Programs & Examples On #Unions

The plural of a keyword in the C family of languages for declaring a union data type.

What does "request for member '*******' in something not a structure or union" mean?

I have enumerated possibly all cases where this error may occur in code and its comments below. Please add to it, if you come across more cases.


typedef struct AStruct TypedefedStruct;

struct AStruct
    int member;

void main()
    /*  Case 1
        Use (->) operator to access structure member with structure pointer, instead
        of dot (.) operator. 
    struct AStruct *aStructObjPtr = (struct AStruct *)malloc(sizeof(struct AStruct));
    //aStructObjPtr.member = 1;      //Error: request for member ‘member’ in something not 
                                      //a structure or union. 
                                      //It should be as below.
    aStructObjPtr->member = 1;
    printf("%d",aStructObjPtr->member); //1

    /*  Case 2
        We can use dot (.) operator with struct variable to access its members, but 
        not with with struct pointer. But we have to ensure we dont forget to wrap 
        pointer variable inside brackets.
    //*aStructObjPtr.member = 2;     //Error, should be as below.
    (*aStructObjPtr).member = 2;
    printf("%d",(*aStructObjPtr).member); //2

    /* Case 3
       Use (->) operator to access structure member with typedefed structure pointer, 
       instead of dot (.) operator. 
    TypedefedStruct *typedefStructObjPtr = (TypedefedStruct *)malloc(sizeof(TypedefedStruct));
    //typedefStructObjPtr.member=3;  //Error, should be as below.
    printf("%d",typedefStructObjPtr->member);  //3

    /*  Case 4
        We can use dot (.) operator with struct variable to access its members, but 
        not with with struct pointer. But we have to ensure we dont forget to wrap 
        pointer variable inside brackets.
    //*typedefStructObjPtr.member = 4;  //Error, should be as below.    
    printf("%d",(*typedefStructObjPtr).member);  //4

    /* Case 5
       We have to be extra carefull when dealing with pointer to pointers to 
       ensure that we follow all above rules.
       We need to be double carefull while putting brackets around pointers.

    //5.1. Access via struct_ptrptr and  ->
    struct AStruct **aStructObjPtrPtr = &aStructObjPtr;
    //*aStructObjPtrPtr->member = 5;  //Error, should be as below.
    (*aStructObjPtrPtr)->member = 5;
    printf("%d",(*aStructObjPtrPtr)->member); //5

    //5.2. Access via struct_ptrptr and .
    //**aStructObjPtrPtr.member = 6;  //Error, should be as below.
    (**aStructObjPtrPtr).member = 6;
    printf("%d",(**aStructObjPtrPtr).member); //6

    //5.3. Access via typedefed_strct_ptrptr and ->
    TypedefedStruct **typedefStructObjPtrPtr = &typedefStructObjPtr;
    //*typedefStructObjPtrPtr->member = 7;  //Error, should be as below.
    (*typedefStructObjPtrPtr)->member = 7;
    printf("%d",(*typedefStructObjPtrPtr)->member); //7

    //5.4. Access via typedefed_strct_ptrptr and .
    //**typedefStructObjPtrPtr->member = 8;  //Error, should be as below.
    (**typedefStructObjPtrPtr).member = 8;
    printf("%d",(**typedefStructObjPtrPtr).member); //8

    //5.5. All cases 5.1 to 5.4 will fail if you include incorrect number of *
    //     Below are examples of such usage of incorrect number *, correspnding
    //     to int values assigned to them

    //(aStructObjPtrPtr)->member = 5; //Error
    //(*aStructObjPtrPtr).member = 6; //Error 
    //(typedefStructObjPtrPtr)->member = 7; //Error 
    //(*typedefStructObjPtrPtr).member = 8; //Error

The underlying ideas are straight:

  • Use . with structure variable. (Cases 2 and 4)
  • Use -> with pointer to structure. (Cases 1 and 3)
  • If you reach structure variable or pointer to structure variable by following pointer, then wrap the pointer inside bracket: (*ptr). and (*ptr)-> vs *ptr. and *ptr-> (All cases except case 1)
  • If you are reaching by following pointers, ensure you have correctly reached pointer to struct or struct whichever is desired. (Case 5, especially 5.5)

Why do we need C Unions?

Unions are particularly useful in Embedded programming or in situations where direct access to the hardware/memory is needed. Here is a trivial example:

typedef union
    struct {
        unsigned char byte1;
        unsigned char byte2;
        unsigned char byte3;
        unsigned char byte4;
    } bytes;
    unsigned int dword;
} HW_Register;
HW_Register reg;

Then you can access the reg as follows:

reg.dword = 0x12345678;
reg.bytes.byte3 = 4;

Endianness (byte order) and processor architecture are of course important.

Another useful feature is the bit modifier:

typedef union
    struct {
        unsigned char b1:1;
        unsigned char b2:1;
        unsigned char b3:1;
        unsigned char b4:1;
        unsigned char reserved:4;
    } bits;
    unsigned char byte;
} HW_RegisterB;
HW_RegisterB reg;

With this code you can access directly a single bit in the register/memory address:

x = reg.bits.b2;

Difference between a Structure and a Union

"union" and "struct" are constructs of the C language. Talking of an "OS level" difference between them is inappropriate, since it's the compiler that produces different code if you use one or another keyword.

Purpose of Unions in C and C++

The behavior is undefined from the language point of view. Consider that different platforms can have different constraints in memory alignment and endianness. The code in a big endian versus a little endian machine will update the values in the struct differently. Fixing the behavior in the language would require all implementations to use the same endianness (and memory alignment constraints...) limiting use.

If you are using C++ (you are using two tags) and you really care about portability, then you can just use the struct and provide a setter that takes the uint32_t and sets the fields appropriately through bitmask operations. The same can be done in C with a function.

Edit: I was expecting AProgrammer to write down an answer to vote and close this one. As some comments have pointed out, endianness is dealt in other parts of the standard by letting each implementation decide what to do, and alignment and padding can also be handled differently. Now, the strict aliasing rules that AProgrammer implicitly refers to are a important point here. The compiler is allowed to make assumptions on the modification (or lack of modification) of variables. In the case of the union, the compiler could reorder instructions and move the read of each color component over the write to the colour variable.

Mapping list in Yaml to list of objects in Spring Boot

The reason must be somewhere else. Using only Spring Boot 1.2.2 out of the box with no configuration, it Just Works. Have a look at this repo - can you get it to break?

Are you sure the YAML file looks exactly the way you pasted? No extra whitespace, characters, special characters, mis-indentation or something of that sort? Is it possible you have another file elsewhere in the search path that is used instead of the one you're expecting?

Email address validation using ASP.NET MVC data type attributes

As per the above this will fix server side validation of an Email Address:

[Display(Name = "Email address")]
[Required(ErrorMessage = "The email address is required")]
[EmailAddress(ErrorMessage = "Invalid Email Address")]
public string Email { get; set; }


If you are using JQuery client side validation you should know that the Email validates differently server side (model validation) to client side (JQuery validation). In that test@example (a top level domain email address) would fail server side but would validate fine on the client side.

To fix this disparity you can override the default client side email validation as follows:

$ = function (value, element) {
    return this.optional(element) || /^[a-z0-9._]+@[a-z]+\.[a-z.]+/.test(value);

How to plot a subset of a data frame in R?

with(dfr[dfr$var3 < 155,], plot(var1, var2)) should do the trick.

Edit regarding multiple conditions:

with(dfr[(dfr$var3 < 155) & (dfr$var4 > 27),], plot(var1, var2))

C++ float array initialization

You only initialize the first N positions to the values in braces and all others are initialized to 0. In this case, N is the number of arguments you passed to the initialization list, i.e.,

float arr1[10] = { };       // all elements are 0
float arr2[10] = { 0 };     // all elements are 0
float arr3[10] = { 1 };     // first element is 1, all others are 0
float arr4[10] = { 1, 2 };  // first element is 1, second is 2, all others are 0

What is the apply function in Scala?

Here is a small example for those who want to peruse quickly

 object ApplyExample01 extends App {

  class Greeter1(var message: String) {
    println("A greeter-1 is being instantiated with message " + message)


  class Greeter2 {

    def apply(message: String) = {
      println("A greeter-2 is being instantiated with message " + message)

  val g1: Greeter1 = new Greeter1("hello")
  val g2: Greeter2 = new Greeter2()




A greeter-1 is being instantiated with message hello

A greeter-2 is being instantiated with message world

Using parameters in batch files at Windows command line

Batch Files automatically pass the text after the program so long as their are variables to assign them to. They are passed in order they are sent; e.g. %1 will be the first string sent after the program is called, etc.

If you have Hello.bat and the contents are:

@echo off
echo.Hello, %1 thanks for running this batch file (%2)

and you invoke the batch in command via

hello.bat APerson241 %date%

you should receive this message back:

Hello, APerson241 thanks for running this batch file (01/11/2013)

fcntl substitute on Windows

Although this does not help you right away, there is an alternative that can work with both Unix (fcntl) and Windows (win32 api calls), called: portalocker

It describes itself as a cross-platform (posix/nt) API for flock-style file locking for Python. It basically maps fcntl to win32 api calls.

The original code at can now be installed as a separate package -

Non-alphanumeric list order from os.listdir()

I found "sort" does not always do what I expected. eg, I have a directory as below, and the "sort" give me a very strange result:

>>> os.listdir(pathon)
['2', '3', '4', '5', '403', '404', '407', '408', '410', '411', '412', '413', '414', '415', '416', '472']
>>> sorted([ f for f in os.listdir(pathon)])
['2', '3', '4', '403', '404', '407', '408', '410', '411', '412', '413', '414', '415', '416', '472', '5']

It seems it compares the first character first, if that is the biggest, it would be the last one.

Reading e-mails from Outlook with Python through MAPI

I had the same issue. Combining various approaches from the internet (and above) come up with the following approach (

class CheckMailer:

        def __init__(self, filename="LOG1.txt", mailbox="Mailbox - Another User Mailbox", folderindex=3):
            self.f = FileWriter(filename)
            self.outlook = win32com.client.Dispatch("Outlook.Application").GetNamespace("MAPI").Folders(mailbox)
            self.inbox = self.outlook.Folders(folderindex)

        def check(self):                
        # for i in xrange(1,100):                           #Uncomment this section if index 3 does not work for you
        #     try:
        #         self.inbox = self.outlook.Folders(i)     # "6" refers to the index of inbox for Default User Mailbox
        #         print "%i %s" % (i,self.inbox)            # "3" refers to the index of inbox for Another user's mailbox
        #     except:
        #         print "%i does not work"%i

                tot = 0                
                messages = self.inbox.Items
                message = messages.GetFirst()
                while message:
                    message = messages.GetNext()
                    tot += 1
      "Total Messages found: %i" % tot)
      "-" * 80)

if __name__ == "__main__":
    mail = CheckMailer()
    for i in xrange(320):  # this is 10.6 hours approximately

For concistency I include also the code for the FileWriter class (found in I needed this because trying to pipe UTF8 to a file in windows did not work.

class FileWriter(object):
    convenient file wrapper for writing to files

    def __init__(self, filename):
        self.file = open(filename, "w")

    def pl(self, a_string):
        str_uni = a_string.encode('utf-8')

    def flush(self):

Oracle to_date, from mm/dd/yyyy to dd-mm-yyyy

You don't need to muck about with extracting parts of the date. Just cast it to a date using to_date and the format in which its stored, then cast that date to a char in the format you want. Like this:

select to_char(to_date('1/10/2011','mm/dd/yyyy'),'mm-dd-yyyy') from dual

ORA-01008: not all variables bound. They are bound

The solution in my situation was similar answer to Charles Burns; and the problem was related to SQL code comments.

I was building (or updating, rather) an already-functioning SSRS report with Oracle datasource. I added some more parameters to the report, tested it in Visual Studio, it works great, so I deployed it to the report server, and then when the report is executed the report on the server I got the error message:

"ORA-01008: not all variables bound"

I tried quite a few different things (TNSNames.ora file installed on the server, Removed single line comments, Validate dataset query mapping). What it came down to was I had to remove a comment block directly after the WHERE keyword. The error message was resolved after moving the comment block after the WHERE CLAUSE conditions. I have other comments in the code also. It was just the one after the WHERE keyword causing the error.

