Programs & Examples On #Mootools more

MooTools More is the official plugin repository of the MooTools JavaScript Library. These plugins extend and build upon the MooTools Core.

Simple JavaScript problem: onClick confirm not preventing default action

Using a simple link for an action such as removing a record looks dangerous to me : what if a crawler is trying to index your pages ? It will ignore any javascript and follow every link, probably not a good thing.

You'd better use a form with method="POST".

And then you will have an event "OnSubmit" to do exactly what you want...

How to input automatically when running a shell over SSH?

For simple input, like two prompts and two corresponding fixed responses, you could also use a "here document", the syntax of which looks like this: <<!

The << prefixes a pattern, in this case '!'. Everything up to a line beginning with that pattern is interpreted as standard input. This approach is similar to the suggestion to pipe a multi-line echo into ssh, except that it saves the fork/exec of the echo command and I find it a bit more readable. The other advantage is that it uses built-in shell functionality so it doesn't depend on expect.

How to write a file with C in Linux?

You have to allocate the buffer with mallock, and give the read write the pointer to it.

#include <unistd.h>
#include <stdlib.h>
#include <sys/types.h>
#include <sys/stat.h>
#include <fcntl.h>
int main(){
    ssize_t nrd;
    int fd; 
    int fd1;

    char* buffer = malloc(100*sizeof(char));
    fd = open("bli.txt", O_RDONLY);
    fd1 = open("bla.txt", O_CREAT | O_WRONLY, S_IRUSR | S_IWUSR);
    while (nrd = read(fd,buffer,sizeof(buffer))) {

    return 0;

Make sure that the rad file exists and contains something. It's not perfect but it works.

How do I rewrite URLs in a proxy response in NGINX

You may also need the following directive to be set before the first "sub_filter" for backend-servers with data compression:

proxy_set_header Accept-Encoding "";

Otherwise it may not work. For your example it will look like:

location /admin/ {
    proxy_pass http://localhost:8080/;
    proxy_set_header Accept-Encoding "";
    sub_filter "http://your_server/" "http://your_server/admin/";
    sub_filter_once off;

What is Bootstrap?

In simpler words, you can understand Bootstrap as a front-end web framework that was created by Twitter for faster creation of device responsive web applications. Bootstrap can also be understood mostly as a collection of CSS classes that are defined in it which can simply be used directly. It makes use of CSS, javascript, jQuery etc. in the background to create the style, effects, and actions for Bootstrap elements.

You might know that we use CSS for styling webpage elements and create classes and assign classes to webpage elements to apply the style to them. Bootstrap here makes the designing simpler since we only have to include Bootstrap files and mention Bootstrap's predefined class names for our webpage elements and they will be styled automatically through Bootstrap. Through this, we get rid of writing our own CSS classes to style webpage elements. Most importantly Bootstrap is designed in such a way that makes your website device responsive and that is the main purpose of it. Other alternates for Bootstrap could be - Foundation, Materialize etc. frameworks.

Bootstrap makes you free from writing lots of CSS code and it also saves your time that you spend on designing the web pages.

In python, what is the difference between random.uniform() and random.random()?

According to the documentation on random.uniform:

Return a random floating point number N such that a <= N <= b for a <= b and b <= N <= a for b < a.

while random.random:

Return the next random floating point number in the range [0.0, 1.0).

I.e. with random.uniform you specify a range you draw pseudo-random numbers from, e.g. between 3 and 10. With random.random you get a number between 0 and 1.

How to concatenate strings in django templates?

Refer to Concatenating Strings in Django Templates:

  1. For earlier versions of Django:

    {{ "Mary had a little"|stringformat:"s lamb." }}

"Mary had a little lamb."

  1. Else:

    {{ "Mary had a little"|add:" lamb." }}

"Mary had a little lamb."

Remove blank lines with grep

Try the following:

grep -v -e '^$' foo.txt

The -e option allows regex patterns for matching.

The single quotes around ^$ makes it work for Cshell. Other shells will be happy with either single or double quotes.

UPDATE: This works for me for a file with blank lines or "all white space" (such as windows lines with "\r\n" style line endings), whereas the above only removes files with blank lines and unix style line endings:

grep -v -e '^[[:space:]]*$' foo.txt

What's the pythonic way to use getters and setters?

This is an old question but the topic is very important and always current. In case anyone wants to go beyond simple getters/setters i have wrote an article about superpowered properties in python with support for slots, observability and reduced boilerplate code.

from objects import properties, self_properties

class Car:
    with properties(locals(), 'meta') as meta:

        def brand(self) -> str:

        def max_speed(self) -> float:
            """Maximum car speed"""

        def speed(self) -> float:
            """Speed of the car"""
            return 0  # Default stopped

        def on(self) -> bool:
            """Engine state"""
            return False

    def __init__(self, brand: str, max_speed: float = 200):
        self_properties(self, locals())

    def _on_off_listener(self, prop, old, on):
        if on:
            print(f"{self.brand} Turned on, Runnnnnn")
            self._speed = 0
            print(f"{self.brand} Turned off.")

    def _on_acceleration(self, prop, old, speed):
        if self.on:
            if speed > self.max_speed:
                print(f"{self.brand} {speed}km/h Bang! Engine exploded!")
                self.on = False
                print(f"{self.brand} New speed: {speed}km/h")
            print(f"{self.brand} Car is off, no speed change")

This class can be used like this:

mycar = Car('Ford')

# Car is turned off
for speed in range(0, 300, 50):
    mycar.speed = speed

# Car is turned on
mycar.on = True
for speed in range(0, 350, 50):
    mycar.speed = speed

This code will produce the following output:

Ford Car is off, no speed change
Ford Car is off, no speed change
Ford Car is off, no speed change
Ford Car is off, no speed change
Ford Car is off, no speed change
Ford Car is off, no speed change
Ford Turned on, Runnnnnn
Ford New speed: 0km/h
Ford New speed: 50km/h
Ford New speed: 100km/h
Ford New speed: 150km/h
Ford New speed: 200km/h
Ford 250km/h Bang! Engine exploded!
Ford Turned off.
Ford Car is off, no speed change

More info about how and why here:

Text File Parsing with Python

There are a few ways to go about this. One option would be to use instead of inputfile.readlines() - you'd need to write separate code to strip the first four lines, but if you want the final output as a single string anyway, this might make the most sense.

A second, simpler option would be to rejoin the strings after striping the first four lines with my_text = ''.join(my_text). This is a little inefficient, but if speed isn't a major concern, the code will be simplest.

Finally, if you actually want the output as a list of strings instead of a single string, you can just modify your data parser to iterate over the list. That might looks something like this:

def data_parser(lines, dic):
    for i, j in dic.iteritems():
        for (k, line) in enumerate(lines):
            lines[k] = line.replace(i, j)
    return lines

Append file contents to the bottom of existing file in Bash

This should work:

 cat "$API" >> "$CONFIG"

You need to use the >> operator to append to a file. Redirecting with > causes the file to be overwritten. (truncated).

Add 2 hours to current time in MySQL?

SELECT * FROM courses WHERE (NOW() + INTERVAL 2 HOUR) > start_time

C# Encoding a text string with line breaks

Try \n\n , it will work! :)

public async Task AjudaAsync(IDialogContext context, LuisResult result){
await context.PostAsync("How can I help you? \n\n 1.To Schedule \n\n 2.Consult");

isolating a sub-string in a string before a symbol in SQL Server 2008

DECLARE @test nvarchar(100)

SET @test = 'Foreign Tax Credit - 1997'

SELECT @test, left(@test, charindex('-', @test) - 2) AS LeftString,
    right(@test, len(@test) - charindex('-', @test) - 1)  AS RightString

Why must wait() always be in synchronized block

directly from this java oracle tutorial:

When a thread invokes d.wait, it must own the intrinsic lock for d — otherwise an error is thrown. Invoking wait inside a synchronized method is a simple way to acquire the intrinsic lock.

How the int.TryParse actually works

TryParse is the best way for parse or validate in single line:

int nNumber = int.TryParse("InputString", out nNumber) ? nNumber : 1;

Short description:

  1. nNumber will initialize with zero,
  2. int.TryParse() try parse "InputString" and validate it, if succeed set into nNumber.
  3. short if ?: checking int.TryParse() result, that return nNumber or 1 as default value.

jQuery and TinyMCE: textarea value doesn't submit

You can configure TinyMCE as follows to keep the values of hidden textareas in sync as changes are made via TinyMCE editors:

    selector: "textarea",
    setup: function (editor) {
        editor.on('change', function () {

The textarea elements will be kept up to date automatically and you won't need any extra steps before serializing forms etc.

This has been tested on TinyMCE 4.0

Demo running at:

Update: The code above has been updated based on DOOManiac's comment

matplotlib savefig() plots different from show()

You render your matplotlib plots to different devices (e.g., on-screen via Quartz versus to to-file via pdf using different functions (plot versus savefig) whose parameters are nearly the same, yet the default values for those parameters are not the same for both functions.

Put another way, the savefig default parameters are different from the default display parameters.

Aligning them is simple if you do it in the matplotlib config file. The template file is included with the source package, and named matplotlibrc.template. If you did not create one when you installed matplotlib, you can get this template from the matplotlib source, or from the matplotlib website.

Once you have customized this file the way you want, rename it to matplotlibrc (no extension) and save it to the directory .matplotlib (note the leading '.') which should be in your home directory.

The config parameters for saving figures begins at about line 314 in the supplied matplotlibrc.template (first line before this section is: ### SAVING FIGURES).

In particular, you will want to look at these:

savefig.dpi       : 100         # figure dots per inch
savefig.facecolor : white       # figure facecolor when saving
savefig.edgecolor : white       # figure edgecolor when saving
savefig.extension : auto        # what extension to use for savefig('foo'), or 'auto'

Below these lines are the settings for font type and various image format-specific parameters.

These same parameters for display, i.e.,, begin at about line 277 a in the matplotlibrc.template (this section preceded with the line: ### FIGURE):

figure.figsize   : 8, 6          
figure.dpi       : 80            
figure.facecolor : 0.75       
figure.edgecolor : white     

As you can see by comparing the values of these two blocks of parameters, the default settings for the same figure attribute are different for savefig versus display (show).

What is the best alternative IDE to Visual Studio

As far as .net languages go, VS is hard to beat.

I have used SharpDevelop before for .net, and is overall pretty good.

For other languages like Java, Eclipse is really good, as well as some of the Eclipse variants like Aptana for web work.

Then there's always notepad...

Spring Boot - Cannot determine embedded database driver class for database type NONE

Use this below dependency.


Command for restarting all running docker containers?

For me its now :

docker restart $(docker ps -a -q)

How and when to use ‘async’ and ‘await’

Tasks let you control the number of threads you are running on.
The optimal number of threads is the number of cores you have.

  • when your app is Console, WinForms or WPF then you are normally running on a single-thread.

    • in this case you want to increase the number of threads
    • your main tool is Task.Run(), and sometimes Parallel.ForERach()
    • doing synchronous I/O on a thread (with Task.Run()) is sub-optimal but acceptable
  • when your app runs on a Webserver it normally is running on (too) many threads. waits for incoming requests and quickly hands each one to a new pool thread.

    • in this case you want to decrease the number of threads
    • your main tool is to await asynchrous I/O
    • make sure you have an unbroken await chain from your async Action method down to the actual I/O
    • doing synchronous I/O or CPU intensive work on a thread (with Task.Run()) is a de-optimization.

Explain the "setUp" and "tearDown" Python methods used in test cases

You can use these to factor out code common to all tests in the test suite.

If you have a lot of repeated code in your tests, you can make them shorter by moving this code to setUp/tearDown.

You might use this for creating test data (e.g. setting up fakes/mocks), or stubbing out functions with fakes.

If you're doing integration testing, you can use check environmental pre-conditions in setUp, and skip the test if something isn't set up properly.

For example:

class TurretTest(unittest.TestCase):

    def setUp(self):
        self.turret_factory = TurretFactory()
        self.turret = self.turret_factory.CreateTurret()

    def test_turret_is_on_by_default(self):
        self.assertEquals(True, self.turret.is_on())

    def test_turret_turns_can_be_turned_off(self):
        self.assertEquals(False, self.turret.is_on())

Difference between @Before, @BeforeClass, @BeforeEach and @BeforeAll

@Before(JUnit4) -> @BeforeEach(JUnit5) - method is called before every test

@After(JUnit4) -> @AfterEach(JUnit5) - method is called after every test

@BeforeClass(JUnit4) -> @BeforeAll(JUnit5) - static method is called before executing all tests in this class. It can be a large task as starting server, read file, making db connection...

@AfterClass(JUnit4) -> @AfterAll(JUnit5) - static method is called after executing all tests in this class.

How to make inline plots in Jupyter Notebook larger?

