syntax. Note that test3 stage is now two different stages. One that runs on the master branch and one that runs on anything else.

stage ('Test 3: Master') {
    when { branch 'master' }
    steps { 
        echo 'I only execute on the master branch.' 

stage ('Test 3: Dev') {
    when { not { branch 'master' } }
    steps {
        echo 'I execute on non-master branches.'

How to save select query results within temporary table?

In Sqlite:

-- Use temporary table `T`

Add to Array jQuery

You are right. This has nothing to do with jQuery though.

var myArray = [];
// myArray now contains "foo" at index 0.

Regular expression to find two strings anywhere in input

This works for searching files that contain both String1 and String2


Match any number of characters or line fields followed by String1 followed by any number of characters or line fields followed by String2 OR Match any number of characters or line fields followed by String2 followed by any number of characters or line fields followed by String1

Conditional Formatting (IF not empty)

This worked for me:


I wanted a box around NOT Blank cells in an entire worksheet. Use the $A1 if you want the WHOLE ROW formatted based on the A1, B1, etc result.


VBA: Conditional - Is Nothing

Just becuase your class object has no variables does not mean that it is nothing. Declaring and object and creating an object are two different things. Look and see if you are setting/creating the object.

Take for instance the dictionary object - just because it contains no variables does not mean it has not been created.

Sub test()

Dim dict As Object
Set dict = CreateObject("scripting.dictionary")

If Not dict Is Nothing Then
    MsgBox "Dict is something!"  '<--- This shows
    MsgBox "Dict is nothing!"
End If

End Sub

However if you declare an object but never create it, it's nothing.

Sub test()

Dim temp As Object

If Not temp Is Nothing Then
    MsgBox "Temp is something!"
    MsgBox "Temp is nothing!" '<---- This shows
End If

End Sub

C# Iterate through Class properties

Yes, you could make an indexer on your Record class that maps from the property name to the correct property. This would keep all the binding from property name to property in one place eg:

public class Record
    public string ItemType { get; set; }

    public string this[string propertyName]
            switch (propertyName)
                case "itemType":
                    ItemType = value;
                    // etc

Alternatively, as others have mentioned, use reflection.

Create a tag in a GitHub repository

It all depends what type of tag you want to create:

  • If you want to create Annotated tags, to show extra metadata, you can do it in the following way: git tag -a v1.0.0.
  • On the other hand, Lightweight tags are used to "bookmark" your commits for private use: git tag v1.0.0.

There are a few other tag functionalities such as:

  • Listing tags - git tag -l -n3. The command lists all existing tags with maximum 3 lines of their tag message. By default -n only shows the first line.
  • Tag details - git show <tag_identifier>. It shows all you need to know about a specific tag.
  • Sorting tags - git tag --sort=<type>
  • Publishing tags - git push origin v1.0. You can git push the tag individually, or you can run git push --tags which will push all tags at once.

Be sure to check this tag related article for more relevant information.

Do I need to explicitly call the base virtual destructor?

No, you never call the base class destructor, it is always called automatically like others have pointed out but here is proof of concept with results:

class base {
    base()  { cout << __FUNCTION__ << endl; }
    ~base() { cout << __FUNCTION__ << endl; }

class derived : public base {
    derived() { cout << __FUNCTION__ << endl; }
    ~derived() { cout << __FUNCTION__ << endl; } // adding call to base::~base() here results in double call to base destructor

int main()
    cout << "case 1, declared as local variable on stack" << endl << endl;
        derived d1;

    cout << endl << endl;

    cout << "case 2, created using new, assigned to derive class" << endl << endl;
    derived * d2 = new derived;
    delete d2;

    cout << endl << endl;

    cout << "case 3, created with new, assigned to base class" << endl << endl;
    base * d3 = new derived;
    delete d3;

    cout << endl;

    return 0;

The output is:

case 1, declared as local variable on stack


case 2, created using new, assigned to derive class


case 3, created with new, assigned to base class


Press any key to continue . . .

If you set the base class destructor as virtual which one should, then case 3 results would be same as case 1 & 2.

python JSON object must be str, bytes or bytearray, not 'dict

import json
data = json.load(open('/Users/laxmanjeergal/Desktop/json.json'))
jtopy=json.dumps(data) #json.dumps take a dictionary as input and returns a string as output.
dict_json=json.loads(jtopy) # json.loads take a string as input and returns a dictionary as output.

Remove empty space before cells in UITableView

If you are doing this on iOS 11, automaticallyAdjustsScrollViewInsets won't work as it is deprecated, the following code worked for me as per the answer in this post:

        if #available(iOS 11.0, *) {
            tblView.contentInsetAdjustmentBehavior = .never
        } else {
            automaticallyAdjustsScrollViewInsets = false

Hope this helps.

How can I create an MSI setup?

In my opinion you should use Wix#, which nicely hides most of the complexity of building an MSI installation pacakge.

It allows you to perform all possible kinds of customization using a more easier language compared to WiX.

Unable to create Android Virtual Device

Simply because CPU/ABI says "No system images installed for this target". You need to install system images.

In the Android SDK Manager check that you have installed "ARM EABI v7a System Image" (for each Android version from 4.0 and on you have to install a system image to be able to run a virtual device)

In your case only ARM system image exsits (Android 4.2). If you were running an older version, Intel has provided System Images (Intel x86 ATOM). You can check on the internet to see the comparison in performance between both.

In my case (see image below) I haven't installed a System Image for Android 4.2, whereas I have installed ARM and Intel System Images for 4.1.2

As long as I don't install the 4.2 System Image I would have the same problem as you.

UPDATE : This recent article Speeding Up the Android Emaulator on Intel Architectures explains how to use/install correctly the intel system images to speed up the emulator.


What I show in the picture is for Android 4.2, as it was the original question, but is true for every versions of Android.

Of course (as @RedPlanet said), if you are developing for MIPS CPU devices you have to install the "MIPS System Image".

Finally, as @SeanJA said, you have to restart eclipse to see the new installed images. But for me, I always restart a software which I updated to be sure it takes into account all the modifications, and I assume it is a good practice to do so.

enter image description here

Replace a value in a data frame based on a conditional (`if`) statement

The easiest way to do this in one command is to use which command and also need not to change the factors into character by doing this:


How do I view events fired on an element in Chrome DevTools?

You can use monitorEvents function.

Just inspect your element (right mouse click ? Inspect on visible element or go to Elements tab in Chrome Developer Tools and select wanted element) then go to Console tab and write:


Now when you move mouse over this element, focus or click it, the name of the fired event will be displayed with its data.

To stop getting this data just write this to console:


$0 is just the last DOM element selected by Chrome Developer Tools. You can pass any other DOM object there (for example result of getElementById or querySelector).

You can also specify event "type" as second parameter to narrow monitored events to some predefined set. For example:

monitorEvents(document.body, 'mouse')

List of this available types is here.

I made a small gif that illustrates how this feature works:

usage of monitorEvents function

How to add an image to the emulator gallery in android studio?

I went through the Android Device Monitor

  1. Click on device
  2. Select Android Device Monitor's File Explorer tab
  3. Select Pictures folder (path: data -> media -> 0 -> Pictures)
  4. Click "Push folders on to device" icon
  5. Select pic from computer and ok.

firestore: PERMISSION_DENIED: Missing or insufficient permissions

Go to firebase console => cloud firestore database and add rule allowing users to read and write.

=> allow read, write