SQL with error: "ORA-01008: not all variables bound"...

    OHH.SHIP_DATE BETWEEN TO_DATE('10/1/2018', 'MM/DD/YYYY') AND TO_DATE('10/31/2018', 'MM/DD/YYYY')

    OHH.SHIP_DATE BETWEEN :paramStartDate AND :paramEndDate
    AND OHH.BILL_COMP_CODE IN (:paramCompany)
    AND LOAD.DEPART_FROM_WHSE_CODE IN (:paramWarehouse) 
    AND LOAD.CLASS_CODE IN (:paramClassCode) 
    AND CUST.CUST_CODE || '-' || CUST.CUST_SHIPTO_CODE IN (:paramShipto) 

SQL executes successfully on the report server...

    OHH.SHIP_DATE BETWEEN :paramStartDate AND :paramEndDate
    AND OHH.BILL_COMP_CODE IN (:paramCompany)
    AND LOAD.DEPART_FROM_WHSE_CODE IN (:paramWarehouse) 
    AND LOAD.CLASS_CODE IN (:paramClassCode) 
    AND CUST.CUST_CODE || '-' || CUST.CUST_SHIPTO_CODE IN (:paramShipto)   
    OHH.SHIP_DATE BETWEEN TO_DATE('10/1/2018', 'MM/DD/YYYY') AND TO_DATE('10/31/2018', 'MM/DD/YYYY')

Here is what the dataset parameter mapping screen looks like.

enter image description here

What's the difference between SCSS and Sass?

SASS stands for Syntactically Awesome StyleSheets. It is an extension of CSS that adds power and elegance to the basic language. SASS is newly named as SCSS with some chages, but the old one SASS is also there. Before you use SCSS or SASS please see the below difference.

enter image description here

An example of some SCSS and SASS syntax:


$font-stack:    Helvetica, sans-serif;
$primary-color: #333;

body {
  font: 100% $font-stack;
  color: $primary-color;

@mixin transform($property) {
  -webkit-transform: $property;
      -ms-transform: $property;
          transform: $property;

.box { @include transform(rotate(30deg)); }


$font-stack:    Helvetica, sans-serif
$primary-color: #333

  font: 100% $font-stack
  color: $primary-color

  -webkit-transform: $property
  -ms-transform:     $property
  transform:         $property


Output CSS after Compilation(Same for Both)

body {
  font: 100% Helvetica, sans-serif;
  color: #333;
.box {
  -webkit-transform: rotate(30deg);
  -ms-transform: rotate(30deg);
  transform: rotate(30deg);

For more guide you can see the official website.

How to convert a string to an integer in JavaScript?

The simplest way would be to use the native Number function:

var x = Number("1000")

If that doesn't work for you, then there are the parseInt, unary plus, parseFloat with floor, and Math.round methods.


var x = parseInt("1000", 10); // you want to use radix 10
    // so you get a decimal number even with a leading 0 and an old browser ([IE8, Firefox 20, Chrome 22 and older][1])

unary plus if your string is already in the form of an integer:

var x = +"1000";

if your string is or might be a float and you want an integer:

var x = Math.floor("1000.01"); //floor automatically converts string to number

or, if you're going to be using Math.floor several times:

var floor = Math.floor;
var x = floor("1000.01");

If you're the type who forgets to put the radix in when you call parseInt, you can use parseFloat and round it however you like. Here I use floor.

var floor = Math.floor;
var x = floor(parseFloat("1000.01"));

Interestingly, Math.round (like Math.floor) will do a string to number conversion, so if you want the number rounded (or if you have an integer in the string), this is a great way, maybe my favorite:

var round = Math.round;
var x = round("1000"); //equivalent to round("1000",0)

bootstrap multiselect get selected values

Shorter version:

    onChange: function() {

How can I create an error 404 in PHP?

try this once.


Are loops really faster in reverse?

Wouldn't the compiler cache .length, and therefore it makes no difference if you are comparing 0 or .length? I guess this is very specific to the compiler or interpreter you are dealing with.

I would say if you are using a well optimised compiler or interpreter then you shouldn't worry about this, it is for the language developers to worry about.

What's the difference between session.persist() and in Hibernate?

I did some mock testing to record the difference between save() and persist().

Sounds like both these methods behaves same when dealing with Transient Entity but differ when dealing with Detached Entity.

For the below example, take EmployeeVehicle as an Entity with PK as vehicleId which is a generated value and vehicleName as one of its properties.

Example 1 : Dealing with Transient Object

Session session = factory.openSession();
EmployeeVehicle entity = new EmployeeVehicle();
// session.persist(entity);


select nextval ('hibernate_sequence') // This is for vehicle Id generated : 36
insert into Employee_Vehicle ( Vehicle_Name, Vehicle_Id) values ( Honda, 36)

Note the result is same when you get an already persisted object and save it

EmployeeVehicle entity =  (EmployeeVehicle)session.get(EmployeeVehicle.class, 36);
entity.setVehicleName("Toyota");;    -------> **instead of session.update(entity);**
// session.persist(entity);

Repeat the same using persist(entity) and will result the same with new Id ( say 37 , honda ) ;

Example 2 : Dealing with Detached Object

// Session 1 
// Get the previously saved Vehicle Entity 
Session session = factory.openSession();
EmployeeVehicle entity = (EmployeeVehicle)session.get(EmployeeVehicle.class, 36);

// Session 2
// Here in Session 2 , vehicle entity obtained in previous session is a detached object and now we will try to save / persist it 
// (i) Using Save() to persist a detached object 
Session session2 = factory.openSession();

Result : You might be expecting the Vehicle with id : 36 obtained in previous session is updated with name as "Toyota" . But what happens is that a new entity is saved in the DB with new Id generated for and Name as "Toyota"

select nextval ('hibernate_sequence')
insert into Employee_Vehicle ( Vehicle_Name, Vehicle_Id) values ( Toyota, 39)

Using persist to persist detached entity

// (ii) Using Persist()  to persist a detached
// Session 1 
Session session = factory.openSession();
EmployeeVehicle entity = (EmployeeVehicle)session.get(EmployeeVehicle.class, 36);

// Session 2
// Here in Session 2 , vehicle entity obtained in previous session is a detached object and now we will try to save / persist it 
// (i) Using Save() to persist a detached
Session session2 = factory.openSession();


Exception being thrown : detached entity passed to persist

So, it is always better to use Persist() rather than Save() as save has to be carefully used when dealing with Transient object .

Important Note : In the above example , the pk of vehicle entity is a generated value , so when using save() to persist a detached entity , hibernate generates a new id to persist . However if this pk is not a generated value than it is result in a exception stating key violated.

jQuery - select the associated label element of a input field

You shouldn't rely on the order of elements by using prev or next. Just use the for attribute of the label, as it should correspond to the ID of the element you're currently manipulating:

var label = $("label[for='" + $(this).attr('id') + "']");

However, there are some cases where the label will not have for set, in which case the label will be the parent of its associated control. To find it in both cases, you can use a variation of the following:

var label = $('label[for="' + $(this).attr('id') + '"]');

if(label.length <= 0) {
    var parentElem = $(this).parent(),
        parentTagName = parentElem.get(0).tagName.toLowerCase();

    if(parentTagName == "label") {
        label = parentElem;

I hope this helps!

Using reCAPTCHA on localhost

For testing purposes, if you want to test your web page which includes reCaptcha on localhost then add localhost in domain list by Admin Console 1: *It is advised to create a separate site key for localhost.

Admin Console Screenshot

Captcha Output

Thanks :)

Overwriting my local branch with remote branch

What I do when I mess up my local branch is I just rename my broken branch, and check out/branch the upstream branch again:

git branch -m branch branch-old
git fetch remote
git checkout -b branch remote/branch

Then if you're sure you don't want anything from your old branch, remove it:

git branch -D branch-old

But usually I leave the old branch around locally, just in case I had something in there.

Failed to auto-configure a DataSource: 'spring.datasource.url' is not specified

@Bhabadyuti Bal give us a good answer, in gradle you can use :

compile 'org.springframework.boot:spring-boot-starter-data-jpa' 
compile 'com.h2database:h2'

in test time :

testCompile 'org.reactivecommons.utils:object-mapper:0.1.0'
testCompile 'com.h2database:h2'

Increment a value in Postgres

UPDATE totals 
   SET total = total + 1
WHERE name = 'bill';

If you want to make sure the current value is indeed 203 (and not accidently increase it again) you can also add another condition:

UPDATE totals 
   SET total = total + 1
WHERE name = 'bill'
  AND total = 203;

Can not deserialize instance of java.util.ArrayList out of VALUE_STRING

Setting this attribute to ObjectMapper instance works,


How do I calculate the date six months from the current date using the datetime Python module?

For beginning of month to month calculation:

from datetime import timedelta
from dateutil.relativedelta import relativedelta

end_date = start_date + relativedelta(months=delta_period) + timedelta(days=-delta_period)

SQL Server - Case Statement

Like so


            WHEN @t>0 THEN
                    WHEN @t=1 THEN 'one'
                    ELSE 'not one'
            ELSE 'less than one'

EDIT: After looking more at the question, I think the best option is to create a function that calculates the value. That way, if you end up having multiple places where the calculation needs done, you only have one point to maintain the logic.

Convert a RGB Color Value to a Hexadecimal String

You can use

String hex = String.format("#%02x%02x%02x", r, g, b);  

Use capital X's if you want your resulting hex-digits to be capitalized (#FFFFFF vs. #ffffff).

How to write a:hover in inline CSS?

This is pretty late in the game, but when would you use JavaScript in an HTML Email? For example, at the company I currently work for (rhymes with Abodee), we use the lowest common denominator for most email marketing campaigns – and JavaScript is just not being used. Ever. Unless you are referring to some kind of pre-processing.

As mentioned in a related post: "Lotus Notes, Mozilla Thunderbird, Outlook Express, and Windows Live Mail all seem to support some sort of JavaScript execution. Nothing else does."

Link to the article from which this was taken: []

Also, how would hovering translate to mobile devices? That's why I like the answer from above:Long answer: you shouldn't.

If anyone has more insights into this subject, please feel free to correct me. Thank you.

how to count the total number of lines in a text file using python

here is how you can do it through list comprehension, but this will waste a little bit of your computer's memory as line.strip() has been called twice.

     with open('textfile.txt') as file:
lines =[
            for line in file
             if line.strip() != '']
print("number of lines =  {}".format(len(lines)))

How to query DATETIME field using only date in Microsoft SQL Server?

Simple answer;

select * from test where cast ([date] as date) = '03/19/2014';

Increment a Integer's int value?

Integer objects are immutable. You can't change the value of the integer held by the object itself, but you can just create a new Integer object to hold the result:

Integer start = new Integer(5);
Integer end = start + 5; // end == 10;

Can I call a base class's virtual function if I'm overriding it?

Yes you can call it. C++ syntax for calling parent class function in child class is

class child: public parent {
  // ...

  void methodName() {
    parent::methodName(); // calls Parent class' function

Read more about function overriding.

Proper way to use AJAX Post in jquery to pass model from strongly typed MVC3 view

If using MVC 5 read this solution!