The default figure size (in inches) is controlled by

matplotlib.rcParams['figure.figsize'] = [width, height]

For example:

import matplotlib.pyplot as plt
plt.rcParams['figure.figsize'] = [10, 5]

creates a figure with 10 (width) x 5 (height) inches

What are .NET Assemblies?

physical collection of Class, interface, enum etc which is in IL code. Which can be .EXE or .DLL file .EXE is executable file and .DLL can dynamically used in any .net Supported language.

R: rJava package install failing

Running R under Gentoo on an AMD64. I upgraded to R 2.12.0

R version 2.12.0 (2010-10-15) Copyright (C) 2010 The R Foundation for Statistical Computing ISBN 3-900051-07-0 Platform: x86_64-pc-linux-gnu (64-bit) and those pesky messages went away.

Jan Vandermeer

Java Security: Illegal key size or default parameters?

Most likely you don't have the unlimited strength file installed now.

You may need to download this file:

Java Cryptography Extension (JCE) Unlimited Strength Jurisdiction Policy Files 6

Java Cryptography Extension (JCE) Unlimited Strength Jurisdiction Policy Files 7 Download

Java Cryptography Extension (JCE) Unlimited Strength Jurisdiction Policy Files 8 Download (only required for versions before Java 8 u162)

Extract the jar files from the zip and save them in ${java.home}/jre/lib/security/.

How to find longest string in the table column data

To answer your question, and get the Prefix too, for MySQL you can do:

select Prefix, CR, length(CR) from table1 order by length(CR) DESC limit 1;

and it will return

| Prefix| CR                         |         length(CR) |
| g     | ;#WR_1;#WR_2;#WR_3;#WR_4;# |                 26 |
1 row in set (0.01 sec)

Pandas read_csv from url

To Import Data through URL in pandas just apply the simple below code it works actually better.

import pandas as pd
train = pd.read_table("")

If you are having issues with a raw data then just put 'r' before URL

import pandas as pd
train = pd.read_table(r"")

Play sound file in a web-page in the background

With me the problem was solved by removing the type attribute:

<embed name="myMusic" loop="true" hidden="true" src="Music.mp3"></embed>

Cerntainly not the cleanest way.

If you're using HTML5: MP3 isn't supported by Firefox. Wav and Ogg are though. Here you can find an overview of which browser support which type of audio:

How to get $HOME directory of different user in bash script?

I was struggling with this question because I was looking for a way to do this in a bash script for OS X, hence /etc/passwd was out of the question, and my script was meant to be executed as root, therefore making the solutions invoking eval or bash -c dangerous as they allowed code injection into the variable specifying the username.

Here is what I found. It's simple and doesn't put a variable inside a subshell. However it does require the script to be ran by root as it sudos into the specified user account.

Presuming that $SOMEUSER contains a valid username:

echo "$(sudo -H -u "$SOMEUSER" -s -- "cd ~ && pwd")"

I hope this helps somebody!

How do I read input character-by-character in Java?

Use A return value of -1 means end of stream; else, cast to char.

This code reads character data from a list of file arguments:

public class CharacterHandler {
    //Java 7 source level
    public static void main(String[] args) throws IOException {
        // replace this with a known encoding if possible
        Charset encoding = Charset.defaultCharset();
        for (String filename : args) {
            File file = new File(filename);
            handleFile(file, encoding);

    private static void handleFile(File file, Charset encoding)
            throws IOException {
        try (InputStream in = new FileInputStream(file);
             Reader reader = new InputStreamReader(in, encoding);
             // buffer for efficiency
             Reader buffer = new BufferedReader(reader)) {

    private static void handleCharacters(Reader reader)
            throws IOException {
        int r;
        while ((r = != -1) {
            char ch = (char) r;
            System.out.println("Do something with " + ch);

The bad thing about the above code is that it uses the system's default character set. Wherever possible, prefer a known encoding (ideally, a Unicode encoding if you have a choice). See the Charset class for more. (If you feel masochistic, you can read this guide to character encoding.)

(One thing you might want to look out for are supplementary Unicode characters - those that require two char values to store. See the Character class for more details; this is an edge case that probably won't apply to homework.)

Access props inside quotes in React JSX

If you're using JSX with Harmony, you could do this:

<img className="image" src={`images/${this.props.image}`} />

Here you are writing the value of src as an expression.

Generating Random Number In Each Row In Oracle Query

If you just use round then the two end numbers (1 and 9) will occur less frequently, to get an even distribution of integers between 1 and 9 then:

SELECT MOD(Round(DBMS_RANDOM.Value(1, 99)), 9) + 1 FROM DUAL

How can I uninstall an application using PowerShell?

Based on Jeff Hillman's answer:

Here's a function you can just add to your profile.ps1 or define in current PowerShell session:

# Uninstall a Windows program
function uninstall($programName)
    $app = Get-WmiObject -Class Win32_Product -Filter ("Name = '" + $programName + "'")
    if($app -ne $null)
    else {
        echo ("Could not find program '" + $programName + "'")

Let's say you wanted to uninstall Notepad++. Just type this into PowerShell:

> uninstall("notepad++")

Just be aware that Get-WmiObject can take some time, so be patient!

PHP: How to get current time in hour:minute:second?

You can have both formats as an argument to the function date():

date("d-m-Y H:i:s")

Check the manual for more info :

As pointed out by @ThomasVdBerge to display minutes you need the 'i' character

reStructuredText tool support

Salvaging (and extending) the list from an old version of the Wikipedia page:



Although the reference implementation of reStructuredText is written in Python, there are reStructuredText parsers in other languages too.

Python - Docutils

The main distribution of reStructuredText is the Python Docutils package. It contains several conversion tools:

  • rst2html - from reStructuredText to HTML
  • rst2xml - from reStructuredText to XML
  • rst2latex - from reStructuredText to LaTeX
  • rst2odt - from reStructuredText to ODF Text (word processor) document.
  • rst2s5 - from reStructuredText to S5, a Simple Standards-based Slide Show System
  • rst2man - from reStructuredText to Man page

Haskell - Pandoc

Pandoc is a Haskell library for converting from one markup format to another, and a command-line tool that uses this library. It can read Markdown and (subsets of) reStructuredText, HTML, and LaTeX, and it can write Markdown, reStructuredText, HTML, LaTeX, ConTeXt, PDF, RTF, DocBook XML, OpenDocument XML, ODT, GNU Texinfo, MediaWiki markup, groff man pages, and S5 HTML slide shows.

There is an Pandoc online tool (POT) to try this library. Unfortunately, compared to the reStructuredText online renderer (ROR),

  • POT truncates input rather more shortly. The POT user must render input in chunks that could be rendered whole by the ROR.
  • POT output lacks the helpful error messages displayed by the ROR (and generated by docutils)

Java - JRst

JRst is a Java reStructuredText parser. It can currently output HTML, XHTML, DocBook xdoc and PDF, BUT seems to have serious problems: neither PDF or (X)HTML generation works using the current full download, result pages in (X)HTML are empty and PDF generation fails on IO problems with XSL files (not bundled??). Note that the original JRst has been removed from the website; a fork is found on GitHub.

Scala - Laika

Laika is a new library for transforming markup languages to other output formats. Currently it supports input from Markdown and reStructuredText and produce HTML output. The library is written in Scala but should be also usable from Java.





The Nim compiler features the commands rst2htmland rst2tex which transform reStructuredText files to HTML and TeX files. The standard library provides the following modules (used by the compiler) to handle reStructuredText files programmatically:

  • rst - implements a reStructuredText parser
  • rstast - implements an AST for the reStructuredText parser
  • rstgen - implements a generator of HTML/Latex from reStructuredText

Other 3rd party converters

Most (but not all) of these tools are based on Docutils (see above) and provide conversion to or from formats that might not be supported by the main distribution.

From reStructuredText

  • restview - This pip-installable python package requires docutils, which does the actual rendering. restview's major ease-of-use feature is that, when you save changes to your document(s), it automagically re-renders and re-displays them. restview
    1. starts a small web server
    2. calls docutils to render your document(s) to HTML
    3. calls your device's browser to display the output HTML.
  • rst2pdf - from reStructuredText to PDF
  • rst2odp - from reStructuredText to ODF Presentation
  • rst2beamer - from reStructuredText to LaTeX beamer Presentation class
  • Wikir - from reStructuredText to a Google (and possibly other) Wiki formats
  • rst2qhc - Convert a collection of reStructuredText files into a Qt (toolkit) Help file and (optional) a Qt Help Project file

To reStructuredText

  • xml2rst is an XSLT script to convert Docutils internal XML representation (back) to reStructuredText
  • Pandoc (see above) can also convert from Markdown, HTML and LaTeX to reStructuredText
  • db2rst is a simple and limited DocBook to reStructuredText translator
  • pod2rst - convert .pod files to reStructuredText files


Some projects use reStructuredText as a baseline to build on, or provide extra functionality extending the utility of the reStructuredText tools.


The Sphinx documentation generator translates a set of reStructuredText source files into various output formats, automatically producing cross-references, indices etc.


rest2web is a simple tool that lets you build your website from a single template (or as many as you want), and keep the contents in reStructuredText.


Pygments is a generic syntax highlighter for general use in all kinds of software such as forum systems, Wikis or other applications that need to prettify source code. See Using Pygments in reStructuredText documents.

Free Editors

While any plain text editor is suitable to write reStructuredText documents, some editors have better support than others.


The Emacs support via rst-mode comes as part of the Docutils package under /docutils/tools/editors/emacs/rst.el


The vim-common package for that comes with most GNU/Linux distributions has reStructuredText syntax highlight and indentation support of reStructuredText out of the box:


There is a rst mode for the Jed programmers editor.


gedit, the official text editor of the GNOME desktop environment. There is a gedit reStructuredText plugin.


Geany, a small and lightweight Integrated Development Environment include support for reStructuredText from version 0.12 (October 10, 2007).


Leo, an outlining editor for programmers, supports reStructuredText via rst-plugin or via "@auto-rst" nodes (it's not well-documented, but @auto-rst nodes allow editing rst files directly, parsing the structure into the Leo outline).

It also provides a way to preview the resulting HTML, in a "viewrendered" pane.


The FTE Folding Text Editor - a free (licensed under the GNU GPL) text editor for developers. FTE has a mode for reStructuredText support. It provides color highlighting of basic RSTX elements and special menu that provide easy way to insert most popular RSTX elements to a document.


PyK is a successor of PyEdit and reStInPeace, written in Python with the help of the Qt4 toolkit.


The Eclipse IDE with the ReST Editor plug-in provides support for editing reStructuredText files.


NoTex is a browser based (general purpose) text editor, with integrated project management and syntax highlighting. Plus it enables to write books, reports, articles etc. using rST and convert them to LaTex, PDF or HTML. The PDF files are of high publication quality and are produced via Sphinx with the Texlive LaTex suite.


Notepad++ is a general purpose text editor for Windows. It has syntax highlighting for many languages built-in and support for reStructuredText via a user defined language for reStructuredText.

Visual Studio Code

Visual Studio Code is a general purpose text editor for Windows/macOS/Linux. It has syntax highlighting for many languages built-in and supports reStructuredText via an extension from LeXtudio.

Dedicated reStructuredText Editors

Proprietary editors

Sublime Text

Sublime Text is a completely customizable and extensible source code editor available for Windows, OS X, and Linux. Registration is required for long-term use, but all functions are available in the unregistered version, with occasional reminders to purchase a license. Versions 2 and 3 (currently in beta) support reStructuredText syntax highlighting by default, and several plugins are available through the package manager Package Control to provide snippets and code completion, additional syntax highlighting, conversion to/from RST and other formats, and HTML preview in the browser.

BBEdit / TextWrangler

BBEdit (and its free variant TextWrangler) for Mac can syntax-highlight reStructuredText using this codeless language module.


TextMate, a proprietary general-purpose GUI text editor for Mac OS X, has a bundle for reStructuredText.


Intype is a proprietary text editor for Windows, that support reStructuredText out of the box.

E Text Editor

E is a proprietary Text Editor licensed under the "Open Company License". It supports TextMate's bundles, so it should support reStructuredText the same way TextMate does.


PyCharm (and other IntelliJ platform IDEs?) has ReST/Sphinx support (syntax highlighting, autocomplete and preview).instant preview)


here are some Wiki programs that support the reStructuredText markup as the native markup syntax, or as an add-on:


MediaWiki reStructuredText extension allows for reStructuredText markup in MediaWiki surrounded by <rst> and </rst>.


MoinMoin is an advanced, easy to use and extensible WikiEngine with a large community of users. Said in a few words, it is about collaboration on easily editable web pages.

There is a reStructuredText Parser for MoinMoin.


Trac is an enhanced wiki and issue tracking system for software development projects. There is a reStructuredText Support in Trac.

This Wiki

This Wiki is a Webware for Python Wiki written by Ian Bicking. This wiki uses ReStructuredText for its markup.


rstiki is a minimalist single-file personal wiki using reStructuredText syntax (via docutils) inspired by pwyky. It does not support authorship indication, versioning, hierarchy, chrome/framing/templating or styling. It leverages docutils/reStructuredText as the wiki syntax. As such, it's under 200 lines of code, and in a single file. You put it in a directory and it runs.


Ikiwiki is a wiki compiler. It converts wiki pages into HTML pages suitable for publishing on a website. Ikiwiki stores pages and history in a revision control system such as Subversion or Git. There are many other features, including support for blogging, as well as a large array of plugins. It's reStructuredText plugin, however is somewhat limited and is not recommended as its' main markup language at this time.

Web Services


An Online reStructuredText editor can be used to play with the markup and see the results immediately.

Blogging frameworks


WordPreSt reStructuredText plugin for WordPress. (PHP)


reStructuredText parser plugin for Zine (will become obsolete in version 0.2 when Zine is scheduled to get a native reStructuredText support). Zine is discontinued. (Python)


Pelican is a static blog generator that supports writing articles in ReST. (Python)


Hyde is a static website generator that supports ReST. (Python)


Acrylamid is a static blog generator that supports writing articles in ReST. (Python)


Nikola is a Static Site and Blog Generator that supports ReST. (Python)

ipsum genera

Ipsum genera is a static blog generator written in Nim.


Yozuch is a static blog generator written in Python.


Changing the "tick frequency" on x or y axis in matplotlib?

This is an old topic, but I stumble over this every now and then and made this function. It's very convenient:

import matplotlib.pyplot as pp
import numpy as np

def resadjust(ax, xres=None, yres=None):
    Send in an axis and I fix the resolution as desired.

    if xres:
        start, stop = ax.get_xlim()
        ticks = np.arange(start, stop + xres, xres)
    if yres:
        start, stop = ax.get_ylim()
        ticks = np.arange(start, stop + yres, yres)

One caveat of controlling the ticks like this is that one does no longer enjoy the interactive automagic updating of max scale after an added line. Then do

gca().set_ylim(top=new_top) # for example

and run the resadjust function again.

Python 2.7 getting user input and manipulating as string without quotations

If you want to use input instead of raw_input in python 2.x,then this trick will come handy

    if hasattr(__builtins__, 'raw_input'):

After which,

testVar = input("Ask user for something.")

will work just fine.

How different is Scrum practice from Agile Practice?

Agile is not a methodology, embracing the agile manifesto means adopting a particular philosophy about software development. Within that philosophical perspective, there are many processes and practices. Scrum is a set of practices that follow agile principles. Many people grab onto the practices and processes without embracing (or even understanding) the underlying philosophy and they often end up with gorillarinas.

How do you count the number of occurrences of a certain substring in a SQL varchar?

The first way that comes to mind is to do it indirectly by replacing the comma with an empty string and comparing the lengths

Declare @string varchar(1000)
Set @string = 'a,b,c,d'
select len(@string) - len(replace(@string, ',', ''))

Visual Studio: Relative Assembly References Paths

Yes, just create a directory in your solution like lib/, and then add your dll to that directory in the filesystem and add it in the project (Add->Existing Item->etc). Then add the reference based on your project.

I have done this several times under svn and under cvs.

Should a 502 HTTP status code be used if a proxy receives no response at all?

Yes. Empty or incomplete headers or response body typically caused by broken connections or server side crash can cause 502 errors if accessed via a gateway or proxy.

For more information about the network errors

Styling a input type=number

For Mozilla

input[type=number] { 
    -moz-appearance: textfield;
    appearance: textfield;
    margin: 0; 

For Chrome

input[type=number]::-webkit-outer-spin-button { 
      -webkit-appearance: none; 
      margin: 0; 

Setting Authorization Header of HttpClient

UTF8 Option

request.DefaultRequestHeaders.Authorization = 
new AuthenticationHeaderValue(
    "Basic", Convert.ToBase64String(

How to run multiple SQL commands in a single SQL connection?

Just enable this property in your connection string:

sqb.MultipleActiveResultSets = true;

This property allows one open connection for multiple datareaders.

Make docker use IPv4 for port binding

As @daniel-t points out in the comment: is about showing binding only to IPv6 in netstat, but that is not an issue. As that github issues states:

When setting up the proxy, Docker requests the loopback address '', Linux realises this is an address that exists in IPv6 (as ::0) and opens on both (but it is formally an IPv6 socket). When you run netstat it sees this and tells you it is an IPv6 - but it is still listening on IPv4. If you have played with your settings a little, you may have disabled this trick Linux does - by setting net.ipv6.bindv6only = 1.

In other words, just because you see it as IPv6 only, it is still able to communicate on IPv4 unless you have IPv6 set to only bind on IPv6 with the net.ipv6.bindv6only setting. To be clear, net.ipv6.bindv6only should be 0 - you can run sysctl net.ipv6.bindv6only to verify.

How do files get into the External Dependencies in Visual Studio C++?

To resolve external dependencies within project. below things are important..
1. The compiler should know that where are header '.h' files located in workspace.
2. The linker able to find all specified  all '.lib' files & there names for current project.

So, Developer has to specify external dependencies for Project as below..

1. Select Project in Solution explorer.

2 . Project Properties -> Configuration Properties -> C/C++ -> General
specify all header files in "Additional Include Directories".

3.  Project Properties -> Configuration Properties -> Linker -> General
specify relative path for all lib files in "Additional Library Directories".

enter image description here enter image description here

How can Bash execute a command in a different directory context?

Use cd in a subshell; the shorthand way to use this kind of subshell is parentheses.

(cd wherever; mycommand ...)

That said, if your command has an environment that it requires, it should really ensure that environment itself instead of putting the onus on anything that might want to use it (unless it's an internal command used in very specific circumstances in the context of a well defined larger system, such that any caller already needs to ensure the environment it requires). Usually this would be some kind of shell script wrapper.

Importing xsd into wsdl

import vs. include

The primary purpose of an import is to import a namespace. A more common use of the XSD import statement is to import a namespace which appears in another file. You might be gathering the namespace information from the file, but don't forget that it's the namespace that you're importing, not the file (don't confuse an import statement with an include statement).

Another area of confusion is how to specify the location or path of the included .xsd file: An XSD import statement has an optional attribute named schemaLocation but it is not necessary if the namespace of the import statement is at the same location (in the same file) as the import statement itself.

When you do chose to use an external .xsd file for your WSDL, the schemaLocation attribute becomes necessary. Be very sure that the namespace you use in the import statement is the same as the targetNamespace of the schema you are importing. That is, all 3 occurrences must be identical:


xs:import namespace="urn:listing3" schemaLocation="listing3.xsd"/>


<xsd:schema targetNamespace="urn:listing3"

Another approach to letting know the WSDL about the XSD is through Maven's pom.xml:


You can read more on this in this great IBM article. It has typos such as xsd:import instead of xs:import but otherwise it's fine.

Get first day of week in SQL Server

Maybe you need this:



SET @MYDATE = '2011-08-23'


CREATE FUNCTION [dbo].[GetFirstDayOfWeek]
( @pInputDate    DATETIME )

SET @pInputDate = CONVERT(VARCHAR(10), @pInputDate, 111)


URL encoding the space character: + or %20?

From Wikipedia (emphasis and link added):

When data that has been entered into HTML forms is submitted, the form field names and values are encoded and sent to the server in an HTTP request message using method GET or POST, or, historically, via email. The encoding used by default is based on a very early version of the general URI percent-encoding rules, with a number of modifications such as newline normalization and replacing spaces with "+" instead of "%20". The MIME type of data encoded this way is application/x-www-form-urlencoded, and it is currently defined (still in a very outdated manner) in the HTML and XForms specifications.

So, the real percent encoding uses %20 while form data in URLs is in a modified form that uses +. So you're most likely to only see + in URLs in the query string after an ?.

When to use a View instead of a Table?

According to Wikipedia,

Views can provide many advantages over tables:

  • Views can represent a subset of the data contained in a table.
  • Views can limit the degree of exposure of the underlying tables to the outer world: a given user may have permission to query the view, while denied access to the rest of the base table.

  • Views can join and simplify multiple tables into a single virtual table.

  • Views can act as aggregated tables, where the database engine aggregates data (sum, average, etc.) and presents the calculated results as part of the data.

  • Views can hide the complexity of data. For example, a view could appear as Sales2000 or Sales2001, transparently partitioning the actual underlying table.

  • Views take very little space to store; the database contains only the definition of a view, not a copy of all the data that it presents.

  • Views can provide extra security, depending on the SQL engine used.

Where is after pip install?

I can find one in macOS Mojave (10.14) while playing with virtualenvwrapper-4.8.4


When should iteritems() be used instead of items()?

In Python 2.x - .items() returned a list of (key, value) pairs. In Python 3.x, .items() is now an itemview object, which behaves different - so it has to be iterated over, or materialised... So, list(dict.items()) is required for what was dict.items() in Python 2.x.

Python 2.7 also has a bit of a back-port for key handling, in that you have viewkeys, viewitems and viewvalues methods, the most useful being viewkeys which behaves more like a set (which you'd expect from a dict).

Simple example:

common_keys = list(dict_a.viewkeys() & dict_b.viewkeys())

Will give you a list of the common keys, but again, in Python 3.x - just use .keys() instead.

Python 3.x has generally been made to be more "lazy" - i.e. map is now effectively itertools.imap, zip is itertools.izip, etc.

EnterKey to press button in VBA Userform

Further to @Penn's comment, and in case the link breaks, you can also achieve this by setting the Default property of the button to True (you can set this in the properties window, open by hitting F4)

That way whenever Return is hit, VBA knows to activate the button's click event. Similarly setting the Cancel property of a button to True would cause that button's click event to run whenever ESC key is hit (useful for gracefully exiting the Userform)

Source: Olivier Jacot-Descombes's answer accessible here

How to add dividers and spaces between items in RecyclerView?

I have added a line in list item like below


1px will draw the thin line.

If you want to hide the divider for the last row then divider.setVisiblity(View.GONE); on the onBindViewHolder for the last list Item.

Cannot resolve symbol HttpGet,HttpClient,HttpResponce in Android Studio

That is just in SDK 23, Httpclient and others are deprecated. You can correct it by changing the target SDK version like below:

apply plugin: ''

android {
    compileSdkVersion 22
    buildToolsVersion "22.0.1"

    defaultConfig {
        applicationId ""
        minSdkVersion 10
        targetSdkVersion 22
        versionCode 1
        versionName "1.0"

    buildTypes {
        release {
            minifyEnabled false
            proguardFiles getDefaultProguardFile('proguard-android.txt'),    ''

dependencies {
    compile fileTree(dir: 'libs', include: ['*.jar'])
    compile ''

How to call a SOAP web service on Android

This is a working example of consuming SOAP web services in android.

**Note ::***DON'T FORGET TO ADD ksoap2.jar in your project and also add the INTERNET permission in AndroidManifest file*

public final String WSDL_TARGET_NAMESPACE = "";
public final String METHOD_NAME = "FahrenheitToCelsius";
public final String PROPERTY_NAME = "Fahrenheit";
public final String SOAP_ACTION = "";
public final String SOAP_ADDRESS = "";

private class TestAsynk extends AsyncTask<String, Void, String> {

    protected void onPostExecute(String result) {

                String.format("%.2f", Float.parseFloat(result)),

    protected String doInBackground(String... params) {
        SoapObject request = new SoapObject(WSDL_TARGET_NAMESPACE,
        request.addProperty(PROPERTY_NAME, params[0]);

        SoapSerializationEnvelope envelope = new SoapSerializationEnvelope(
        envelope.dotNet = true;


        HttpTransportSE androidHttpTransport = new HttpTransportSE(
        Object response = null;
        try {

  , envelope);
            response = envelope.getResponse();
            Log.e("Object response", response.toString());

        } catch (Exception e) {
        return response.toString();

How do you say not equal to in Ruby?

Yes. In Ruby the not equal to operator is:


You can get a full list of ruby operators here:

How do I show a console output/window in a forms application?

If you are not worrying about opening a console on-command, you can go into the properties for your project and change it to Console Application

screenshot of changing the project type.

This will still show your form as well as popping up a console window. You can't close the console window, but it works as an excellent temporary logger for debugging.

Just remember to turn it back off before you deploy the program.

DateTime.Now.ToString("yyyy-MM-dd hh:mm:ss") is returning AM time instead of PM time?

Use HH for 24 hour hours format:

DateTime.Now.ToString("yyyy-MM-dd HH:mm:ss")

Or the tt format specifier for the AM/PM part:

DateTime.Now.ToString("yyyy-MM-dd hh:mm:ss tt")

Take a look at the custom Date and Time format strings documentation.

Javascript replace with reference to matched group?

"hello _there_".replace(/_(.*?)_/, function(a, b){
    return '<div>' + b + '</div>';

Oh, or you could also:

"hello _there_".replace(/_(.*?)_/, "<div>$1</div>")

EDIT by Liran H: For six other people including myself, $1 did not work, whereas \1 did.