I know the question specifically called for MVC 3, but I stumbled upon this page with MVC 5 and wanted to post a solution for anyone else in my situation. I tried the above solutions, but they did not work for me, the Action Filter was never reached and I couldn't figure out why. I am using version 5 in my project and ended up with the following action filter:

using System;
using System.Collections.Generic;
using System.Linq;
using System.Web;
using System.Web.Mvc;
using System.Web.Mvc.Filters;

namespace SydHeller.Filters
    public class ValidateJSONAntiForgeryHeader : FilterAttribute, IAuthorizationFilter
        public void OnAuthorization(AuthorizationContext filterContext)
            string clientToken = filterContext.RequestContext.HttpContext.Request.Headers.Get(KEY_NAME);
            if (clientToken == null)
                throw new HttpAntiForgeryException(string.Format("Header does not contain {0}", KEY_NAME));

            string serverToken = filterContext.HttpContext.Request.Cookies.Get(KEY_NAME).Value;
            if (serverToken == null)
                throw new HttpAntiForgeryException(string.Format("Cookies does not contain {0}", KEY_NAME));

            System.Web.Helpers.AntiForgery.Validate(serverToken, clientToken);

        private const string KEY_NAME = "__RequestVerificationToken";

-- Make note of the using System.Web.Mvc and using System.Web.Mvc.Filters, not the http libraries (I think that is one of the things that changed with MVC v5. --

Then just apply the filter [ValidateJSONAntiForgeryHeader] to your action (or controller) and it should get called correctly.

In my layout page right above </body> I have @AntiForgery.GetHtml();

Finally, in my Razor page, I do the ajax call as follows:

var formForgeryToken = $('input[name="__RequestVerificationToken"]').val();

  type: "POST",
  url: serviceURL,
  contentType: "application/json; charset=utf-8",
  dataType: "json",
  data: requestData,
  headers: {
     "__RequestVerificationToken": formForgeryToken
     success: crimeDataSuccessFunc,
     error: crimeDataErrorFunc

Default background color of SVG root element

Another workaround might be to use <div> of the same size to wrap the <svg>. After that, you will be able to apply "background-color", and "background-image" that will affect thesvg.

<div class="background">

<style type="text/css">
  background-color: black; 
  /*background-image: */

How can I access iframe elements with Javascript?

Using jQuery you can use contents(). For example:

var inside = $('#one').contents();

How to disable RecyclerView scrolling?

For stop scrolling by touch but keep scrolling via commands :

if (appTopBarMessagesRV == null) { appTopBarMessagesRV = findViewById(;

        appTopBarMessagesRV.addOnItemTouchListener(new RecyclerView.SimpleOnItemTouchListener() {
            public boolean onInterceptTouchEvent(RecyclerView rv, MotionEvent e) {

                if ( rv.getScrollState() == RecyclerView.SCROLL_STATE_DRAGGING)
                     // Stop  scrolling by touch

                    return false;
                return  true;

Hexadecimal string to byte array in C

This is a modified function from a similar question, modified as per the suggestion of

This function will convert a hexadecimal string - NOT prepended with "0x" - with an even number of characters to the number of bytes specified. It will return -1 if it encounters an invalid character, or if the hex string has an odd length, and 0 on success.

//convert hexstring to len bytes of data
//returns 0 on success, -1 on error
//data is a buffer of at least len bytes
//hexstring is upper or lower case hexadecimal, NOT prepended with "0x"
int hex2data(unsigned char *data, const unsigned char *hexstring, unsigned int len)
    unsigned const char *pos = hexstring;
    char *endptr;
    size_t count = 0;

    if ((hexstring[0] == '\0') || (strlen(hexstring) % 2)) {
        //hexstring contains no data
        //or hexstring has an odd length
        return -1;

    for(count = 0; count < len; count++) {
        char buf[5] = {'0', 'x', pos[0], pos[1], 0};
        data[count] = strtol(buf, &endptr, 0);
        pos += 2 * sizeof(char);

        if (endptr[0] != '\0') {
            //non-hexadecimal character encountered
            return -1;

    return 0;

How do I set a fixed background image for a PHP file?

It's not a good coding to put PHP code into CSS


that's it

Find row where values for column is maximal in a pandas DataFrame

Use the pandas idxmax function. It's straightforward:

>>> import pandas
>>> import numpy as np
>>> df = pandas.DataFrame(np.random.randn(5,3),columns=['A','B','C'])
>>> df
          A         B         C
0  1.232853 -1.979459 -0.573626
1  0.140767  0.394940  1.068890
2  0.742023  1.343977 -0.579745
3  2.125299 -0.649328 -0.211692
4 -0.187253  1.908618 -1.862934
>>> df['A'].argmax()
>>> df['B'].argmax()
>>> df['C'].argmax()
  • Alternatively you could also use numpy.argmax, such as numpy.argmax(df['A']) -- it provides the same thing, and appears at least as fast as idxmax in cursory observations.

  • idxmax() returns indices labels, not integers.

    • Example': if you have string values as your index labels, like rows 'a' through 'e', you might want to know that the max occurs in row 4 (not row 'd').
    • if you want the integer position of that label within the Index you have to get it manually (which can be tricky now that duplicate row labels are allowed).


  • idxmax() used to be called argmax() prior to 0.11
  • argmax was deprecated prior to 1.0.0 and removed entirely in 1.0.0
  • back as of Pandas 0.16, argmax used to exist and perform the same function (though appeared to run more slowly than idxmax).
    • argmax function returned the integer position within the index of the row location of the maximum element.
    • pandas moved to using row labels instead of integer indices. Positional integer indices used to be very common, more common than labels, especially in applications where duplicate row labels are common.

For example, consider this toy DataFrame with a duplicate row label:

In [19]: dfrm
          A         B         C
a  0.143693  0.653810  0.586007
b  0.623582  0.312903  0.919076
c  0.165438  0.889809  0.000967
d  0.308245  0.787776  0.571195
e  0.870068  0.935626  0.606911
f  0.037602  0.855193  0.728495
g  0.605366  0.338105  0.696460
h  0.000000  0.090814  0.963927
i  0.688343  0.188468  0.352213
i  0.879000  0.105039  0.900260

In [20]: dfrm['A'].idxmax()
Out[20]: 'i'

In [21]: dfrm.iloc[dfrm['A'].idxmax()]  # .ix instead of .iloc in older versions of pandas
          A         B         C
i  0.688343  0.188468  0.352213
i  0.879000  0.105039  0.900260

So here a naive use of idxmax is not sufficient, whereas the old form of argmax would correctly provide the positional location of the max row (in this case, position 9).

This is exactly one of those nasty kinds of bug-prone behaviors in dynamically typed languages that makes this sort of thing so unfortunate, and worth beating a dead horse over. If you are writing systems code and your system suddenly gets used on some data sets that are not cleaned properly before being joined, it's very easy to end up with duplicate row labels, especially string labels like a CUSIP or SEDOL identifier for financial assets. You can't easily use the type system to help you out, and you may not be able to enforce uniqueness on the index without running into unexpectedly missing data.

So you're left with hoping that your unit tests covered everything (they didn't, or more likely no one wrote any tests) -- otherwise (most likely) you're just left waiting to see if you happen to smack into this error at runtime, in which case you probably have to go drop many hours worth of work from the database you were outputting results to, bang your head against the wall in IPython trying to manually reproduce the problem, finally figuring out that it's because idxmax can only report the label of the max row, and then being disappointed that no standard function automatically gets the positions of the max row for you, writing a buggy implementation yourself, editing the code, and praying you don't run into the problem again.

Storing and retrieving datatable from session

You can do it like that but storing a DataSet object in Session is not very efficient. If you have a web app with lots of users it will clog your server memory really fast.

If you really must do it like that I suggest removing it from the session as soon as you don't need the DataSet.

How to use count and group by at the same select statement

I know this is an old post, in SQL Server:

select  isnull(town,'TOTAL') Town, count(*) cnt
from    user
group by town WITH ROLLUP

Town         cnt
Copenhagen   58
NewYork      58
Athens       58
TOTAL        174

Calling the base class constructor from the derived class constructor

First off, a PetStore is not a farm.

Let's get past this though. You actually don't need access to the private members, you have everything you need in the public interface:

Animal_* getAnimal_(int i);
void addAnimal_(Animal_* newAnimal);

These are the methods you're given access to and these are the ones you should use.

I mean I did this Inheritance so I can add animals to my PetStore but now since sizeF is private how can I do that ??

Simple, you call addAnimal. It's public and it also increments sizeF.

Also, note that


is equivalent to

PetStore() : Farm()

i.e. the base constructor is called, base members are initialized.

Get skin path in Magento?

To get that file use the below code.


But it is not a correct way. To add your custom functions you can use the below file.


Kindly avoid to use the PHP function under skin dir.

When increasing the size of VARCHAR column on a large table could there be any problems?

In my case alter column was not working so one can use 'Modify' command, like:

alter table [table_name] MODIFY column [column_name] varchar(1200);

Getting the last n elements of a vector. Is there a better way than using the length() function?

I just add here something related. I was wanted to access a vector with backend indices, ie writting something like tail(x, i) but to return x[length(x) - i + 1] and not the whole tail.

Following commentaries I benchmarked two solutions:

accessRevTail <- function(x, n) {

accessRevLen <- function(x, n) {
  x[length(x) - n + 1]

microbenchmark::microbenchmark(accessRevLen(1:100, 87), accessRevTail(1:100, 87))
Unit: microseconds
                     expr    min      lq     mean median      uq     max neval
  accessRevLen(1:100, 87)  1.860  2.3775  2.84976  2.803  3.2740   6.755   100
 accessRevTail(1:100, 87) 22.214 23.5295 28.54027 25.112 28.4705 110.833   100

So it appears in this case that even for small vectors, tail is very slow comparing to direct access

Redis: How to access Redis log file

The log file will be where the configuration file (usually /etc/redis/redis.conf) says it is :)

By default, logfile stdout which probably isn't what you are looking for. If redis is running daemonized, then that log configuration means logs will be sent to /dev/null, i.e. discarded.

Summary: set logfile /path/to/my/log/file.log in your config and redis logs will be written to that file.

Android - How to regenerate R class?

If you use Intellij IDEA you can click Build - Rebuild Project

Best way to compare 2 XML documents in Java

I'm using Altova DiffDog which has options to compare XML files structurally (ignoring string data).

This means that (if checking the 'ignore text' option):

<foo a="xxx" b="xxx">xxx</foo>


<foo b="yyy" a="yyy">yyy</foo> 

are equal in the sense that they have structural equality. This is handy if you have example files that differ in data, but not structure!

The requested URL /about was not found on this server

That's not a typical Wordpress rewrite block. This is:

# BEGIN WordPress
<IfModule mod_rewrite.c>
RewriteEngine On
RewriteBase /
RewriteRule ^index\.php$ - [L]
RewriteCond %{REQUEST_FILENAME} !-f
RewriteCond %{REQUEST_FILENAME} !-d
RewriteRule . /index.php [L]
# END WordPress


Where's my .htaccess file? WordPress's index.php and .htaccess files should be together in the directory indicated by the Site address (URL) setting on your General Options page. Since the name of the file begins with a dot, the file may not be visible through an FTP client unless you change the preferences of the FTP tool to show all files, including the hidden files. Some hosts (e.g. Godaddy) may not show or allow you to edit .htaccess if you install WordPress through the Godaddy Hosting Connection installation.

Creating and editing (.htaccess) If you do not already have a .htaccess file, create one. If you have shell or ssh access to the server, a simple touch .htaccess command will create the file. If you are using FTP to transfer files, create a file on your local computer, call it 1.htaccess, upload it to the root of your WordPress folder, and then rename it to .htaccess.

You can edit the .htaccess file by FTP, shell, or (possibly) your host's control panel.

The easiest and fastest thing to do it reset your permalinks in Dashboard>>Settings>>Permalinks and make sure .htaccess is writable so WordPress can write the rules itself.

And: are you aware you are calling index.cgi as your default document rather than index.php? That's wrong. Remove index.cgi. Or try removing the whole line, too, because defining a default doc on your server may not be needed.

How do I change column default value in PostgreSQL?

'SET' is forgotten


How to update Identity Column in SQL Server?

If you specifically need to change the primary key value to a different number (ex 123 -> 1123). The identity property blocks changing a PK value. Set Identity_insert isn't going to work. Doing an Insert/Delete is not advisable if you have cascading deletes (unless you turn off referential integrity checking).

EDIT: Newer versions of SQL don't allow changing the syscolumns entity, so part of my solution has to be done the hard way. Refer to this SO on how to remove Identity from a primary key instead: Remove Identity from a column in a table This script will turn off identity on a PK:


sp_configure 'allow update', 1
reconfigure with override

update syscolumns set colstat = 0 --turn off bit 1 which indicates identity column
where id = object_id('table_name') and name = 'column_name'

exec sp_configure 'allow update', 0
reconfigure with override


Next, you can set the relationships so they'll update the foreign key references. Or else you need to turn off relationship enforcement. This SO link shows how: How can foreign key constraints be temporarily disabled using T-SQL?

Now, you can do your updates. I wrote a short script to write all my update SQL based on the same column name (in my case, I needed to increase the CaseID by 1,000,000:

'update ['+c.table_name+'] SET ['+Column_Name+']=['+Column_Name+']+1000000'
from Information_Schema.Columns as c
JOIN Information_Schema.Tables as t ON t.table_Name=c.table_name and t.Table_Schema=c.table_schema and t.table_type='BASE TABLE'
where Column_Name like 'CaseID' order by Ordinal_position

Lastly, re-enable referential integrity and then re-enable the Identity column on the primary key.

Note: I see some folks on these questions ask WHY. In my case, I have to merge data from a second production instance into a master DB so I can shut down the second instance. I just need all the PK/FKs of operations data to not collide. Meta-data FKs are identical.

Is there a Java equivalent or methodology for the typedef keyword in C++?

As noted in other answers, you should avoid the pseudo-typedef antipattern. However, typedefs are still useful even if that is not the way to achieve them. You want to distinguish between different abstract types that have the same Java representation. You don't want to mix up strings that are passwords with those that are street addresses, or integers that represent an offset with those with those that represent an absolute value.

The Checker Framework enables you to define a typedef in a backward-compatible way. I works even for primitive classes such as int and final classes such as String. It has no run-time overhead and does not break equality tests.

Section Type aliases and typedefs in the Checker Framework manual describes several ways to create typedefs, depending on your needs.

Calculate difference in keys contained in two Python dictionaries

In case you want the difference recursively, I have written a package for python:


Install from PyPi:

pip install deepdiff

Example usage


>>> from deepdiff import DeepDiff
>>> from pprint import pprint
>>> from __future__ import print_function # In case running on Python 2

Same object returns empty

>>> t1 = {1:1, 2:2, 3:3}
>>> t2 = t1
>>> print(DeepDiff(t1, t2))

Type of an item has changed

>>> t1 = {1:1, 2:2, 3:3}
>>> t2 = {1:1, 2:"2", 3:3}
>>> pprint(DeepDiff(t1, t2), indent=2)
{ 'type_changes': { 'root[2]': { 'newtype': <class 'str'>,
                                 'newvalue': '2',
                                 'oldtype': <class 'int'>,
                                 'oldvalue': 2}}}

Value of an item has changed

>>> t1 = {1:1, 2:2, 3:3}
>>> t2 = {1:1, 2:4, 3:3}
>>> pprint(DeepDiff(t1, t2), indent=2)
{'values_changed': {'root[2]': {'newvalue': 4, 'oldvalue': 2}}}

Item added and/or removed

>>> t1 = {1:1, 2:2, 3:3, 4:4}
>>> t2 = {1:1, 2:4, 3:3, 5:5, 6:6}
>>> ddiff = DeepDiff(t1, t2)
>>> pprint (ddiff)
{'dic_item_added': ['root[5]', 'root[6]'],
 'dic_item_removed': ['root[4]'],
 'values_changed': {'root[2]': {'newvalue': 4, 'oldvalue': 2}}}

String difference

>>> t1 = {1:1, 2:2, 3:3, 4:{"a":"hello", "b":"world"}}
>>> t2 = {1:1, 2:4, 3:3, 4:{"a":"hello", "b":"world!"}}
>>> ddiff = DeepDiff(t1, t2)
>>> pprint (ddiff, indent = 2)
{ 'values_changed': { 'root[2]': {'newvalue': 4, 'oldvalue': 2},
                      "root[4]['b']": { 'newvalue': 'world!',
                                        'oldvalue': 'world'}}}

String difference 2

>>> t1 = {1:1, 2:2, 3:3, 4:{"a":"hello", "b":"world!\nGoodbye!\n1\n2\nEnd"}}
>>> t2 = {1:1, 2:2, 3:3, 4:{"a":"hello", "b":"world\n1\n2\nEnd"}}
>>> ddiff = DeepDiff(t1, t2)
>>> pprint (ddiff, indent = 2)
{ 'values_changed': { "root[4]['b']": { 'diff': '--- \n'
                                                '+++ \n'
                                                '@@ -1,5 +1,4 @@\n'
                                                ' 1\n'
                                                ' 2\n'
                                                ' End',
                                        'newvalue': 'world\n1\n2\nEnd',
                                        'oldvalue': 'world!\n'

>>> print (ddiff['values_changed']["root[4]['b']"]["diff"])
@@ -1,5 +1,4 @@

Type change

>>> t1 = {1:1, 2:2, 3:3, 4:{"a":"hello", "b":[1, 2, 3]}}
>>> t2 = {1:1, 2:2, 3:3, 4:{"a":"hello", "b":"world\n\n\nEnd"}}
>>> ddiff = DeepDiff(t1, t2)
>>> pprint (ddiff, indent = 2)
{ 'type_changes': { "root[4]['b']": { 'newtype': <class 'str'>,
                                      'newvalue': 'world\n\n\nEnd',
                                      'oldtype': <class 'list'>,
                                      'oldvalue': [1, 2, 3]}}}

List difference

>>> t1 = {1:1, 2:2, 3:3, 4:{"a":"hello", "b":[1, 2, 3, 4]}}
>>> t2 = {1:1, 2:2, 3:3, 4:{"a":"hello", "b":[1, 2]}}
>>> ddiff = DeepDiff(t1, t2)
>>> pprint (ddiff, indent = 2)
{'iterable_item_removed': {"root[4]['b'][2]": 3, "root[4]['b'][3]": 4}}

List difference 2:

>>> t1 = {1:1, 2:2, 3:3, 4:{"a":"hello", "b":[1, 2, 3]}}
>>> t2 = {1:1, 2:2, 3:3, 4:{"a":"hello", "b":[1, 3, 2, 3]}}
>>> ddiff = DeepDiff(t1, t2)
>>> pprint (ddiff, indent = 2)
{ 'iterable_item_added': {"root[4]['b'][3]": 3},
  'values_changed': { "root[4]['b'][1]": {'newvalue': 3, 'oldvalue': 2},
                      "root[4]['b'][2]": {'newvalue': 2, 'oldvalue': 3}}}

List difference ignoring order or duplicates: (with the same dictionaries as above)

>>> t1 = {1:1, 2:2, 3:3, 4:{"a":"hello", "b":[1, 2, 3]}}
>>> t2 = {1:1, 2:2, 3:3, 4:{"a":"hello", "b":[1, 3, 2, 3]}}
>>> ddiff = DeepDiff(t1, t2, ignore_order=True)
>>> print (ddiff)

List that contains dictionary:

>>> t1 = {1:1, 2:2, 3:3, 4:{"a":"hello", "b":[1, 2, {1:1, 2:2}]}}
>>> t2 = {1:1, 2:2, 3:3, 4:{"a":"hello", "b":[1, 2, {1:3}]}}
>>> ddiff = DeepDiff(t1, t2)
>>> pprint (ddiff, indent = 2)
{ 'dic_item_removed': ["root[4]['b'][2][2]"],
  'values_changed': {"root[4]['b'][2][1]": {'newvalue': 3, 'oldvalue': 1}}}


>>> t1 = {1, 2, 8}
>>> t2 = {1, 2, 3, 5}
>>> ddiff = DeepDiff(t1, t2)
>>> pprint (DeepDiff(t1, t2))
{'set_item_added': ['root[3]', 'root[5]'], 'set_item_removed': ['root[8]']}

Named Tuples:

>>> from collections import namedtuple
>>> Point = namedtuple('Point', ['x', 'y'])
>>> t1 = Point(x=11, y=22)
>>> t2 = Point(x=11, y=23)
>>> pprint (DeepDiff(t1, t2))
{'values_changed': {'root.y': {'newvalue': 23, 'oldvalue': 22}}}

Custom objects:

>>> class ClassA(object):
...     a = 1
...     def __init__(self, b):
...         self.b = b
>>> t1 = ClassA(1)
>>> t2 = ClassA(2)
>>> pprint(DeepDiff(t1, t2))
{'values_changed': {'root.b': {'newvalue': 2, 'oldvalue': 1}}}

Object attribute added:

>>> t2.c = "new attribute"
>>> pprint(DeepDiff(t1, t2))
{'attribute_added': ['root.c'],
 'values_changed': {'root.b': {'newvalue': 2, 'oldvalue': 1}}}

How to write header row with csv.DictWriter?

A few options:

(1) Laboriously make an identity-mapping (i.e. do-nothing) dict out of your fieldnames so that csv.DictWriter can convert it back to a list and pass it to a csv.writer instance.

(2) The documentation mentions "the underlying writer instance" ... so just use it (example at the end).


(3) Avoid the csv.Dictwriter overhead and do it yourself with csv.writer

Writing data:

w.writerow([d[k] for k in fieldnames])


w.writerow([d.get(k, restval) for k in fieldnames])

Instead of the extrasaction "functionality", I'd prefer to code it myself; that way you can report ALL "extras" with the keys and values, not just the first extra key. What is a real nuisance with DictWriter is that if you've verified the keys yourself as each dict was being built, you need to remember to use extrasaction='ignore' otherwise it's going to SLOWLY (fieldnames is a list) repeat the check:

wrong_fields = [k for k in rowdict if k not in self.fieldnames]


>>> f = open('csvtest.csv', 'wb')
>>> import csv
>>> fns = 'foo bar zot'.split()
>>> dw = csv.DictWriter(f, fns, restval='Huh?')
# dw.writefieldnames(fns) -- no such animal
>>> dw.writerow(fns) # no such luck, it can't imagine what to do with a list
Traceback (most recent call last):
  File "<stdin>", line 1, in <module>
  File "C:\python26\lib\", line 144, in writerow
    return self.writer.writerow(self._dict_to_list(rowdict))
  File "C:\python26\lib\", line 141, in _dict_to_list
    return [rowdict.get(key, self.restval) for key in self.fieldnames]
AttributeError: 'list' object has no attribute 'get'
>>> dir(dw)
['__doc__', '__init__', '__module__', '_dict_to_list', 'extrasaction', 'fieldnam
es', 'restval', 'writer', 'writerow', 'writerows']
# eureka
>>> dw.writer.writerow(dw.fieldnames)
>>> dw.writerow({'foo':'oof'})
>>> f.close()
>>> open('csvtest.csv', 'rb').read()

How to run cron once, daily at 10pm

The syntax for crontab

* * * * * 

Minute(0-59) Hour(0-24) Day_of_month(1-31) Month(1-12) Day_of_week(0-6) Command_to_execute

Your syntax

* 22 * * * test > /dev/null

your job will Execute every minute at 22:00 hrs all week, month and year.

adding an option (0-59) at the minute place will run it once at 22:00 hrs all week, month and year.

0 22 * * * command_to_execute 


Remove style attribute from HTML tags

Here you go:


$html = '<p style="border: 1px solid red;">Test</p>';
echo preg_replace('/<p style="(.+?)">(.+?)<\/p>/i', "<p>$2</p>", $html);


By the way, as pointed out by others, regex are not suggested for this.

jQuery CSS Opacity

try using .animate instead of .css or even just on the opacity one and leave .css on the display?? may b

if (jQuery('#nav .drop').animate('display') === 'block') {
    jQuery('#main').animate('opacity') = '0.6';

Pass connection string to code-first DbContext

Check the syntax of your connection string in the web.config. It should be something like ConnectionString="Data Source=C:\DataDictionary\NerdDinner.sdf"

How to send UTF-8 email?