Why does Maven have such a bad rep?

I think Maven gets a bad rap because it imposes structure on your project, whereas other tools such as Ant allow you to completely define the structure any way you wish. Agreed also that the documentation is bad, but I think primarily the bad rap that Maven gets is because people are so used to Ant.

Refreshing data in RecyclerView and keeping its scroll position

I have quite similar problem. And I came up with following solution.

Using notifyDataSetChanged is a bad idea. You should be more specific, then RecyclerView will save scroll state for you.

For example, if you only need to refresh, or in other words, you want each view to be rebinded, just do this:

adapter.notifyItemRangeChanged(0, adapter.getItemCount());

Express.js - app.listen vs server.listen

I came with same question but after google, I found there is no big difference :)

From Github

If you wish to create both an HTTP and HTTPS server you may do so with the "http" and "https" modules as shown here.

 * Listen for connections.
 * A node `http.Server` is returned, with this
 * application (which is a `Function`) as its
 * callback. If you wish to create both an HTTP
 * and HTTPS server you may do so with the "http"
 * and "https" modules as shown here:
 *    var http = require('http')
 *      , https = require('https')
 *      , express = require('express')
 *      , app = express();
 *    http.createServer(app).listen(80);
 *    https.createServer({ ... }, app).listen(443);
 * @return {http.Server}
 * @api public

app.listen = function(){
  var server = http.createServer(this);
  return server.listen.apply(server, arguments);

Also if you want to work with see their example

See this

I prefer app.listen() :)

Excel VBA Automation Error: The object invoked has disconnected from its clients

I have had this problem on multiple projects converting Excel 2000 to 2010. Here is what I found which seems to be working. I made two changes, but not sure which caused the success:

1) I changed how I closed and saved the file (from close & save = true to save as the same file name and close the file:

    Dim oFile           As Object       ' File being processed
[Where the error happens - where aArray(i) is just the name of an Excel.xlsb file]
   Set oFile = GetObject(aArray(i))
'oFile.Close SaveChanges:=True    - OLD CODE WHICH ERROR'D
'New Code
oFile.SaveAs Filename:=oFile.Name
oFile.Close SaveChanges:=False

2) I went back and looked for all of the .range in the code and made sure it was the full construct..

Application.Workbooks("workbook name").Worksheets("worksheet name").Range("G19").Value

or (not 100% sure if this is correct syntax, but this is the 'effort' i made)


Is there a goto statement in Java?

Because it's not supported and why would you want a goto keyword that did nothing or a variable named goto?

Although you can use break label; and continue label; statements to effectively do what goto does. But I wouldn't recommend it.

public static void main(String [] args) {

     boolean t = true;

     first: {
        second: {
           third: {
               System.out.println("Before the break");

               if (t) {
                  break second;

               System.out.println("Not executed");

           System.out.println("Not executed - end of second block");

        System.out.println("End of third block");

How to have multiple conditions for one if statement in python

I would use

def example(arg1, arg2, arg3):
     if arg1 == 1 and arg2 == 2 and arg3 == 3:
          print("Example Text")

The and operator is identical to the logic gate with the same name; it will return 1 if and only if all of the inputs are 1. You can also use or operator if you want that logic gate.

EDIT: Actually, the code provided in your post works fine with me. I don't see any problems with that. I think that this might be a problem with your Python, not the actual language.

JSP tricks to make templating easier?

Add dependecies for use <%@tag description="User Page template" pageEncoding="UTF-8"%>


Copy files to network computers on windows command line

Below command will work in command prompt:

copy c:\folder\file.ext \\dest-machine\destfolder /Z /Y

To Copy all files:

copy c:\folder\*.* \\dest-machine\destfolder /Z /Y

How to use activity indicator view on iPhone?

i think you should use hidden better.

activityIndicator.hidden = YES

Stop floating divs from wrapping

The only way I've managed to do this is by using overflow: visible; and width: 20000px; on the parent element. There is no way to do this with CSS level 1 that I'm aware of and I refused to think I'd have to go all gung-ho with CSS level 3. The example below has 18 menus that extend beyond my 1920x1200 resolution LCD, if your screen is larger just duplicate the first tier menu elements or just resize the browser. Alternatively and with slightly lower levels of browser compatibility you could use CSS3 media queries.

Here is a full copy/paste example demonstration...

<?xml version="1.0" encoding="UTF-8"?>
<!DOCTYPE html>
<html xmlns="" xml:lang="en">
<title>XHTML5 Menu Demonstration</title>
<style type="text/css">
* {border: 0; box-sizing: content-box; color: #f0f; font-size: 10px; margin: 0; padding: 0; transition-property: background-color, background-image, border, box-shadow, color, float, opacity, text-align, text-shadow; transition-duration: 0.5s; white-space: nowrap;}
a:link {color: #79b; text-decoration: none;}
a:visited {color: #579;}
a:focus, a:hover {color: #fff; text-decoration: underline;}
body {background-color: #444; overflow-x: hidden;}
body > header {background-color: #000; height: 64px; left: 0; position: absolute; right: 0; z-index: 2;}
body > header > nav {height: 32px; margin-left: 16px;}
body > header > nav a {font-size: 24px;}
main {border-color: transparent; border-style: solid; border-width: 64px 0 0; bottom: 0px; left: 0; overflow-x: hidden !important; overflow-y: auto; position: absolute; right: 0; top: 0; z-index: 1;}
main > * > * {background-color: #000;}
main > section {float: left; margin-top: 16px; width: 100%;}
nav[id='menu'] {overflow: visible; width: 20000px;}
nav[id='menu'] > ul {height: 32px;}
nav[id='menu'] > ul > li {float: left; width: 140px;}
nav[id='menu'] > ul > li > ul {background-color: rgba(0, 0, 0, 0.8); display: none; margin-left: -50px; width: 240px;}
nav[id='menu'] a {display: block; height: 32px; line-height: 32px; text-align: center; white-space: nowrap;}
nav[id='menu'] > ul {float: left; list-style:none;}
nav[id='menu'] ul li:hover ul {display: block;}
p, p *, span, span * {color: #fff;}
p {font-size: 20px; margin: 0 14px 0 14px; padding-bottom: 14px; text-indent: 1.5em;}
.hidden {display: none;}
.width_100 {width: 100%;}


<section style="height: 2000px;"><p>Hover the first menu at the top-left.</p></section>

<nav id="location"><a href="">Example</a><span> - </span><a href="">Blog</a><span> - </span><a href="">Browser Market Share</a></nav>
<nav id="menu">
<li><a href="" tabindex="2">Menu 1 - Hover</a>
<li><a href="" tabindex="2">Menu 1 B</a></li>
<li><a href="" tabindex="2">Menu 1 B</a></li>
<li><a href="" tabindex="2">Menu 1 B</a></li>
<li><a href="" tabindex="2">Menu 1 B</a></li>
<li><a href="" tabindex="2">Menu 1 B</a></li>
<li><a href="" tabindex="2">Menu 1 B</a></li>
<li><a href="" tabindex="2">Menu 1 B</a></li>
<li><a href="" tabindex="2">Menu 1 B</a></li>
<li><a href="" tabindex="2">Menu 2</a></li>
<li><a href="" tabindex="2">Menu 3</a></li>
<li><a href="" tabindex="2">Menu 4</a></li>
<li><a href="" tabindex="2">Menu 5</a></li>
<li><a href="" tabindex="2">Menu 6</a></li>
<li><a href="" tabindex="2">Menu 7</a></li>
<li><a href="" tabindex="2">Menu 8</a></li>
<li><a href="" tabindex="2">Menu 9</a></li>
<li><a href="" tabindex="2">Menu 10</a></li>
<li><a href="" tabindex="2">Menu 11</a></li>
<li><a href="" tabindex="2">Menu 12</a></li>
<li><a href="" tabindex="2">Menu 13</a></li>
<li><a href="" tabindex="2">Menu 14</a></li>
<li><a href="" tabindex="2">Menu 15</a></li>
<li><a href="" tabindex="2">Menu 16</a></li>
<li><a href="" tabindex="2">Menu 17</a></li>
<li><a href="" tabindex="2">Menu 18</a></li>


Android Support Design TabLayout: Gravity Center and Mode Scrollable

Look at android-tablayouthelper

Automatically switch TabLayout.MODE_FIXED and TabLayout.MODE_SCROLLABLE depends on total tab width.

Node.JS: Getting error : [nodemon] Internal watch failed: watch ENOSPC

Add a nodemon.json configuration file in your root folder and specify ignore patterns for example:


  "ignore": [
  • Note that by default .git, node_modules, bower_components, .nyc_output, coverage and .sass-cache are ignored so you don't need to add them to your configuration.

Explanation: This error happens because you exceeded the max number of watchers allowed by your system (i.e. nodemon has no more disk space to watch all the files - which probably means you are watching not important files). So you ignore non-important files that you don't care about changes in them for example the build output or the test cases.

How to make an element in XML schema optional?

Try this

<xs:element name="description" type="xs:string" minOccurs="0" maxOccurs="1" />

if you want 0 or 1 "description" elements, Or

<xs:element name="description" type="xs:string" minOccurs="0" maxOccurs="unbounded" />

if you want 0 to infinity number of "description" elements.

How to quickly check if folder is empty (.NET)?

private static void test()
    System.Diagnostics.Stopwatch sw = new System.Diagnostics.Stopwatch();

    string [] dirs = System.IO.Directory.GetDirectories("C:\\Test\\");
    string[] files = System.IO.Directory.GetFiles("C:\\Test\\");

    if (dirs.Length == 0 && files.Length == 0)
        Console.WriteLine("Not Empty");


This quick test came back in 2 milliseconds for the folder when empty and when containing subfolders & files (5 folders with 5 files in each)

Linking static libraries to other static libraries

Alternatively to Link Library Dependencies in project properties there is another way to link libraries in Visual Studio.

  1. Open the project of the library (X) that you want to be combined with other libraries.
  2. Add the other libraries you want combined with X (Right Click, Add Existing Item...).
  3. Go to their properties and make sure Item Type is Library

This will include the other libraries in X as if you ran

lib /out:X.lib X.lib other1.lib other2.lib

How can I detect Internet Explorer (IE) and Microsoft Edge using JavaScript?

For me better this:

var uA = window.navigator.userAgent,
    onlyIEorEdge = /msie\s|trident\/|edge\//i.test(uA) && !!( document.uniqueID || window.MSInputMethodContext),
    checkVersion = (onlyIEorEdge && +(/(edge\/|rv:|msie\s)([\d.]+)/i.exec(uA)[2])) || NaN;

Go run: o

Oracle query to fetch column names

The Oracle equivalent for information_schema.COLUMNS is USER_TAB_COLS for tables owned by the current user, ALL_TAB_COLS or DBA_TAB_COLS for tables owned by all users.

Tablespace is not equivalent to a schema, neither do you have to provide the tablespace name.

Providing the schema/username would be of use if you want to query ALL_TAB_COLS or DBA_TAB_COLS for columns OF tables owned by a specific user. in your case, I'd imagine the query would look something like:

String sqlStr= "
SELECT column_name
  FROM all_tab_cols
 WHERE table_name = 'USERS'
   AND owner = '" +_db+ "'
   AND column_name NOT IN ( 'PASSWORD', 'VERSION', 'ID' )"

Note that with this approach, you risk SQL injection.

EDIT: Uppercased the table- and column names as these are typically uppercase in Oracle; they are only lower- or mixed case if created with double quotes around them.

Why emulator is very slow in Android Studio?

A quick fix if using Android Studio (or Eclipse) is to disable the boot animation.

1) Select Run > Edit Configurations

2) Android Application > YOURAPP

3) Select the "Emulator" tab and check the "Disable boot animation"

This is will stop the "ANDROID" image from loading and boot directly to the lock screen, then keep your the emulator open. Also, to avoid problems, don't rotate the device before launch (Cmnd + Ctrl + F11), and don't try to run the app more than once during installation.

How to perform element-wise multiplication of two lists?

To maintain the list type, and do it in one line (after importing numpy as np, of course):

list(np.array([1,2,3,4]) * np.array([2,3,4,5]))


list(np.array(a) * np.array(b))

How do I concatenate two strings in C?

You should use strcat, or better, strncat. Google it (the keyword is "concatenating").

How to parse unix timestamp to time.Time

According to the go documentation, Unix returns a local time.

Unix returns the local Time corresponding to the given Unix time

This means the output would depend on the machine your code runs on, which, most often is what you need, but sometimes, you may want to have the value in UTC.

To do so, I adapted the snippet to make it return a time in UTC:

i, err := strconv.ParseInt("1405544146", 10, 64)
if err != nil {
tm := time.Unix(i, 0)

This prints on my machine (in CEST)

2014-07-16 20:55:46 +0000 UTC

Post an object as data using Jquery Ajax

[object Object] This means somewhere the object is being converted to a string.

Converted to a string:

//Copy and paste in the browser console to see result

var product = {'name':'test'};
JSON.stringify(product + ''); 

Not converted to a string:

//Copy and paste in the browser console to see result

var product = {'name':'test'};

How to send password using sftp batch file

PSFTP -b path/file_name.sftp user@IP_server -hostkey 1e:52:b1... -pw password

the file content is:

lcd "path_file for send"

cd path_destination

mput file_name_to_send


to have the hostkey run:

psftp  user@IP_SERVER

Plot 3D data in R

If you're working with "real" data for which the grid intervals and sequence cannot be guaranteed to be increasing or unique (hopefully the (x,y,z) combinations are unique at least, even if these triples are duplicated), I would recommend the akima package for interpolating from an irregular grid to a regular one.

Using your definition of data:

im <- with(data,interp(x,y,z))

enter image description here

And this should work not only with image but similar functions as well.

Note that the default grid to which your data is mapped to by akima::interp is defined by 40 equal intervals spanning the range of x and y values:

> formals(akima::interp)[c("xo","yo")]
seq(min(x), max(x), length = 40)

seq(min(y), max(y), length = 40)

But of course, this can be overridden by passing arguments xo and yo to akima::interp.

How to load a model from an HDF5 file in Keras?

According to official documentation

you can do :

first test if you have h5py installed by running the

import h5py

if you dont have errors while importing h5py you are good to save:

from keras.models import load_model'my_model.h5')  # creates a HDF5 file 'my_model.h5'
del model  # deletes the existing model

# returns a compiled model
# identical to the previous one
model = load_model('my_model.h5')

If you need to install h5py

Python Iterate Dictionary by Index

I wanted to know (idx, key, value) for a python OrderedDict today (mapping of SKUs to quantities in order of the way they should appear on a receipt). The answers here were all bummers.

In python 3, at least, this way works and and makes sense.

In [1]: from collections import OrderedDict
   ...: od = OrderedDict()
   ...: od['a']='spam'
   ...: od['b']='ham'
   ...: od['c']='eggs'
   ...: for i,(k,v) in enumerate(od.items()):
   ...:    print('%d,%s,%s'%(i,k,v))

Android: checkbox listener

Try this:

satView = (CheckBox) findViewById(;

satView.setOnCheckedChangeListener(new OnCheckedChangeListener() {
    public void onCheckedChanged(CompoundButton buttonView, boolean isChecked) {
          if (buttonView.isChecked()) { 
                // checked
                // not checked


Hope this helps.

How to iterate over arguments in a Bash script

Loop against $#, the number of arguments variable, works too.

#! /bin/bash

for ((i=1; i<=$#; i++))
  printf "${!i}\n"
done 1 2 '3 4'


3 4

invalid_grant trying to get oAuth token from google

This is a silly answer, but the problem for me was that I failed to realize I already had been issued an active oAuth token for my google user which I failed to store. The solution in this case is to go to the api console and reset the client secret.

There are numerous other answers on SO to this effect for example Reset Client Secret OAuth2 - Do clients need to re-grant access?

What does the regex \S mean in JavaScript?

The \s metacharacter matches whitespace characters.

CSS display: inline vs inline-block

Inline elements:

  1. respect left & right margins and padding, but not top & bottom
  2. cannot have a width and height set
  3. allow other elements to sit to their left and right.
  4. see very important side notes on this here.

Block elements:

  1. respect all of those
  2. force a line break after the block element
  3. acquires full-width if width not defined

Inline-block elements:

  1. allow other elements to sit to their left and right
  2. respect top & bottom margins and padding
  3. respect height and width

From W3Schools:

  • An inline element has no line break before or after it, and it tolerates HTML elements next to it.

  • A block element has some whitespace above and below it and does not tolerate any HTML elements next to it.

  • An inline-block element is placed as an inline element (on the same line as adjacent content), but it behaves as a block element.

When you visualize this, it looks like this:

CSS block vs inline vs inline-block

The image is taken from this page, which also talks some more about this subject.

'str' object does not support item assignment in Python

Another approach if you wanted to swap out a specific character for another character:

def swap(input_string):
   if len(input_string) == 0:
     return input_string
   if input_string[0] == "x":
     return "y" + swap(input_string[1:])
     return input_string[0] + swap(input_string[1:])

How to insert date values into table

date must be insert with two apostrophes' As example if the date is 2018/10/20. It can insert from these query

Query -

insert into run(id,name,dob)values(&id,'&name','2018-10-20')

jQuery or Javascript - how to disable window scroll without overflow:hidden;

You can use jquery-disablescroll to solve the problem:

  • Disable scrolling: $window.disablescroll();
  • Enable scrolling again: $window.disablescroll("undo");

Supports handleWheel, handleScrollbar, handleKeys and scrollEventKeys.

Using NSLog for debugging

Use NSLog() like this:

NSLog(@"The code runs through here!");

Or like this - with placeholders:

float aFloat = 5.34245;
NSLog(@"This is my float: %f \n\nAnd here again: %.2f", aFloat, aFloat);

In NSLog() you can use it like + (id)stringWithFormat:(NSString *)format, ...

float aFloat = 5.34245;
NSString *aString = [NSString stringWithFormat:@"This is my float: %f \n\nAnd here again: %.2f", aFloat, aFloat];

You can add other placeholders, too:

float aFloat = 5.34245;
int aInteger = 3;
NSString *aString = @"A string";
NSLog(@"This is my float: %f \n\nAnd here is my integer: %i \n\nAnd finally my string: %@", aFloat, aInteger, aString);

php execute a background process

If you are looking to execute a background process via PHP, pipe the command's output to /dev/null and add & to the end of the command.

exec("bg_process > /dev/null &");

Note that you can not utilize the $output parameter of exec() or else PHP will hang (probably until the process completes).

How to add Options Menu to Fragment in Android

Set setHasMenuOptions(true) works if application has a theme with Actionbar such as Theme.MaterialComponents.DayNight.DarkActionBar or Activity has it's own Toolbar, otherwise onCreateOptionsMenu in fragment does not get called.

If you want to use standalone Toolbar you either need to get activity and set your Toolbar as support action bar with

(requireActivity() as? MainActivity)?.setSupportActionBar(toolbar)

which lets your fragment onCreateOptionsMenu to be called.

Other alternative is, you can inflate your Toolbar's own menu with toolbar.inflateMenu( and item listener with

toolbar.setOnMenuItemClickListener {
   // do something

How to send a JSON object over Request with Android?

Android doesn't have special code for sending and receiving HTTP, you can use standard Java code. I'd recommend using the Apache HTTP client, which comes with Android. Here's a snippet of code I used to send an HTTP POST.

I don't understand what sending the object in a variable named "jason" has to do with anything. If you're not sure what exactly the server wants, consider writing a test program to send various strings to the server until you know what format it needs to be in.

int TIMEOUT_MILLISEC = 10000;  // = 10 seconds
String postMessage="{}"; //HERE_YOUR_POST_STRING.
HttpParams httpParams = new BasicHttpParams();
HttpConnectionParams.setConnectionTimeout(httpParams, TIMEOUT_MILLISEC);
HttpConnectionParams.setSoTimeout(httpParams, TIMEOUT_MILLISEC);
HttpClient client = new DefaultHttpClient(httpParams);

HttpPost request = new HttpPost(serverUrl);
request.setEntity(new ByteArrayEntity(
HttpResponse response = client.execute(request);

What is

To install a Python package you've downloaded, you extract the archive and run the script inside:

python install

To me, this has always felt odd. It would be more natural to point a package manager at the download, as one would do in Ruby and Nodejs, eg. gem install rails-4.1.1.gem

A package manager is more comfortable too, because it's familiar and reliable. On the other hand, each is novel, because it's specific to the package. It demands faith in convention "I trust this takes the same commands as others I have used in the past". That's a regrettable tax on mental willpower.

I'm not saying the workflow is less secure than a package manager (I understand Pip just runs the inside), but certainly I feel it's awkard and jarring. There's a harmony to commands all being to the same package manager application. You might even grow fond it.

How to add a “readonly” attribute to an <input>?

For jQuery version < 1.9:

$('#inputId').attr('disabled', true);

For jQuery version >= 1.9:

$('#inputId').prop('disabled', true);

How do I force a DIV block to extend to the bottom of a page even if it has no content?

I think the issue would be fixed just making the html fill 100% also, might be body fills the 100% of the html but html doesn't fill 100% of the screen.

Try with:

html, body {
      height: 100%;

libxml install error using pip

Using Windows 7 with Cygwin, I came across:

Compile failed: command 'gcc' failed with exit status 1
cc -I/usr/include/libxml2 -I/usr/include/libxml2 -c /tmp/xmlXPathInitZsgdMQ.c -o tmp/xmlXPathInitZsgdMQ.o
Could not find function xmlCheckVersion in library libxml2. Is libxml2 installed?
error: command 'gcc' failed with exit status 1

I fixed it by installing mingw64-x86_64-libxslt

How to add a RequiredFieldValidator to DropDownList control?

For the most part you treat it as if you are validating any other kind of control but use the InitialValue property of the required field validator.

<asp:RequiredFieldValidator ID="rfv1" runat="server" ControlToValidate="your-dropdownlist" InitialValue="Please select" ErrorMessage="Please select something" />

Basically what it's saying is that validation will succeed if any other value than the 1 set in InitialValue is selected in the dropdownlist.

If databinding you will need to insert the "Please select" value afterwards as follows

this.ddl1.Items.Insert(0, "Please select");

Get line number while using grep

grep -nr "search string" directory

This gives you the line with the line number.

How to wait for a number of threads to complete?

Depending on your needs, you may also want to check out the classes CountDownLatch and CyclicBarrier in the java.util.concurrent package. They can be useful if you want your threads to wait for each other, or if you want more fine-grained control over the way your threads execute (e.g., waiting in their internal execution for another thread to set some state). You could also use a CountDownLatch to signal all of your threads to start at the same time, instead of starting them one by one as you iterate through your loop. The standard API docs have an example of this, plus using another CountDownLatch to wait for all threads to complete their execution.

How to program a delay in Swift 3

Try the following function implemented in Swift 3.0 and above

func delayWithSeconds(_ seconds: Double, completion: @escaping () -> ()) {
    DispatchQueue.main.asyncAfter(deadline: .now() + seconds) { 


delayWithSeconds(1) {
   //Do something

How to set initial size of std::vector?

std::vector<CustomClass *> whatever(20000);


std::vector<CustomClass *> whatever;

The former sets the actual size of the array -- i.e., makes it a vector of 20000 pointers. The latter leaves the vector empty, but reserves space for 20000 pointers, so you can insert (up to) that many without it having to reallocate.

At least in my experience, it's fairly unusual for either of these to make a huge difference in performance--but either can affect correctness under some circumstances. In particular, as long as no reallocation takes place, iterators into the vector are guaranteed to remain valid, and once you've set the size/reserved space, you're guaranteed there won't be any reallocations as long as you don't increase the size beyond that.

Javascript querySelector vs. getElementById

"Better" is subjective.

querySelector is the newer feature.

getElementById is better supported than querySelector.

querySelector is better supported than getElementsByClassName.

querySelector lets you find elements with rules that can't be expressed with getElementById and getElementsByClassName

You need to pick the appropriate tool for any given task.

(In the above, for querySelector read querySelector / querySelectorAll).

jQuery add text to span within a div

Careful - append() will append HTML, and you may run into cross-site-scripting problems if you use it all the time and a user makes you append('<script>alert("Hello")</script>').

Use text() to replace element content with text, or append(document.createTextNode(x)) to append a text node.

How to migrate GIT repository from one server to a new one

Updated to use git push --mirror origin instead of git push -f origin as suggested in the comments.

This worked for me flawlessly.

git clone --mirror <URL to my OLD repo location>
cd <New directory where your OLD repo was cloned>
git remote set-url origin <URL to my NEW repo location>
git push --mirror origin

I have to mention though that this creates a mirror of your current repo and then pushes that to the new location. Therefore, this can take some time for large repos or slow connections.

Export to csv in jQuery

I recently posted a free software library for this: "html5csv.js" -- GitHub

It is intended to help streamline the creation of small simulator apps in Javascript that might need to import or export csv files, manipulate, display, edit the data, perform various mathematical procedures like fitting, etc.

After loading "html5csv.js" the problem of scanning a table and creating a CSV is a one-liner:


Here is a JSFiddle demo of your example with this code.

Internally, for Firefox/Chrome this is a data URL oriented solution, similar to that proposed by @italo, @lepe, and @adeneo (on another question). For IE

The CSV.begin() call sets up the system to read the data into an internal array. That fetch then occurs. Then the .download() generates a data URL link internally and clicks it with a link-clicker. This pushes a file to the end user.