I'm using rather specified charset (ISO-8859-2) because not every mail system (for example: can read UTF-8 mails. If you need this:

function utf8_to_latin2($str)
    return iconv ( 'utf-8', 'ISO-8859-2' , $str );
function my_mail($to,$s,$text,$form, $reply)
        "From: $form\r\n".
        "Reply-To: $reply\r\n".
        "X-Mailer: PHP/" . phpversion());

I have made another mailer function, because apple device could not read well the previous version.

function utf8mail($to,$s,$body,$from_name="x",$from_a = "[email protected]", $reply="[email protected]")
    $s= "=?utf-8?b?".base64_encode($s)."?=";
    $headers = "MIME-Version: 1.0\r\n";
    $headers.= "From: =?utf-8?b?".base64_encode($from_name)."?= <".$from_a.">\r\n";
    $headers.= "Content-Type: text/plain;charset=utf-8\r\n";
    $headers.= "Reply-To: $reply\r\n";  
    $headers.= "X-Mailer: PHP/" . phpversion();
    mail($to, $s, $body, $headers);

How to compare DateTime in C#?

If you have two DateTime that looks the same, but Compare or Equals doesn't return what you expect, this is how to compare them.

Here an example with 1-millisecond precision:

bool areSame = (date1 - date2) > TimeSpan.FromMilliseconds(1d);

How do I represent a time only value in .NET?

If you don't want to use a DateTime or TimeSpan, and just want to store the time of day, you could just store the seconds since midnight in an Int32, or (if you don't even want seconds) the minutes since midnight would fit into an Int16. It would be trivial to write the few methods required to access the Hour, Minute and Second from such a value.

The only reason I can think of to avoid DateTime/TimeSpan would be if the size of the structure is critical.

(Of course, if you use a simple scheme like the above wrapped in a class, then it would also be trivial to replace the storage with a TimeSpan in future if you suddenly realise that would give you an advantage)

How to add link to flash banner

If you have a flash FLA file that shows the FLV movie you can add a button inside the FLA file. This button can be given an action to load the URL.

on (release) {

To make the button transparent you can place a square inside it that is moved to the hit-area frame of the button.

I think it would go too far to explain into depth with pictures how to go about in stackoverflow.

Android: adbd cannot run as root in production builds

For those who rooted the Android device with Magisk, you can install adb_root from Then adb root can run smoothly.

How to send SMS in Java

There is Ogham library. The code to send SMS is easy to write (it automatically handles character encoding and message splitting). The real SMS is sent either using SMPP protocol (standard SMS protocol) or through a provider. You can even test your code locally with a SMPP server to check the result of your SMS before paying for real SMS sending.

package fr.sii.ogham.sample.standard.sms;

import java.util.Properties;

import fr.sii.ogham.core.builder.MessagingBuilder;
import fr.sii.ogham.core.exception.MessagingException;
import fr.sii.ogham.core.service.MessagingService;
import fr.sii.ogham.sms.message.Sms;

public class BasicSample {
    public static void main(String[] args) throws MessagingException {
        // [PREPARATION] Just do it once at startup of your application
        // configure properties (could be stored in a properties file or defined
        // in System properties)
        Properties properties = new Properties();
        properties.setProperty("", "<your server host>");                                 // <1>
        properties.setProperty("ogham.sms.smpp.port", "<your server port>");                                 // <2>
        properties.setProperty("ogham.sms.smpp.system-id", "<your server system ID>");                       // <3>
        properties.setProperty("ogham.sms.smpp.password", "<your server password>");                         // <4>
        properties.setProperty("ogham.sms.from.default-value", "<phone number to display for the sender>");  // <5>
        // Instantiate the messaging service using default behavior and
        // provided properties
        MessagingService service = MessagingBuilder.standard()                                               // <6>
                    .properties(properties)                                                                  // <7>
                .build();                                                                                    // <8>
        // [/PREPARATION]
        // [SEND A SMS]
        // send the sms using fluent API
        service.send(new Sms()                                                                               // <9>
                        .message().string("sms content")
        // [/SEND A SMS]

There are many other features and samples / spring samples.

Jetty: HTTP ERROR: 503/ Service Unavailable

Remove/Delete the project from workspace. and Reimport the project to the workspace. This method worked for me.

how to display variable value in alert box?

spans not have the value in html

one is the id for span tag

in javascript use


in jQuery use


function check() {
    var content = document.getElementById("one").innerText;


function check() {
        var content = $('#one').text();

How to filter WooCommerce products by custom attribute

Try WooCommerce Product Filter, plugin developed by You can filter your products by any criteria. Also, it integrates with your Shop and archive pages perfectly. Here is a screenshot. And this is just one of the layouts, you can customize and make your own. Look at demo site. Thanks! enter image description here

Printing out all the objects in array list

Override toString() method in Student class as below:

   public String toString() {
        return ("StudentName:"+this.getStudentName()+
                    " Student No: "+ this.getStudentNo() +
                    " Email: "+ this.getEmail() +
                    " Year : " + this.getYear());

MySQL Workbench Dark Theme

FYI Dark theme is now in the Dev Version of MySQL Workbench

Update: From what I can tell it is Natively built into MySQL Workbench 8.0.15 for MAC OS X

The package I downloaded was mysql-workbench-community-8.0.15-macos-x86_64.dmg enter image description here

Where is Python language used?

Many websites uses Django or Zope/Plone web framework, these are written in Python.

Python is used a lot for writing system administration software, usually when bash scripts (shell script) isn't up to the job, but going C/C++ is an overkill. This is also the spectrum where perl, awk, etc stands. Gentoo's emerge/portage is one example. Mercurial/HG is a distributed version control system (DVCS) written in python.

Many desktop applications are also written in Python. The original Bittorrent was written in python.

Python is also used as the scripting languages for GIMP, Inkscape, Blender, OpenOffice, etc. Python allows advanced users to write plugins and access advanced functionalities that cannot typically be used through a GUI.

Using .htaccess to make all .html pages to run as .php files?

Running .html files as php stopped working all of a sudden in my .htaccess file.

Godaddy support had me change it to:

AddHandler application/x-httpd-lsphp .html

How to select first parent DIV using jQuery?

Keep it simple!

var classes = $(this).parent('div').attr('class');

How to count the occurrence of certain item in an ndarray?

No one suggested to use numpy.bincount(input, minlength) with minlength = np.size(input), but it seems to be a good solution, and definitely the fastest:

In [1]: choices = np.random.randint(0, 100, 10000)

In [2]: %timeit [ np.sum(choices == k) for k in range(min(choices), max(choices)+1) ]
100 loops, best of 3: 2.67 ms per loop

In [3]: %timeit np.unique(choices, return_counts=True)
1000 loops, best of 3: 388 µs per loop

In [4]: %timeit np.bincount(choices, minlength=np.size(choices))
100000 loops, best of 3: 16.3 µs per loop

That's a crazy speedup between numpy.unique(x, return_counts=True) and numpy.bincount(x, minlength=np.max(x)) !

No provider for HttpClient

You are getting error for HttpClient so, you are missing HttpClientModule for that.

You should import it in app.module.ts file like this -

import { HttpClientModule } from '@angular/common/http';

and mention it in the NgModule Decorator like this -

imports:[ HttpClientModule ]

If this even doesn't work try clearing cookies of the browser and try restarting your server. Hopefully it may work, I was getting the same error.

formGroup expects a FormGroup instance

There are a few issues in your code

  • <div [formGroup]="form"> outside of a <form> tag
  • <form [formGroup]="form"> but the name of the property containing the FormGroup is loginForm therefore it should be <form [formGroup]="loginForm">
  • [formControlName]="dob" which passes the value of the property dob which doesn't exist. What you need is to pass the string dob like [formControlName]="'dob'" or simpler formControlName="dob"

Plunker example

Ruby on Rails: Clear a cached page

Check for a static version of your page in /public and delete it if it's there. When Rails 3.x caches pages, it leaves a static version in your public folder and loads that when users hit your site. This will remain even after you clear your cache.

Example of multipart/form-data

Many thanks to @Ciro Santilli answer! I found that his choice for boundary is quite "unhappy" because all of thoose hyphens: in fact, as @Fake Name commented, when you are using your boundary inside request it comes with two more hyphens on front:


Cookie: some_cookies...
Connection: Keep-Alive
Content-Type: multipart/form-data; boundary=12345

Content-Disposition: form-data; name="sometext"

some text that you wrote in your html form ...
Content-Disposition: form-data; name="name_of_post_request" filename=""

content of that you upload in your form with input[type=file]
Content-Disposition: form-data; name="image" filename="picture_of_sunset.jpg"

content of picture_of_sunset.jpg ...

I found on this page that is possible to incapsulate multipart/mixed header in a multipart/form-data, simply choosing another boundary string inside multipart/mixed and using that one to incapsulate data. At the end, you must "close" all boundary used in FILO order to close the POST request (like:

Content-Type: multipart/form-data; boundary=12345

Content-Disposition: form-data; name="sometext"

some text sent via post...
Content-Disposition: form-data; name="files"
Content-Type: multipart/mixed; boundary=abcde

Content-Disposition: file; file="picture.jpg"

content of jpg...
Content-Disposition: file; file=""

content of file ....

Take a look at the link above.

Can we define min-margin and max-margin, max-padding and min-padding in css?

margin and padding don't have min or max prefixes. Sometimes you can try to specify margin and padding in terms of percentage to make it variable with respect to screen size.

Further you can also use min-width, max-width, min-height and max-height for doing the similar things.

Hope it helps.

Press any key to continue

Check out the ReadKey() method on the System.Console .NET class. I think that will do what you're looking for.


Write-Host -Object ('The key that was pressed was: {0}' -f [System.Console]::ReadKey().Key.ToString());

How to unpack and pack pkg file?

Here is a bash script inspired by abarnert's answer which will unpack a package named MyPackage.pkg into a subfolder named MyPackage_pkg and then open the folder in Finder.

    #!/usr/bin/env bash
    pkgutil --expand "$filename" "$dirname"
    cd "$dirname"
    tar xvf Payload
    open .

Usage: MyPackage.pkg

Warning: This will not work in all cases, and will fail with certain files, e.g. the PKGs inside the OSX system installer. If you want to peek inside the pkg file and see what's inside, you can try SuspiciousPackage (free app), and if you need more options such as selectively unpacking specific files, then have a look at Pacifist (nagware).

How to disable mouse scroll wheel scaling with Google Maps API

As of now (October 2017) Google has implemented a specific property to handle the zooming/scrolling, called gestureHandling. Its purpose is to handle mobile devices operation, but it modifies the behaviour for desktop browsers as well. Here it is from official documentation:

function initMap() {
  var locationRio = {lat: -22.915, lng: -43.197};
  var map = new google.maps.Map(document.getElementById('map'), {
    zoom: 13,
    center: locationRio,
    gestureHandling: 'none'

The available values for gestureHandling are:

  • 'greedy': The map always pans (up or down, left or right) when the user swipes (drags on) the screen. In other words, both a one-finger swipe and a two-finger swipe cause the map to pan.
  • 'cooperative': The user must swipe with one finger to scroll the page and two fingers to pan the map. If the user swipes the map with one finger, an overlay appears on the map, with a prompt telling the user to use two fingers to move the map. On desktop applications, users can zoom or pan the map by scrolling while pressing a modifier key (the ctrl or ? key).
  • 'none': This option disables panning and pinching on the map for mobile devices, and dragging of the map on desktop devices.
  • 'auto' (default): Depending on whether the page is scrollable, the Google Maps JavaScript API sets the gestureHandling property to either 'cooperative' or 'greedy'

In short, you can easily force the setting to "always zoomable" ('greedy'), "never zoomable" ('none'), or "user must press CRTL/? to enable zoom" ('cooperative').

How to test an Oracle Stored Procedure with RefCursor return type?

I think this link will be enough for you. I found it when I was searching for the way to execute oracle procedures.

The link to the page

Short Description:

--cursor variable declaration 
variable Out_Ref_Cursor refcursor;
--execute procedure 
execute get_employees_name(IN_Variable,:Out_Ref_Cursor);
--display result referenced by ref cursor.
print Out_Ref_Cursor;

git checkout all the files

If you want to checkout all the files 'anywhere'

git checkout -- $(git rev-parse --show-toplevel)

How to index characters in a Golang string?

Can be done via slicing too

package main

import "fmt"

func main() {

NOTE: This solution only works for ASCII characters.

jQuery deferreds and promises - .then() vs .done()

The callbacks attached to done() will be fired when the deferred is resolved. The callbacks attached to fail() will be fired when the deferred is rejected.

Prior to jQuery 1.8, then() was just syntactic sugar:

promise.then( doneCallback, failCallback )
// was equivalent to
promise.done( doneCallback ).fail( failCallback )

As of 1.8, then() is an alias for pipe() and returns a new promise, see here for more information on pipe().

success() and error() are only available on the jqXHR object returned by a call to ajax(). They are simple aliases for done() and fail() respectively:

jqXHR.done === jqXHR.success === jqXHR.error

Also, done() is not limited to a single callback and will filter out non-functions (though there is a bug with strings in version 1.8 that should be fixed in 1.8.1):

// this will add fn1 to 7 to the deferred's internal callback list
// (true, 56 and "omg" will be ignored)
promise.done( fn1, fn2, true, [ fn3, [ fn4, 56, fn5 ], "omg", fn6 ], fn7 );

Same goes for fail().

MySQL Select Date Equal to Today

You can use the CONCAT with CURDATE() to the entire time of the day and then filter by using the BETWEEN in WHERE condition:

SELECT, DATE_FORMAT(users.signup_date, '%Y-%m-%d') 
FROM users 
WHERE (users.signup_date BETWEEN CONCAT(CURDATE(), ' 00:00:00') AND CONCAT(CURDATE(), ' 23:59:59'))

Python URLLib / URLLib2 POST

u = urllib2.urlopen('http://myserver/inout-tracker', data)
h.request('POST', '/inout-tracker/index.php', data, headers)

Using the path /inout-tracker without a trailing / doesn't fetch index.php. Instead the server will issue a 302 redirect to the version with the trailing /.

Doing a 302 will typically cause clients to convert a POST to a GET request.

Set a thin border using .css() in javascript

Current Example:

You need to define border-width:1px

Your code should read:

$(this).css({"border-color": "#C1E0FF", 

Suggested Example:

You should ideally use a class and addClass/removeClass

$(this).addClass('borderClass'); $(this).removeClass('borderClass');

and in your CSS:

  border-color: #C1E0FF;
  border-style: solid;
  border: 1px solid #C1E0FF;

jsfiddle working example:\

jsfiddle with animate: This just gives you an example of how it could work, you should get the idea.. There are better ways of doing this most likely.. like using a toggle()

PHP Fatal error when trying to access phpmyadmin mb_detect_encoding

It looks like your PHP installation does not have the mbstring extension and the mysqli adapter extension installed.

Please check your phpinfo(); or run php -i | grep 'mbstring\|mysqli' in a terminal.

Using Mockito with multiple calls to the same method with the same arguments

doReturn( value1, value2, value3 ).when( method-call )

Switch to selected tab by name in Jquery-UI Tabs

@bduke's answer actually works with a slight tweak.

var index = $("#tabs>div").index($("#simple-tab-2"));
$("#tabs").tabs("select", index);

Above assumes something similar to:

<div id="tabs">
    <li><a href="#simple-tab-0">Tab 0</a></li>
    <li><a href="#simple-tab-1">Tab 1</a></li>
    <li><a href="#simple-tab-2">Tab 2</a></li>
    <li><a href="#simple-tab-3">Tab 3</a></li>
  <div id="simple-tab-0"></div>
  <div id="simple-tab-1"></div>
  <div id="simple-tab-2"></div>
  <div id="simple-tab-3"></div>

jQueryUI now supports calling "select" using the tab's ID/HREF selector, but when constructing the tabs, the "selected" Option still only supports the numeric index.

My vote goes to bdukes for getting me on the right track. Thanks!

How to specify the JDK version in android studio?

You can use cmd + ; for Mac or Ctrl + Alt + Shift + S for Windows/Linux to pull up the Project Structure dialog. In there, you can set the JDK location as well as the Android SDK location.

Project Structure Dialog

To get your JDK location, run /usr/libexec/java_home -v 1.7 in terminal. Send 1.7 for Java 7 or 1.8 for Java 8.

Create an Array of Arraylists

You can do this :

//Create an Array of type ArrayList

`ArrayList<Integer>[] a = new ArrayList[n];`

//For each element in array make an ArrayList

for(int i=0; i<n; i++){ 
    a[i] = new ArrayList<Integer>();

SQL Select between dates

Change your data to that formats to use sqlite datetime formats.


SELECT * FROM test WHERE date BETWEEN '2011-01-11' AND '2011-08-11'

Excel VBA: function to turn activecell to bold

A UDF will only return a value it won't allow you to change the properties of a cell/sheet/workbook. Move your code to a Worksheet_Change event or similar to change properties.


Private Sub worksheet_change(ByVal target As Range)
  target.Font.Bold = True
End Sub

How to concatenate string and int in C?

Strings are hard work in C.

#include <stdio.h>

int main()
   int i;
   char buf[12];

   for (i = 0; i < 100; i++) {
      snprintf(buf, 12, "pre_%d_suff", i); // puts string into buffer
      printf("%s\n", buf); // outputs so you can see it

The 12 is enough bytes to store the text "pre_", the text "_suff", a string of up to two characters ("99") and the NULL terminator that goes on the end of C string buffers.

This will tell you how to use snprintf, but I suggest a good C book!

Best C# API to create PDF


I'm not sure when or if the license changed for the iText# library, but it is licensed under AGPL which means it must be licensed if included with a closed-source product. The question does not (currently) require free or open-source libraries. One should always investigate the license type of any library used in a project.

I have used iText# with success in .NET C# 3.5; it is a port of the open source Java library for PDF generation and it's free.

There is a NuGet package available for iTextSharp version 5 and the official developer documentation, as well as C# examples, can be found at

stdcall and cdecl

Calling conventions have nothing to do with the C/C++ programming languages and are rather specifics on how a compiler implements the given language. If you consistently use the same compiler, you never need to worry about calling conventions.

However, sometimes we want binary code compiled by different compilers to inter-operate correctly. When we do so we need to define something called the Application Binary Interface (ABI). The ABI defines how the compiler converts the C/C++ source into machine-code. This will include calling conventions, name mangling, and v-table layout. cdelc and stdcall are two different calling conventions commonly used on x86 platforms.

By placing the information on the calling convention into the source header, the compiler will know what code needs to be generated to inter-operate correctly with the given executable.

conflicting types for 'outchar'

It's because you haven't declared outchar before you use it. That means that the compiler will assume it's a function returning an int and taking an undefined number of undefined arguments.

You need to add a prototype pf the function before you use it:

void outchar(char);  /* Prototype (declaration) of a function to be called */  int main(void) {     ... }  void outchar(char ch) {     ... } 

Note the declaration of the main function differs from your code as well. It's actually a part of the official C specification, it must return an int and must take either a void argument or an int and a char** argument.

How do I concatenate two strings in C?

#include <string.h>
#include <stdio.h>
int main()
   int a,l;
   char str[50],str1[50],str3[100];
   printf("\nEnter a string: ");
   printf("\nEnter the string which you want to concat with string one: ");
   printf("\nThe string is %s\n",str3);

How to call a method daily, at specific time, in C#?

I just recently wrote a c# app that had to restart daily. I realize this question is old but I don't think it hurts to add another possible solution. This is how I handled daily restarts at a specified time.

public void RestartApp()
  AppRestart = AppRestart.AddHours(5);
  AppRestart = AppRestart.AddMinutes(30);
  DateTime current = DateTime.Now;
  if (current > AppRestart) { AppRestart = AppRestart.AddDays(1); }

  TimeSpan UntilRestart = AppRestart - current;
  int MSUntilRestart = Convert.ToInt32(UntilRestart.TotalMilliseconds);

  tmrRestart.Interval = MSUntilRestart;
  tmrRestart.Elapsed += tmrRestart_Elapsed;

To ensure your timer is kept in scope I recommend creating it outside of the method using System.Timers.Timer tmrRestart = new System.Timers.Timer() method. Put the method RestartApp() in your form load event. When the application launches it will set the values for AppRestart if current is greater than the restart time we add 1 day to AppRestart to ensure the restart happens on time and that we don't get an exception for putting a negative value into the timer. In the tmrRestart_Elapsed event run whatever code you need ran at that specific time. If your application restarts on it's own you don't necessarily have to stop the timer but it doesn't hurt either, If the application does not restart simply call the RestartApp() method again and you will be good to go.

jQuery Ajax File Upload

Using FormData is the way to go as indicated by many answers. here is a bit of code that works great for this purpose. I also agree with the comment of nesting ajax blocks to complete complex circumstances. By including e.PreventDefault(); in my experience makes the code more cross browser compatible.


    if (!fileupload.valid()) {
        return false;            

    var myformData = new FormData();        
    myformData.append('file', $('#uploadFile')[0].files[0]);

    $("#UpdateMessage5").html("Uploading file ....");
    $("#UpdateMessage5").css("background","url(../include/images/loaderIcon.gif) no-repeat right");

    myformData.append('mode', 'fileUpload');
    myformData.append('myid', $('#myid').val());
    myformData.append('type', $('#fileType').val());
    //formData.append('myfile', file,; 

        url: 'include/fetch.php',
        method: 'post',
        processData: false,
        contentType: false,
        cache: false,
        data: myformData,
        enctype: 'multipart/form-data',
        success: function(response){
            $("#UpdateMessage5").html(response); //.delay(2000).hide(1); 

            console.log("file successfully submitted");
        },error: function(){
            console.log("not okay");

Run Java Code Online

Some new java online compiler and runner:

  1. Java Launch
  2. Srikanthdaggumalli

These sites are in under development. But you can view the compilation errors, Runtime Exceptions as well as output of a java program by clicking on the TryItYourself link.

How to scroll to top of a div using jQuery?

You could just use:

<div id="GridDiv">
// gridview inside...

<a href="#GridDiv">Scroll to top</a>

Getting query parameters from react-router hash fragment

update 2017.12.25

"react-router-dom": "^4.2.2"

url like

BrowserHistory: http://localhost:3000/demo-7/detail/2?sort=name

HashHistory: http://localhost:3000/demo-7/#/detail/2?sort=name

with query-string dependency: =;
this.searchObj = queryString.parse(;
this.from = props.location.state.from;

console.log(, this.searchObj, this.from);


2 {sort: "name"} home

"react-router": "^2.4.1"

Url like http://localhost:8080/react-router01/1?name=novaline&age=26

const queryParams = this.props.location.query;

queryParams is a object contains the query params: {name: novaline, age: 26}

HTML5 Canvas vs. SVG vs. div

Knowing the differences between SVG and Canvas would be helpful in selecting the right one.



  • Resolution independent
  • Support for event handlers
  • Best suited for applications with large rendering areas (Google Maps)
  • Slow rendering if complex (anything that uses the DOM a lot will be slow)
  • Not suited for game application

Moq, SetupGet, Mocking a property

ColumnNames is a property of type List<String> so when you are setting up you need to pass a List<String> in the Returns call as an argument (or a func which return a List<String>)

But with this line you are trying to return just a string

input.SetupGet(x => x.ColumnNames).Returns(temp[0]);

which is causing the exception.

Change it to return whole list:

input.SetupGet(x => x.ColumnNames).Returns(temp);

Transitions on the CSS display property

You need to hide the element by other means in order to get this to work.

I accomplished the effect by positioning both <div>s absolutely and setting the hidden one to opacity: 0.

If you even toggle the display property from none to block, your transition on other elements will not occur.

To work around this, always allow the element to be display: block, but hide the element by adjusting any of these means:

  1. Set the height to 0.
  2. Set the opacity to 0.
  3. Position the element outside of the frame of another element that has overflow: hidden.

There are likely more solutions, but you cannot perform a transition if you toggle the element to display: none. For example, you may attempt to try something like this:

div {
    display: none;
    transition: opacity 1s ease-out;
    opacity: 0;
} {
    opacity: 1;
    display: block;

But that will not work. From my experience, I have found this to do nothing.