According to caniuse IE10 doesn't support <a download=...>. So for IE my library calls navigator.msSaveBlob() internally, as suggested by @Manu Sharma

ActionBarActivity is deprecated

android developers documentation says : "Updated the AppCompatActivity as the base class for activities that use the support library action bar features. This class replaces the deprecated ActionBarActivity."

checkout changes for Android Support Library, revision 22.1.0 (April 2015)

System has not been booted with systemd as init system (PID 1). Can't operate

I was trying to start Docker within ubuntu and WSL.

This worked for me,

sudo service docker start

Calling Javascript from a html form

Remove javascript: from onclick=".., onsubmit=".. declarations

javascript: prefix is used only in href="" or similar attributes (not events related)

How can I access each element of a pair in a pair list?

You can access the members by their index in the tuple.

lst = [(1,'on'),(2,'onn'),(3,'onnn'),(4,'onnnn'),(5,'onnnnn')]

def unFld(x):

    for i in x:
        print(i[0],' ',i[1])


Output :

1    on

2    onn

3    onnn

4    onnnn

5    onnnnn

How to know that a string starts/ends with a specific string in jQuery?

For startswith, you can use indexOf:

if(str.indexOf('Hello') == 0) {



and you can do the maths based on string length to determine 'endswith'.

if(str.lastIndexOf('Hello') == str.length - 'Hello'.length) {

How to adjust text font size to fit textview

Thanks a lot to Great answer!

Here is an improved version of his response that also take care of height and comes with a maxFontSize attribute to limit font size (was useful in my case, so I wanted to share it) :

package com.<your_package>;

import android.content.Context;
import android.content.res.TypedArray;
import android.util.AttributeSet;
import android.util.TypedValue;
import android.widget.TextView;

public class FontFitTextView extends TextView

    private Paint mTestPaint;
    private float maxFontSize;
    private static final float MAX_FONT_SIZE_DEFAULT_VALUE = 20f;

    public FontFitTextView(Context context)
        initialise(context, null);

    public FontFitTextView(Context context, AttributeSet attributeSet)
        super(context, attributeSet);
        initialise(context, attributeSet);

    public FontFitTextView(Context context, AttributeSet attributeSet, int defStyle)
        super(context, attributeSet, defStyle);
        initialise(context, attributeSet);

    private void initialise(Context context, AttributeSet attributeSet)
            TypedArray styledAttributes = context.obtainStyledAttributes(attributeSet, R.styleable.FontFitTextView);
            maxFontSize = styledAttributes.getDimension(R.styleable.FontFitTextView_maxFontSize, MAX_FONT_SIZE_DEFAULT_VALUE);
            maxFontSize = MAX_FONT_SIZE_DEFAULT_VALUE;

        mTestPaint = new Paint();
        //max size defaults to the initially specified text size unless it is too small

    /* Re size the font so the specified text fits in the text box
     * assuming the text box is the specified width.
    private void refitText(String text, int textWidth, int textHeight)
        if (textWidth <= 0)
        int targetWidth = textWidth - this.getPaddingLeft() - this.getPaddingRight();
        int targetHeight = textHeight - this.getPaddingTop() - this.getPaddingBottom();
        float hi = maxFontSize;
        float lo = 2;
//      final float threshold = 0.5f; // How close we have to be
        final float threshold = 1f; // How close we have to be


        Rect bounds = new Rect();

        while ((hi - lo) > threshold)
            float size = (hi + lo) / 2;

            mTestPaint.getTextBounds(text, 0, text.length(), bounds);

            if (bounds.width() >= targetWidth || bounds.height() >= targetHeight)
                hi = size; // too big
                lo = size; // too small

//          if (mTestPaint.measureText(text) >= targetWidth)
//              hi = size; // too big
//          else
//              lo = size; // too small
        // Use lo so that we undershoot rather than overshoot
        this.setTextSize(TypedValue.COMPLEX_UNIT_PX, lo);

    protected void onMeasure(int widthMeasureSpec, int heightMeasureSpec)
        super.onMeasure(widthMeasureSpec, heightMeasureSpec);
        int parentWidth = MeasureSpec.getSize(widthMeasureSpec);
        int height = getMeasuredHeight();
        refitText(this.getText().toString(), parentWidth, height);
        this.setMeasuredDimension(parentWidth, height);

    protected void onTextChanged(final CharSequence text, final int start, final int before, final int after)
        refitText(text.toString(), this.getWidth(), this.getHeight());

    protected void onSizeChanged(int w, int h, int oldw, int oldh)
        if (w != oldw)
            refitText(this.getText().toString(), w, h);

Corresponding /res/values/attr.xml file:

<?xml version="1.0" encoding="utf-8"?>

    <declare-styleable name="FontFitTextView">
        <attr name="maxFontSize" format="dimension" />



<RelativeLayout xmlns:android=""
    tools:ignore="ContentDescription" >

                    android:text="Sample Text"


To use the new maxFontSize attribute, don't forget to add xmlns:res-auto="" as show in the example.

background:none vs background:transparent what is the difference?

There is no difference between them.

If you don't specify a value for any of the half-dozen properties that background is a shorthand for, then it is set to its default value. none and transparent are the defaults.

One explicitly sets the background-image to none and implicitly sets the background-color to transparent. The other is the other way around.

ps1 cannot be loaded because running scripts is disabled on this system

open windows powershell in administrator mode and run the following command and its work VOILA!!

Set-ExecutionPolicy RemoteSigned

Javascript: How to generate formatted easy-to-read JSON straight from an object?

JSON.stringify takes more optional arguments.


 JSON.stringify({a:1,b:2,c:{d:1,e:[1,2]}}, null, 4); // Indented 4 spaces
 JSON.stringify({a:1,b:2,c:{d:1,e:[1,2]}}, null, "\t"); // Indented with tab


How can I beautify JSON programmatically?

Should work in modern browsers, and it is included in json2.js if you need a fallback for browsers that don't support the JSON helper functions. For display purposes, put the output in a <pre> tag to get newlines to show.

Python pip install fails: invalid command egg_info

Bear in mind you may have to do pip install --upgrade Distribute if you have it installed already and your pip may be called pip2 for Python2 on some systems (it is on mine).

Can PHP cURL retrieve response headers AND body in a single request?

Many of the other solutions offered this thread are not doing this correctly.

  • Splitting on \r\n\r\n is not reliable when CURLOPT_FOLLOWLOCATION is on or when the server responds with a 100 code.
  • Not all servers are standards compliant and transmit just a \n for new lines.
  • Detecting the size of the headers via CURLINFO_HEADER_SIZE is also not always reliable, especially when proxies are used or in some of the same redirection scenarios.

The most correct method is using CURLOPT_HEADERFUNCTION.

Here is a very clean method of performing this using PHP closures. It also converts all headers to lowercase for consistent handling across servers and HTTP versions.

This version will retain duplicated headers

This complies with RFC822 and RFC2616, please do not suggest edits to make use of the mb_ string functions, it is incorrect!

$ch = curl_init();
$headers = [];
curl_setopt($ch, CURLOPT_URL, $url);
curl_setopt($ch, CURLOPT_RETURNTRANSFER, 1);

// this function is called by curl for each header received
  function($curl, $header) use (&$headers)
    $len = strlen($header);
    $header = explode(':', $header, 2);
    if (count($header) < 2) // ignore invalid headers
      return $len;

    $headers[strtolower(trim($header[0]))][] = trim($header[1]);

    return $len;

$data = curl_exec($ch);

Converting JavaScript object with numeric keys into array

Try this:

var newArr = [];
$.each(JSONObject.results.bindings, function(i, obj) {

How do I combine two lists into a dictionary in Python?

I don't know about best (simplest? fastest? most readable?), but one way would be:

dict(zip([1, 2, 3, 4], [a, b, c, d]))

I want to declare an empty array in java and then I want do update it but the code is not working

You can do some thing like this,

Initialize with empty array and assign the values later

String importRt = "23:43 43:34";
if(null != importRt) {
            importArray =" "))


Hope it helps..

How to convert integer into date object python?

import datetime

timestamp = datetime.datetime.fromtimestamp(1500000000)

print(timestamp.strftime('%Y-%m-%d %H:%M:%S'))

This will give the output:

2017-07-14 08:10:00

SQL not a single-group group function

Maybe you find this simpler

select * from (
    select ssn, sum(time) from downloads
    group by ssn
    order by sum(time) desc
) where rownum <= 10 --top 10 downloaders


Freemarker iterating over hashmap keys

FYI, it looks like the syntax for retrieving the values has changed according to:

<#assign h = {"name":"mouse", "price":50}>
<#assign keys = h?keys>
<#list keys as key>${key} = ${h[key]}; </#list>

Merge Cell values with PHPExcel - PHP

There is a specific method to do this:


You can also use:


That should do the trick.

Check if multiple strings exist in another string

You need to iterate on the elements of a.

a = ['a', 'b', 'c']
str = "a123"
found_a_string = False
for item in a:    
    if item in str:
        found_a_string = True

if found_a_string:
    print "found a match"
    print "no match found"

Right align and left align text in same HTML table cell

You could use something like:

  <div style="float:left;width:49%;text-align:left;">this is left</div> 
  <div style="float:right;width:49%;text-align:right;">this is right</div> 

The 49% is to give some room for the renderer to wrap things around.

And you can use either <div> or <span>

Warning: mysqli_query() expects at least 2 parameters, 1 given. What?

the mysqli_queryexcepts 2 parameters , first variable is mysqli_connectequivalent variable , second one is the query you have provided

$name1 = mysqli_connect(localhost,tdoylex1_dork,dorkk,tdoylex1_dork);

$name2 = mysqli_query($name1,"SELECT name FROM users ORDER BY RAND() LIMIT 1");

Socket accept - "Too many open files"

Similar issue on Ubuntu 18 on vsphere. The cause - Config file nginx.conf contains too many log files and sockets. Sockets are treated as files in Linux. When nginx -s reload or sudo service nginx start/restart, the Too many open files error appeared in error.log.

NGINX worker processes were launched by NGINX user. Ulimit (soft and hard) for nginx user was 65536. The ulimit and setting limits.conf did not work.

The rlimit setting in nginx.conf did not help either: worker_rlimit_nofile 65536;

The solution that worked was:

$ mkdir -p /etc/systemd/system/nginx.service.d
$ nano /etc/systemd/system/nginx.service.d/nginx.conf
$ systemctl daemon-reload
$ systemctl restart nginx.service

How to get rows count of internal table in abap?

I don't think there is a SAP parameter for that kind of result. Though the code below will deliver.

LOOP AT intTab.

  AT END OF value.

    result = sy-tabix.

    write result.  



Right pad a string with variable number of spaces

Based on KMier's answer, addresses the comment that this method poses a problem when the field to be padded is not a field, but the outcome of a (possibly complicated) function; the entire function has to be repeated.

Also, this allows for padding a field to the maximum length of its contents.

cte AS (
  SELECT 'foo' AS value_to_be_padded
  UNION SELECT 'foobar'
cte_max AS (
  SELECT MAX(LEN(value_to_be_padded)) AS max_len
  CONCAT(SPACE(max_len - LEN(value_to_be_padded)), value_to_be_padded AS left_padded,
  CONCAT(value_to_be_padded, SPACE(max_len - LEN(value_to_be_padded)) AS right_padded;

How can I delete all of my Git stashes at once?

To delete all stashes older than 40 days, use:

git reflog expire --expire-unreachable=40.days refs/stash

Add --dry-run to see which stashes are deleted.

See for an explanation and much more detail.

How do I access (read, write) Google Sheets spreadsheets with Python?

You could have a look at Sheetfu. The following is an example from the README. It gives a super easy syntax to interact with spreadsheets as if it was a database table.

from sheetfu import Table

spreadsheet = SpreadsheetApp('path/to/secret.json').open_by_id('<insert spreadsheet id here>')
data_range = spreadsheet.get_sheet_by_name('people').get_data_range()

table = Table(data_range, backgrounds=True)

for item in table:
    if item.get_field_value('name') == 'foo':
        item.set_field_value('surname', 'bar')              # this set the surname field value
    age = item.get_field_value('age')
    item.set_field_value('age', age + 1)
    item.set_field_background('age', '#ff0000')             # this set the field 'age' to red color

# Every set functions are batched for speed performance.
# To send the batch update of every set requests you made,
# you need to commit the table object as follow.

Disclaimer: I'm the author of this library.

Remove decimal values using SQL query

Simply update with a convert/cast to INT:

WHERE -- some condition is met if required

Or convert:

WHERE -- some condition is met if required

To test you can do this:


JQuery datepicker not working

try adjusting the order in which your script runs. Place the script tag below the element it is trying to affect. Or leave it up at the top and wrap it in a $(document).ready() EDIT: and include the right file.

convert NSDictionary to NSString

if you like to use for URLRequest httpBody

extension Dictionary {

    func toString() -> String? {
        return (self.compactMap({ (key, value) -> String in
            return "\(key)=\(value)"
        }) as Array).joined(separator: "&")


// print: Fields=sdad&ServiceId=1222

How can I switch my signed in user in Visual Studio 2013?

I have Visual Studio 2013 Express. I had to delete the registry key under:


Delete topic in Kafka

Add below line in ${kafka_home}/config/


Restart the kafka server with new config:

${kafka_home}/bin/ ~/kafka/config/

Delete the topics you wish to:

${kafka_home}/bin/ --delete  --zookeeper localhost:2181  --topic daemon12

Is it possible to set ENV variables for rails development environment in my code?

Never hardcode sensitive information (account credentials, passwords, etc.). Instead, create a file to store that information as environment variables (key/value pairs), and exclude that file from your source code management system. For example, in terms of Git (source code management system), exclude that file by adding it to .gitignore:

-bash> echo '/config/app_environment_variables.rb' >> .gitignore 


ENV['HTTP_USER'] = 'devuser'
ENV['HTTP_PASS'] = 'devpass'

As well, add the following lines to /config/environment.rb, between the require line, and the Application.initialize line:

# Load the app's custom environment variables here, so that they are loaded before environments/*.rb
app_environment_variables = File.join(Rails.root, 'config', 'app_environment_variables.rb')
load(app_environment_variables) if File.exists?(app_environment_variables)

That's it!

As the comment above says, by doing this you will be loading your environment variables before environments/*.rb, which means that you will be able to refer to your variables inside those files (e.g. environments/production.rb). This is a great advantage over putting your environment variables file inside /config/initializers/.

Inside app_environment_variables.rb there's no need to distinguish environments as far as development or production because you will never commit this file into your source code management system, hence it is for the development context by default. But if you need to set something special for the test environment (or for occasions when you test production mode locally), just add a conditional block below all the other variables:

if Rails.env.test?
  ENV['HTTP_USER'] = 'testuser'
  ENV['HTTP_PASS'] = 'testpass'

if Rails.env.production?
  ENV['HTTP_USER'] = 'produser'
  ENV['HTTP_PASS'] = 'prodpass'

Whenever you update app_environment_variables.rb, restart the app server. Assuming you are using the likes of Apache/Passenger or rails server:

-bash> touch tmp/restart.txt

In your code, refer to the environment variables as follows:

def authenticate
  authenticate_or_request_with_http_basic do |username, password|
    username == ENV['HTTP_USER'] && password == ENV['HTTP_PASS']

Note that inside app_environment_variables.rb you must specify booleans and numbers as strings (e.g. ENV['SEND_MAIL'] = 'false' not just false, and ENV['TIMEOUT'] = '30' not just 30), otherwise you will get the errors can't convert false into String and can't convert Fixnum into String, respectively.

Storing and sharing sensitive information

The final knot to tie is: how to share this sensitive information with your clients and/or partners? For the purpose of business continuity (i.e. when you get hit by a falling star, how will your clients and/or partners resume full operations of the site?), your clients and/or partners need to know all the credentials required by your app. Emailing/Skyping these things around is insecure and leads to disarray. Storing it in shared Google Docs is not bad (if everyone uses https), but an app dedicated to storing and sharing small titbits like passwords would be ideal.

How to set environment variables on Heroku

If you have a single environment on Heroku:

-bash> heroku config:add HTTP_USER='herouser'
-bash> heroku config:add HTTP_USER='heropass'

If you have multiple environments on Heroku:

-bash> heroku config:add HTTP_USER='staguser' --remote staging
-bash> heroku config:add HTTP_PASS='stagpass' --remote staging

-bash> heroku config:add HTTP_USER='produser' --remote production
-bash> heroku config:add HTTP_PASS='prodpass' --remote production

Foreman and .env

Many developers use Foreman (installed with the Heroku Toolbelt) to run their apps locally (as opposed to using the likes of Apache/Passenger or rails server). Foreman and Heroku use Procfile for declaring what commands are run by your application, so the transition from local dev to Heroku is seamless in that regard. I use Foreman and Heroku in every Rails project, so this convenience is great. But here's the thing.. Foreman loads environment variables stored in /.env via dotenv but unfortunately dotenv essentially only parses the file for key=value pairs; those pairs don't become variables right there and then, so you can't refer to already set variables (to keep things DRY), nor can you do "Ruby" in there (as noted above with the conditionals), which you can do in /config/app_environment_variables.rb. For instance, in terms of keeping things DRY I sometimes do stuff like this:

ENV['SUPPORT_EMAIL']='Company Support <[email protected]>'

Hence, I use Foreman to run my apps locally, but I don't use its .env file for loading environment variables; rather I use Foreman in conjunction with the /config/app_environment_variables.rb approach described above.

How can I stop redis-server?

MacOSX - It Worked :)

Step 1 : Find the previously Running Redis Server

ps auxx | grep redis-server

Step 2 : Kill the specific process by finding PID (Process ID) - Redis Sever

kill -9 PID

In PHP, how can I add an object element to an array?

Do you really need an object? What about:

$myArray[] = array("name" => "my name");

Just use a two-dimensional array.

Output (var_dump):

array(1) {
  array(1) {
    string(7) "my name"

You could access your last entry like this:

echo $myArray[count($myArray) - 1]["name"];

What is sr-only in Bootstrap 3?

Ensures that the object is displayed (or should be) only to readers and similar devices. It give more sense in context with other element with attribute aria-hidden="true".

<div class="alert alert-danger" role="alert">
  <span class="glyphicon glyphicon-exclamation-sign" aria-hidden="true"></span>
  <span class="sr-only">Error:</span>
  Enter a valid email address

Glyphicon will be displayed on all other devices, word Error: on text readers.

SQL Server - In clause with a declared variable

You can't use a variable in an IN clause - you need to use dynamic SQL, or use a function (TSQL or CLR) to convert the list of values into a table.

Dynamic SQL example:

    SET @ExcludedList = 3 + ',' + 4 + ',' + '22'

    SET @SQL = 'SELECT * FROM A WHERE Id NOT IN (@ExcludedList) '


   EXEC sp_executesql @SQL '@ExcludedList VARCHAR(MAX)' @ExcludedList


Java 8 forEach with index

Since you are iterating over an indexable collection (lists, etc.), I presume that you can then just iterate with the indices of the elements:

IntStream.range(0, params.size())
  .forEach(idx ->

The resulting code is similar to iterating a list with the classic i++-style for loop, except with easier parallelizability (assuming, of course, that concurrent read-only access to params is safe).

caching JavaScript files

In your Apache .htaccess file:

#Create filter to match files you want to cache 
<Files *.js>
Header add "Cache-Control" "max-age=604800"

I wrote about it here also:

Typescript: Type 'string | undefined' is not assignable to type 'string'

try to find out what the actual value is beforehand. If person has a valid name, assign it to name1, else assign undefined.

let name1: string = ( ? : undefined;

Filter Pyspark dataframe column with None value

If you want to filter out records having None value in column then see below example:


Now filter out null value records:


If you want to remove those records from DF then see below:['b'])

How to force a html5 form validation without submitting it via jQuery

You speak of two different things "HTML5 validation" and validation of HTML form using javascript/jquery.

HTML5 "has" built-in options for validating a form. Such as using "required" attribute on a field, which could (based on browser implementation) fail form submission without using javascript/jquery.

With javascrip/jquery you can do something like this

$('your_form_id').bind('submit', function() {
   // validate your form here
   return (valid) ? true : false;

Cannot change column used in a foreign key constraint

When you set keys (primary or foreign) you are setting constraints on how they can be used, which in turn limits what you can do with them. If you really want to alter the column, you could re-create the table without the constraints, although I'd recommend against it. Generally speaking, if you have a situation in which you want to do something, but it is blocked by a constraint, it's best resolved by changing what you want to do rather than the constraint.

What is the order of precedence for CSS?

The order in which the classes appear in the html element does not matter, what counts is the order in which the blocks appear in the style sheet.

In your case .smallbox-paysummary is defined after .smallbox hence the 10px precedence.

How to vertically align text in input type="text"?

The <textarea> element automatically aligns text at the top of a textbox, if you don't want to use CSS to force it.

Disable Enable Trigger SQL server for a table

After the ENABLE TRIGGER OR DISABLE TRIGGER in a new line write GO, Example:

DISABLE TRIGGER dbo.tr_name ON dbo.table_name

-- some update statement

ENABLE TRIGGER dbo.tr_name  ON dbo.table_name


trigger body click with jQuery

I've used the following code a few times and it works sweet:

    // Check what has been clicked:
    var target = $(; 
    // The target was clicked
    // Do something...

How to keep the local file or the remote file during merge using Git and the command line?

For the line-end thingie, refer to man git-merge:


Be sure to add autocrlf = false and/or safecrlf = false to the windows clone (.git/config)

Using git mergetool

If you configure a mergetool like this:

git config mergetool.cp.cmd '/bin/cp -v "$REMOTE" "$MERGED"'
git config mergetool.cp.trustExitCode true

Then a simple

git mergetool --tool=cp
git mergetool --tool=cp -- paths/to/files.txt
git mergetool --tool=cp -y -- paths/to/files.txt # without prompting

Will do the job

Using simple git commands

In other cases, I assume

git checkout HEAD -- path/to/myfile.txt

should do the trick

Edit to do the reverse (because you screwed up):

git checkout remote/branch_to_merge -- path/to/myfile.txt

input file appears to be a text format dump. Please use psql

The answer above didn't work for me, this worked:

psql db_development < postgres_db.dump

php random x digit number

Here is a simple solution without any loops or any hassle which will allow you to create random string with characters, numbers or even with special symbols.

$randomNum = substr(str_shuffle("0123456789"), 0, $x);

where $x can be number of digits

Eg. substr(str_shuffle("0123456789"), 0, 5);

Results after a couple of executions


You can use the same code to generate random string also, like this

$randomNum=substr(str_shuffle("0123456789abcdefghijklmnopqrstvwxyzABCDEFGHIJKLMNOPQRSTVWXYZ"), 0, $x);

Results with $x = 11


trigger click event from angularjs directive

This is more the Angular way to do it:

  1. I added $scope.selectedItem that gets you past your first problem (defaulting the image)
  2. I added $scope.setSelectedItem and called it in ng-click. Your final requirements may be different, but using a directive to bind click and change src was overkill, since most of it can be handled with template
  3. Notice use of ngSrc to avoid errant server calls on initial load
  4. You'll need to adjust some styles to get the image positioned right in the div. If you really need to use background-image, then you'll need a directive like ngSrc that defers setting the background-image style until after real data has loaded.

difference between iframe, embed and object elements

One reason to use object over iframe is that object re-sizes the embedded content to fit the object dimensions. most notable on safari in iPhone 4s where screen width is 320px and the html from the embedded URL may set dimensions greater.

Git add and commit in one command

On my windows machine I have set up this .bashrc alias to make the entire process more simple.

  • create / locate your .bashrc - refer SO thread
  • add the following line to file

    alias gacp='echo "enter commit message : " && read MSG && git add . && git commit -m "$MSG" && git push'

    it does git add commit and push . tweak it in any manner, say you don't want the push command remove that part

  • reload .bashrc / close and reopen your shell

  • now you can do the entire process with gacp command .

How can I copy the output of a command directly into my clipboard?

On OS X, use pbcopy; pbpaste goes in the opposite direction.

pbcopy < .ssh/

Convert object string to JSON

Just for the quirks of it, you can convert your string via babel-standalone

var str = "{ hello: 'world', places: ['Africa', 'America', 'Asia', 'Australia'] }";_x000D_
function toJSON() {_x000D_
  return {_x000D_
    visitor: {_x000D_
      Identifier(path) {_x000D_ = '"' + + '"'_x000D_
      StringLiteral(path) {_x000D_
        delete path.node.extra_x000D_
Babel.registerPlugin('toJSON', toJSON);_x000D_
var parsed = Babel.transform('(' + str + ')', {_x000D_
  plugins: ['toJSON']_x000D_
var json = parsed.code.slice(1, -2)_x000D_
<script src=""></script>

The EntityManager is closed

I had the same error using Symfony 5 / Doctrine 2. One of my fields was named using a MySQL reserved word "order", causing a DBALException. When you want to use a reserved word, you have to escape it's name using back-ticks. In annotation form :

@ORM\Column(name="`order`", type="integer", nullable=false)

Explanation of 'String args[]' and static in 'public static void main(String[] args)'

  • public : it is a access specifier that means it will be accessed by publically.
  • static : it is access modifier that means when the java program is load then it will create the space in memory automatically.
  • void : it is a return type i.e it does not return any value.
  • main() : it is a method or a function name.
  • string args[] : its a command line argument it is a collection of variables in the string format.