Because of this, you will always need to keep the element display: block - but you could get around it by doing something like this:

div {
    transition: opacity 1s ease-out;
    opacity: 0;
    height: 0;
    overflow: hidden;
} {
    opacity: 1;
    height: auto;

'Malformed UTF-8 characters, possibly incorrectly encoded' in Laravel

I know it's already an old question, but i had the same error today. For me setting the connection variable on model did the work.

 * Table properties
protected $connection = 'mysql-utf8';
protected $table = 'notification';
protected $primaryKey = 'id';

I don't know if the issue was with the database (probably), but the texts fields with special chars (like ~, ´ e etc) were all messed up.

---- Editing

That $connection var is used to select wich db connection your model will use. Sometimes it happens that in database.php (under /config folder) you have multiples connections and the default one is not using UTF-8 charset.

In any case, be sure to properly use charset and collation into your connection.

'connections' => [

    'mysql' => [
        'driver' => 'mysql',
        'host' => env('DB_HOST', ''),
        'port' => env('DB_PORT', '3306'),
        'database' => env('DB_DATABASE', 'your_database'),
        'username' => env('DB_USERNAME', 'root'),
        'password' => env('DB_PASSWORD', 'database_password'),
        'unix_socket' => env('DB_SOCKET', ''),
        'prefix' => '',
        'strict' => false,
        'engine' => null

    'mysql-utf8' => [
        'driver' => 'mysql',
        'host' => env('DB_HOST', ''),
        'port' => env('DB_PORT', '3306'),
        'database' => env('DB_DATABASE', 'your_database'),
        'username' => env('DB_USERNAME', 'root'),
        'password' => env('DB_PASSWORD', 'database_password'),
        'unix_socket' => env('DB_SOCKET', ''),
        'charset' => 'utf8',
        'collation' => 'utf8_unicode_ci',
        'prefix' => '',
        'strict' => false,
        'engine' => null

Count number of vector values in range with R

There are also the %<% and %<=% comparison operators in the TeachingDemos package which allow you to do this like:

sum( 2 %<% x %<% 5 )
sum( 2 %<=% x %<=% 5 )

which gives the same results as:

sum( 2 < x & x < 5 )
sum( 2 <= x & x <= 5 )

Which is better is probably more a matter of personal preference.

How to update a single pod without touching other dependencies

You can never get 100% isolation. Because a pod may have some shared dependencies and if you attempt to update your single pod, then it would update the dependencies of other pods as well. If that is ok then:

tl;dr use:

pod update podName

Why? Read below.

  • pod update will NOT respect the podfile.lock. It will override it — pertaining to that single pod
  • pod install will respect the podfile.lock, but will try installing every pod mentioned in the podfile based on the versions its locked to (in the Podfile.lock).

This diagram helps better understand the differences:

enter image description here

The major problem comes from the ~> aka optimistic operator.

Using exact versions in the Podfile is not enough

Some might think that specifying exact versions of their pods in their Podfile, like pod 'A', '1.0.0', is enough to guarantee that every user will have the same version as other people on the team.

Then they might even use pod update, even when just adding a new pod, thinking it would never risk updating other pods because they are fixed to a specific version in the Podfile.

But in fact, that is not enough to guarantee that user1 and user2 in our above scenario will always get the exact same version of all their pods.

One typical example is if the pod A has a dependency on pod A2 — declared in A.podspec as dependency 'A2', '~> 3.0'. In such case, using pod 'A', '1.0.0' in your Podfile will indeed force user1 and user2 to both always use version 1.0.0 of the pod A, but:

  • user1 might end up with pod A2 in version 3.4 (because that was A2's latest version at that time)
  • while when user2 runs pod install when joining the project later, they might get pod A2 in version 3.5 (because the maintainer of A2 might have released a new version in the meantime). That's why the only way to ensure every team member work with the same versions of all the pod on each's the computer is to use the Podfile.lock and properly use pod install vs. pod update.

The above excerpt was all derived from pod install vs. pod update

I also highly recommend watching what does a podfile.lock do

How to export a mysql database using Command Prompt?

mysqldump --no-tablespaces -u user -ppass dbname > db_backup_file.sql

What is the C# version of's InputDialog?

Add a reference to Microsoft.VisualBasic, InputBox is in the Microsoft.VisualBasic.Interaction namespace:

using Microsoft.VisualBasic;
string input = Interaction.InputBox("Prompt", "Title", "Default", x_coordinate, y_coordinate);

Only the first argument for prompt is mandatory

Android - How to download a file from a webserver

Here is the code help you to download file from server at the same time you can see the progress of downloading on your status bar.

See the functionality in below image of my code:

enter image description here enter image description here

STEP - 1 : Create on class file to download file content from server. Here i create an asynchronous task to download file.

public class DownloadFileFromURL extends AsyncTask<String, Integer, String> {

private NotificationManager mNotifyManager;
private NotificationCompat.Builder build;
private File fileurl;
int id = 123;
OutputStream output;
private Context context;
private String selectedDate;
private String ts = "";

public DownloadFileFromURL(Context context, String selectedDate) {
    this.context = context;
    this.selectedDate = selectedDate;


protected void onPreExecute() {

    mNotifyManager = (NotificationManager) context.getSystemService(Context.NOTIFICATION_SERVICE);
    build = new NotificationCompat.Builder(context);
            .setContentText("Download in progress")
            .setChannelId(id + "")

    // Since android Oreo notification channel is needed.
    if (Build.VERSION.SDK_INT >= Build.VERSION_CODES.O) {
        NotificationChannel channel = new NotificationChannel(id + "",
                "Social Media Downloader",
        channel.setDescription("no sound");
        channel.setSound(null, null);

    build.setProgress(100, 0, false);
    String msg = "Download started";

protected String doInBackground(String... f_url) {
    int count;
    ts = selectedDate.split("T")[0];
    try {
        URL url = new URL(f_url[0]);
        URLConnection conection = url.openConnection();
        int lenghtOfFile = conection.getContentLength();

        InputStream input = new BufferedInputStream(url.openStream(),
        // Output stream
        output = new FileOutputStream(Environment
                + Const.DownloadPath + ts + ".pdf");
        fileurl = new File(Environment.getExternalStorageDirectory()
                + Const.DownloadPath + ts + ".pdf");
        byte[] data = new byte[1024];

        long total = 0;

        while ((count = != -1) {
            total += count;
            int cur = (int) ((total * 100) / lenghtOfFile);

            publishProgress(Math.min(cur, 100));
            if (Math.min(cur, 100) > 98) {
                try {
                } catch (InterruptedException e) {
                    Log.d("Failure", "sleeping failure");
            Log.i("currentProgress", "currentProgress: " + Math.min(cur, 100) + "\n " + cur);

            output.write(data, 0, count);



    } catch (Exception e) {
        Log.e("Error: ", e.getMessage());

    return null;

protected void onProgressUpdate(Integer... progress) {
    build.setProgress(100, progress[0], false);

protected void onPostExecute(String file_url) {
    build.setContentText("Download complete");
    build.setProgress(0, 0, false);
} }

Note: If you want code with import package then Click Here

Now Step 2: You need to call above ayncronous task on your click event. for example i have set on pdf image icon. To call AsyncTask use below code:

 new DownloadFileFromURL(fContext,filename).execute(serverFileUrl);

Note: Here You can see filename variable in file parameter. This is the name which i use to save my downloaded file in local device. currently i am downloading only pdf file but you can use you url in serverFileUrl parameter.

How do I know if jQuery has an Ajax request pending?

The $.ajax() function returns a XMLHttpRequest object. Store that in a variable that's accessible from the Submit button's "OnClick" event. When a submit click is processed check to see if the XMLHttpRequest variable is:

1) null, meaning that no request has been sent yet

2) that the readyState value is 4 (Loaded). This means that the request has been sent and returned successfully.

In either of those cases, return true and allow the submit to continue. Otherwise return false to block the submit and give the user some indication of why their submit didn't work. :)

How to copy a file to another path?

You could also use File.Copy to copy and File.Move to rename it afterwords.

// Copy the file (specify true or false to overwrite or not overwrite the destination file if it exists.
File.Copy(mySourceFileAndPath, myDestinationFileAndPath, [true | false]);

// EDIT: as "astander" notes correctly, this step is not necessary, as File.Copy can rename already...
//       However, this code could be adapted to rename the original file after copying
// Rename the file if the destination file doesn't exist. Throw exception otherwise
//if (!File.Exists(myRenamedDestinationFileAndPath))
//    File.Move(myDestinationFileAndPath, myRenamedDestinationFileAndPath);
//    throw new IOException("Failed to rename file after copying, because destination file exists!");

Commented out the "rename" code, because File.Copy can already copy and rename in one step, as astander noted correctly in the comments.

However, the rename code could be adapted if the OP desired to rename the source file after it has been copied to a new location.

How to specify the default error page in web.xml?

You can also do something like that:



For error code 403 it will return the page 403.html, and for any other error code it will return the page error.html.

SQL Error: ORA-00942 table or view does not exist

Case sensitive Tables (table names created with double-quotes) can throw this same error as well. See this answer for more information.

Simply wrap the table in double quotes:

INSERT INTO "customer" (c_id,name,surname) VALUES ('1','Micheal','Jackson')

Run PowerShell command from command prompt (no ps1 script)

Here is the only answer that managed to work for my problem, got it figured out with the help of this webpage (nice reference).

powershell -command "& {&'some-command' someParam}"

Also, here is a neat way to do multiple commands:

powershell -command "& {&'some-command' someParam}"; "& {&'some-command' -SpecificArg someParam}"

For example, this is how I ran my 2 commands:

powershell -command "& {&'Import-Module' AppLocker}"; "& {&'Set-AppLockerPolicy' -XmlPolicy myXmlFilePath.xml}"

How to read a file line-by-line into a list?

f = open("your_file.txt",'r')
out = f.readlines() # will append in the list out

Now variable out is a list (array) of what you want. You could either do:

for line in out:
    print (line)


for line in f:
    print (line)

You'll get the same results.

Convert canvas to PDF

You can achieve this by utilizing the jsPDF library and the toDataURL function.

I made a little demonstration:

var canvas = document.getElementById('myCanvas');_x000D_
var context = canvas.getContext('2d');_x000D_
// draw a blue cloud_x000D_
context.moveTo(170, 80);_x000D_
context.bezierCurveTo(130, 100, 130, 150, 230, 150);_x000D_
context.bezierCurveTo(250, 180, 320, 180, 340, 150);_x000D_
context.bezierCurveTo(420, 150, 420, 120, 390, 100);_x000D_
context.bezierCurveTo(430, 40, 370, 30, 340, 50);_x000D_
context.bezierCurveTo(320, 5, 250, 20, 250, 50);_x000D_
context.bezierCurveTo(200, 5, 150, 20, 170, 80);_x000D_
context.lineWidth = 5;_x000D_
context.fillStyle = '#8ED6FF';_x000D_
context.strokeStyle = '#0000ff';_x000D_
download.addEventListener("click", function() {_x000D_
  // only jpeg is supported by jsPDF_x000D_
  var imgData = canvas.toDataURL("image/jpeg", 1.0);_x000D_
  var pdf = new jsPDF();_x000D_
  pdf.addImage(imgData, 'JPEG', 0, 0);_x000D_"download.pdf");_x000D_
}, false);
<script src="//"></script>_x000D_
<canvas id="myCanvas" width="578" height="200"></canvas>_x000D_
<button id="download">download</button>

Oracle SQL: Use sequence in insert with Select Statement

Assuming that you want to group the data before you generate the key with the sequence, it sounds like you want something like

SELECT MY_SEQ.nextval,
  FROM (SELECT '2010' year,
               '12' month,
               'ALL' make,
               'ALL' model,
               sum(AVG_MSRP*COUNT)/sum(COUNT) avg_msrp,
               sum(cnt) cnt
         WHERE YEAR = '2010' 
           AND MONTH = '12'
           AND MAKE != 'ALL' 

Converting Python dict to kwargs?