Loop through all the resources in a .resx file

You should always use the resource manager and not read files directly to ensure globalization is taken into account.

using System.Collections;
using System.Globalization;
using System.Resources;


/* Reference to your resources class -- may be named differently in your case */
ResourceManager MyResourceClass =
    new ResourceManager(typeof(Resources));

ResourceSet resourceSet =
    MyResourceClass.ResourceManager.GetResourceSet(CultureInfo.CurrentUICulture, true, true);
foreach (DictionaryEntry entry in resourceSet)
    string resourceKey = entry.Key.ToString();
    object resource = entry.Value;

Asynchronous method call in Python?

The native Python way for asynchronous calls in 2021 with Python 3.9 suitable also for Jupyter / Ipython Kernel

Camabeh's answer is the way to go since Python 3.3.

async def display_date(loop):
    end_time = loop.time() + 5.0
    while True:
        if (loop.time() + 1.0) >= end_time:
        await asyncio.sleep(1)

loop = asyncio.get_event_loop()
# Blocking call which returns when the display_date() coroutine is done

This will work in Jupyter Notebook / Jupyter Lab but throw an error:

RuntimeError: This event loop is already running

Due to Ipython's usage of event loops we need something called nested asynchronous loops which is not yet implemented in Python. Luckily there is nest_asyncio to deal with the issue. All you need to do is:

!pip install nest_asyncio # use ! within Jupyter Notebook, else pip install in shell
import nest_asyncio

(Based on this thread)

Only when you call loop.close() it throws another error as it probably refers to Ipython's main loop.

RuntimeError: Cannot close a running event loop

I'll update this answer as soon as someone answered to this github issue.

How do I run pip on python for windows?

I have a Mac, but luckily this should work the same way:

pip is a command-line thing. You don't run it in python.

For example, on my Mac, I just say:

$pip install somelib

pretty easy!

How to check if all elements of a list matches a condition?

this way is a bit more flexible than using all():

my_list = [[1, 2, 0], [1, 2, 0], [1, 2, 0]]
all_zeros = False if False in [x[2] == 0 for x in my_list] else True
any_zeros = True if True in [x[2] == 0 for x in my_list] else False

or more succinctly:

all_zeros = not False in [x[2] == 0 for x in my_list]
any_zeros = 0 in [x[2] for x in my_list]

What does "Fatal error: Unexpectedly found nil while unwrapping an Optional value" mean?

Since the above answers clearly explains how to play safely with Optionals. I will try explain what Optionals are really in swift.

Another way to declare an optional variable is

var i : Optional<Int>

And Optional type is nothing but an enumeration with two cases, i.e

 enum Optional<Wrapped> : ExpressibleByNilLiteral {
    case none 
    case some(Wrapped)

So to assign a nil to our variable 'i'. We can do var i = Optional<Int>.none or to assign a value, we will pass some value var i = Optional<Int>.some(28)

According to swift, 'nil' is the absence of value. And to create an instance initialized with nil We have to conform to a protocol called ExpressibleByNilLiteral and great if you guessed it, only Optionals conform to ExpressibleByNilLiteral and conforming to other types is discouraged.

ExpressibleByNilLiteral has a single method called init(nilLiteral:) which initializes an instace with nil. You usually wont call this method and according to swift documentation it is discouraged to call this initializer directly as the compiler calls it whenever you initialize an Optional type with nil literal.

Even myself has to wrap (no pun intended) my head around Optionals :D Happy Swfting All.

Create a dictionary with list comprehension

Use a dict comprehension:

{key: value for (key, value) in iterable}

Note: this is for Python 3.x (and 2.7 upwards). Formerly in Python 2.6 and earlier, the dict built-in could receive an iterable of key/value pairs, so you can pass it a list comprehension or generator expression. For example:

dict((key, func(key)) for key in keys)

In simple cases you don't need a comprehension at all...

But if you already have iterable(s) of keys and/or values, just call the dict built-in directly:

1) consumed from any iterable yielding pairs of keys/vals

2) "zip'ped" from two separate iterables of keys/vals
dict(zip(list_of_keys, list_of_values))

Why use sys.path.append(path) instead of sys.path.insert(1, path)?

If you have multiple versions of a package / module, you need to be using virtualenv (emphasis mine):

virtualenv is a tool to create isolated Python environments.

The basic problem being addressed is one of dependencies and versions, and indirectly permissions. Imagine you have an application that needs version 1 of LibFoo, but another application requires version 2. How can you use both these applications? If you install everything into /usr/lib/python2.7/site-packages (or whatever your platform’s standard location is), it’s easy to end up in a situation where you unintentionally upgrade an application that shouldn’t be upgraded.

Or more generally, what if you want to install an application and leave it be? If an application works, any change in its libraries or the versions of those libraries can break the application.

Also, what if you can’t install packages into the global site-packages directory? For instance, on a shared host.

In all these cases, virtualenv can help you. It creates an environment that has its own installation directories, that doesn’t share libraries with other virtualenv environments (and optionally doesn’t access the globally installed libraries either).

That's why people consider insert(0, to be wrong -- it's an incomplete, stopgap solution to the problem of managing multiple environments.

How to convert string to XML using C#

xDoc.LoadXML("<head><body><Inner> welcome </head> </Inner> <Outer> Bye</Outer>                    

How to merge specific files from Git branches

You can stash and stash pop the file:

git checkout branch1
git checkout branch2
git stash
git checkout branch1
git stash pop

Best way to retrieve variable values from a text file?

A simple way of reading variables from a text file using the standard library:

# Get vars from conf file
var = {}
with open("myvars.conf") as conf:
        for line in conf:
                if ":" in line:
                        name, value = line.split(":")
                        var[name] = str(value).rstrip()

How to find length of digits in an integer?

It can be done for integers quickly by using:


Which gets the length of the string of the absolute value of "1234567890"

abs returns the number WITHOUT any negatives (only the magnitude of the number), str casts/converts it to a string and len returns the string length of that string.

If you want it to work for floats, you can use either of the following:

# Ignore all after decimal place

# Ignore just the decimal place

For future reference.

CSS how to make an element fade in and then fade out?

I found this link to be useful: css-tricks fade-in fade-out css.

Here's a summary of the csstricks post:

CSS classes:

.m-fadeOut {
  visibility: hidden;
  opacity: 0;
  transition: visibility 0s linear 300ms, opacity 300ms;
.m-fadeIn {
  visibility: visible;
  opacity: 1;
  transition: visibility 0s linear 0s, opacity 300ms;

In React:

    if(true condition){
        this.setState({toggleClass: "m-fadeIn"});
        this.setState({toggleClass: "m-fadeOut"});

    return (<div className={this.state.toggleClass}>Element to be toggled</div>)

How to initialize all members of an array to the same value?

int i;
for (i = 0; i < ARRAY_SIZE; ++i)
  myArray[i] = VALUE;

I think this is better than

int myArray[10] = { 5, 5, 5, 5, 5, 5, 5, 5, 5, 5...

incase the size of the array changes.

Convert a JSON Object to Buffer and Buffer to JSON Object back

You need to stringify the json, not calling toString

var buf = Buffer.from(JSON.stringify(obj));

And for converting string to json obj :

var temp = JSON.parse(buf.toString());

python 2.7: cannot pip on windows "bash: pip: command not found"

The problem is that your Python version and the library you want to use are not same versionally (Python). Even if you install Python's latest version, your PATH might not change properly and automatically. Thus, you should change it manually.After matching their version, it will work.

Ex: When I tried to install Django3, I got same error. I noticed that my PATH still seems C:\python27\Scripts though I already install Python3.8, so that I manually edited my PATH C:\python38\Scripts and reinstalled pip install Django and everything worked well.

How to get height of entire document with JavaScript?

To get the width in a cross browser/device way use:

function getActualWidth() {
    var actualWidth = window.innerWidth ||
                      document.documentElement.clientWidth ||
                      document.body.clientWidth ||

    return actualWidth;

When should I use File.separator and when File.pathSeparator? class contains four static separator variables. For better understanding, Let's understand with the help of some code

  1. separator: Platform dependent default name-separator character as String. For windows, it’s ‘\’ and for unix it’s ‘/’
  2. separatorChar: Same as separator but it’s char
  3. pathSeparator: Platform dependent variable for path-separator. For example PATH or CLASSPATH variable list of paths separated by ‘:’ in Unix systems and ‘;’ in Windows system
  4. pathSeparatorChar: Same as pathSeparator but it’s char

Note that all of these are final variables and system dependent.

Here is the java program to print these separator variables.


public class FileSeparator {

    public static void main(String[] args) {
        System.out.println("File.separator = "+File.separator);
        System.out.println("File.separatorChar = "+File.separatorChar);
        System.out.println("File.pathSeparator = "+File.pathSeparator);
        System.out.println("File.pathSeparatorChar = "+File.pathSeparatorChar);


Output of above program on Unix system:

File.separator = /
File.separatorChar = /
File.pathSeparator = :
File.pathSeparatorChar = :

Output of the program on Windows system:

File.separator = \
File.separatorChar = \
File.pathSeparator = ;
File.pathSeparatorChar = ;

To make our program platform independent, we should always use these separators to create file path or read any system variables like PATH, CLASSPATH.

Here is the code snippet showing how to use separators correctly.

//no platform independence, good for Unix systems
File fileUnsafe = new File("tmp/abc.txt");
//platform independent and safe to use across Unix and Windows
File fileSafe = new File("tmp"+File.separator+"abc.txt");

How to use Bootstrap modal using the anchor tag for Register?

Here is a link to W3Schools that answers your question

Note: For anchor tag elements, omit data-target, and use href="#modalID" instead:

I hope that helps

Loop in react-native

    const width = '80%';
    var items = [];

    for(let i = 0; i < item.count; i++){

        items.push( <View style={{ padding: 10, borderBottomColor: "#f2f2f2", borderBottomWidth: 10, flexDirection: 'row' }}>
    <View style={{ width }}>
      <Text style={}>{item.title}</Text>
      <Text style={{ color: '#818181', paddingVertical: 10 }}>{item.taskDataElements[0].description + " "}</Text>
      <Text style={styles.begin}>BEGIN</Text>

    <Text style={{ backgroundColor: '#fcefec', padding: 10, color: 'red', height: 40 }}>{this.msToTime(item.minTatTimestamp) <= 0 ? "NOW" : this.msToTime(item.minTatTimestamp) + "hrs"}</Text>
  </View> )

  return items;

render() {
return (this.renderItem(this.props.item)) 

How to install Openpyxl with pip

It worked for me by executing "python37 -m pip install openpyxl"

Database Diagram Support Objects cannot be Installed ... no valid owner

right click on your Database , then select properties . select the option in compatibility levels choose sql 2005[90] instead of 2008 if you are working with Microsoft sql 2008. then select the file and write ( sa ) in owner`s textbox. it will work probably

Responsive font size in CSS

Try including this on your style sheet:

html {
  font-size: min(max(16px, 4vw), 22px);

More info at

How to reset index in a pandas dataframe?


PHP script to loop through all of the files in a directory?

Most of the time I imagine you want to skip . and ... Here is that with recursion:

$o_dir = new RecursiveDirectoryIterator('.', FilesystemIterator::SKIP_DOTS);
$o_iter = new RecursiveIteratorIterator($o_dir);
foreach ($o_iter as $o_name) {
   echo $o_name->getFilename();

Rename multiple files in cmd

Make sure that there are more ? than there are characters in the longest name:

ren *.txt "???????????????????????????? 1.1.txt"

See How does the Windows RENAME command interpret wildcards? for more info.

New Solution - 2014/12/01

For those who like regular expressions, there is JREN.BAT - a hybrid JScript/batch command line utility that will run on any version of Windows from XP forward.

jren "^.*(?=\.)" "$& 1.1" /fm "*.txt"


jren "^(.*)(\.txt)$" "$1 1.1$2" /i

How to comment lines in rails html.erb files?

Note that if you want to comment out a single line of printing erb you should do like this

<%#= ["Buck", "Papandreou"].join(" you ") %>

Private Variables and Methods in Python

Please note that there is no such thing as "private method" in Python. Double underscore is just name mangling:

>>> class A(object):
...     def __foo(self):
...         pass
>>> a = A()
>>> A.__dict__.keys()
['__dict__', '_A__foo', '__module__', '__weakref__', '__doc__']
>>> a._A__foo()

So therefore __ prefix is useful when you need the mangling to occur, for example to not clash with names up or below inheritance chain. For other uses, single underscore would be better, IMHO.

EDIT, regarding confusion on __, PEP-8 is quite clear on that:

If your class is intended to be subclassed, and you have attributes that you do not want subclasses to use, consider naming them with double leading underscores and no trailing underscores. This invokes Python's name mangling algorithm, where the name of the class is mangled into the attribute name. This helps avoid attribute name collisions should subclasses inadvertently contain attributes with the same name.

Note 3: Not everyone likes name mangling. Try to balance the need to avoid accidental name clashes with potential use by advanced callers.

So if you don't expect subclass to accidentally re-define own method with same name, don't use it.