Use the double-star (aka double-splat?) operator:


is equivalent to


'namespace' but is used like a 'type'

If you're working on a big app and can't change any names, you can type a . to select the type you want from the namespace:

namespace Company.Core.Context{
  public partial class Context : Database Context {

using Company.Core.Context;
 var c = new Context.Context();

JavaScript hide/show element

Though this question has been answered many times before, I thought I would add to it with a more complete and solid answer for future users. The main answer does solve the problem, but I believe it may be better to know/understand the some of various ways to show/hide things.


Changing display using css()

This is the way I used to do it until I found some of these other ways.


$("#element_to_hide").css("display", "none");  // To hide
$("#element_to_hide").css("display", "");  // To unhide


  • Hides and unhides. That's about it.


  • If you use the "display" attribute for something else, you will have to hardcode the value of what it was prior to hiding. So if you had "inline", you would have to do $("#element_to_hid").css("display", "inline"); otherwise it will default back to "block" or whatever else that it will be forced into.
  • Lends itself to typos.



Changing display using addClass()/removeClass()

While setting up the example for this one, I actually ran into some flaws on this method that make it very very unreliable.


.hidden {display:none}
$("#element_to_hide").addClass("hidden");  // To hide
$("#element_to_hide").removeClass("hidden");  // To unhide


  • It hides....sometimes. Refer to p1 on the example.
  • After unhiding, it will return back to using the previous display value....sometimes. Refer to p1 on the example.
  • If you want to grab all hidden objects, you just need to do $(".hidden").


  • Does not hide if the display value was set directly on the html. Refer to p2 on the example.
  • Does not hide if the display is set in javascript using css(). Refer to p3 on the example.
  • Slightly more code because you have to define a css attribute.



Changing display using toggle()


$("element_to_hide").toggle();  // To hide and to unhide


  • Always works.
  • Allows you to not have to worry about which state it was prior to switching. The obvious use for this is for a....toggle button.
  • Short and simple.


  • If you need to know which state it is switching to in order to do something not directly related, you will have to add more code (an if statement) to find out which state it is in.
  • Similar to the previous con, if you want to run a set of instructions that contains the toggle() for the purpose of hiding, but you don't know if it is already hidden, you have to add a check (an if statement) to find out first and if it is already hidden, then skip. Refer to p1 of the example.
  • Related to the previous 2 cons, using toggle() for something that is specifically hiding or specifically showing, can be confusing to others reading your code as they do not know which way they will toggle.



Changing display using hide()/show()


$("#element_to_hide").hide();  // To hide
$("#element_to_hide").show();  // To show


  • Always works.
  • After unhiding, it will return back to using the previous display value.
  • You will always know which state you are swapping to so you:
    1. don't need to add if statements to check visibility before changing states if the state matters.
    2. won't confuse others reading your code as to which state you are switching to if, if the state matters.
  • Intuitive.


  • If you want to imitate a toggle, you will have to check the state first and then switch to the other state. Use toggle() instead for these. Refer to p2 of the example.



Overall, I would say the best to be hide()/show() unless you specifically need it to be a toggle. I hope you found this information to be helpful.

Cocoa: What's the difference between the frame and the bounds?

try to run the code below

- (void)viewDidLoad {
    [super viewDidLoad];
    UIWindow *w = [[UIApplication sharedApplication] keyWindow];
    UIView *v = [w.subviews objectAtIndex:0];

    NSLog(@"%@", NSStringFromCGRect(v.frame));
    NSLog(@"%@", NSStringFromCGRect(v.bounds));

the output of this code is:

case device orientation is Portrait

{{0, 0}, {768, 1024}}
{{0, 0}, {768, 1024}}

case device orientation is Landscape

{{0, 0}, {768, 1024}}
{{0, 0}, {1024, 768}}

obviously, you can see the difference between frame and bounds

How to detect scroll direction

This one deserves an update - nowadays we have the wheel event :

$(function() {_x000D_
$(window).on('wheel', function(e) {_x000D_
 var delta = e.originalEvent.deltaY;_x000D_
 if (delta > 0) $('body').text('down');_x000D_
 else $('body').text('up');_x000D_
 return false; // this line is only added so the whole page won't scroll in the demo_x000D_
body {_x000D_
  font-size: 22px;_x000D_
  text-align: center;_x000D_
  color: white;_x000D_
  background: grey;_x000D_
<script src=""></script>

Support has been pretty good on modern browsers for quite a while already :

  • Chrome 31+
  • Firefox 17+
  • IE9+
  • Opera 18+
  • Safari 7+

If deeper browser support is required, probably best to use mousewheel.js instead of messing about :

$(function() {_x000D_
$(window).mousewheel(function(turn, delta) {_x000D_
 if (delta > 0) $('body').text('up');_x000D_
 else $('body').text('down');_x000D_
 return false; // this line is only added so the whole page won't scroll in the demo_x000D_
body {_x000D_
  font-size: 22px;_x000D_
  text-align: center;_x000D_
  color: white;_x000D_
  background: grey;_x000D_
<script src=""></script>_x000D_
<script src="//"></script>

Height of an HTML select box (dropdown)

The Chi Row answer is a good option for the problem, but I've found an error i the onclick arguments. Instead, would be:

<select size="1" position="absolute" onclick="size=(size!=1)?1:n;" ...>

(And mention you must replace the "n" with the number of lines you need)

PHP sessions that have already been started

If you want a new one, then do session_destroy() before starting it. To check if its set before starting it, call session_status() :

$status = session_status();
if($status == PHP_SESSION_NONE){
    //There is no active session
if($status == PHP_SESSION_DISABLED){
    //Sessions are not available
if($status == PHP_SESSION_ACTIVE){
    //Destroy current and start new one

I would avoid checking the global $_SESSION instead of I am calling the session_status() method since PHP implemented this function explicitly to:

Expose session status via new function, session_status This is for (PHP >=5.4.0)

How to use Apple's new San Francisco font on a webpage

None of the current answers including the accepted one will use Apple's San Francisco font on systems that don't have it installed as the system font. Since the question isn't "how do I use the OS X system font on a webpage" the correct solution is to use web fonts:

@font-face {
  font-family: "San Francisco";
  font-weight: 400;
  src: url("");



REST is a very high-level concept. In fact, it doesn't even mention HTTP at all!

If you have any doubts about how to implement REST in HTTP, you can always take a look at the Atom Publication Protocol (AtomPub) specification. AtomPub is a standard for writing RESTful webservices with HTTP that was developed by many HTTP and REST luminaries, with some input from Roy Fielding, the inventor of REST and (co-)inventor of HTTP himself.

In fact, you might even be able to use AtomPub directly. While it came out of the blogging community, it is in no way restricted to blogging: it is a generic protocol for RESTfully interacting with arbitrary (nested) collections of arbitrary resources via HTTP. If you can represent your application as a nested collection of resources, then you can just use AtomPub and not worry about whether to use PUT or POST, what HTTP Status Codes to return and all those details.

This is what AtomPub has to say about resource creation (section 9.2):

To add members to a Collection, clients send POST requests to the URI of the Collection.

Difference between MongoDB and Mongoose

From the first answer,

"Using Mongoose, a user can define the schema for the documents in a particular collection. It provides a lot of convenience in the creation and management of data in MongoDB."

You can now also define schema with mongoDB native driver using

##For new collection

    validator: { $jsonSchema: {
         <<Validation Rules>>

##For existing collection

`db.runCommand( {
        collMod: "recipes",
        validator: { $jsonSchema: {
             <<Validation Rules>>
    } )`

##full example

`db.createCollection("recipes", {
  validator: {
    $jsonSchema: {
      bsonType: "object",
      required: ["name", "servings", "ingredients"],
      additionalProperties: false,
      properties: {
        _id: {},
        name: {
          bsonType: "string",
          description: "'name' is required and is a string"
        servings: {
          bsonType: ["int", "double"],
          minimum: 0,
            "'servings' is required and must be an integer with a minimum of zero."
        cooking_method: {
          enum: [
            "'cooking_method' is optional but, if used, must be one of the listed options."
        ingredients: {
          bsonType: ["array"],
          minItems: 1,
          maxItems: 50,
          items: {
            bsonType: ["object"],
            required: ["quantity", "measure", "ingredient"],
            additionalProperties: false,
            description: "'ingredients' must contain the stated fields.",
            properties: {
              quantity: {
                bsonType: ["int", "double", "decimal"],
                  "'quantity' is required and is of double or decimal type"
              measure: {
                enum: ["tsp", "Tbsp", "cup", "ounce", "pound", "each"],
                  "'measure' is required and can only be one of the given enum values"
              ingredient: {
                bsonType: "string",
                description: "'ingredient' is required and is a string"
              format: {
                bsonType: "string",
                  "'format' is an optional field of type string, e.g. chopped or diced"

Insert collection Example

  name: "Chocolate Sponge Cake Filling",
  servings: 4,
  ingredients: [
      quantity: 7,
      measure: "ounce",
      ingredient: "bittersweet chocolate",
      format: "chopped"
    { quantity: 2, measure: "cup", ingredient: "heavy cream" }

Should I use alias or alias_method?

A year after asking the question comes a new article on the subject:

It seems that "so many men, so many minds." From the former article author encourages to use alias_method, while the latter suggests using alias.

However there's a common overview of these methods in both blogposts and answers above:

  • use alias when you want to limit aliasing to the scope where it's defined
  • use alias_method to allow inherited classes to access it

find files by extension, *.html under a folder in nodejs

i like using the glob package:

const glob = require('glob');

glob(__dirname + '/**/*.html', {}, (err, files)=>{

String comparison using '==' vs. 'strcmp()'

You should never use == for string comparison. === is OK.

$something = 0;
echo ('password123' == $something) ? 'true' : 'false';

Just run the above code and you'll see why.

$something = 0;
echo ('password123' === $something) ? 'true' : 'false';

Now, that's a little better.

Insert a string at a specific index

You can do it easily with regexp in one line of code

const str = 'Hello RegExp!';_x000D_
const index = 6;_x000D_
const insert = 'Lovely ';_x000D_
//'Hello RegExp!'.replace(/^(.{6})(.)/, `$1Lovely $2`);_x000D_
const res = str.replace(new RegExp(`^(.{${index}})(.)`), `$1${insert}$2`);_x000D_

"Hello Lovely RegExp!"

How to hide underbar in EditText

if you are using background then you must use this tag


Pip install - Python 2.7 - Windows 7

Download pip script from and then run using python as:-


or you can use python to install modules directly

python -m pip install <module>

How to draw a graph in PHP?

By far the easiest solution is to just use the Google Chart API

You can make bar graphs, pie charts, use 3D, and it's as easy as building a url with some parameters. See the simple example below.

This Pie Chart is really easy to make

How to fix: fatal error: openssl/opensslv.h: No such file or directory in RedHat 7

To fix this problem, you have to install OpenSSL development package, which is available in standard repositories of all modern Linux distributions.

To install OpenSSL development package on Debian, Ubuntu or their derivatives:

$ sudo apt-get install libssl-dev

To install OpenSSL development package on Fedora, CentOS or RHEL:

$ sudo yum install openssl-devel 

Edit : As @isapir has pointed out, for Fedora version>=22 use the DNF package manager :

dnf install openssl-devel

How to show two figures using matplotlib?

Alternatively, I would suggest turning interactive on in the beginning and at the very last plot, turn it off. All will show up, but they will not disappear as your program will stay around until you close the figures.

import matplotlib.pyplot as plt
from matplotlib import interactive

... code to make figure (1)


... code to make figure (2)

... code to make figure (3)


Why does background-color have no effect on this DIV?

Change it to:

<div style="background-color:black; overflow:hidden;" onmouseover="this.bgColor='white'">
<div style="float:left">hello</div>
<div style="float:right">world</div>

Basically the outer div only contains floats. Floats are removed from the normal flow. As such the outer div really contains nothing and thus has no height. It really is black but you just can't see it.

The overflow:hidden property basically makes the outer div enclose the floats. The other way to do this is:

<div style="background-color:black" onmouseover="this.bgColor='white'">
<div style="float:left">hello</div>
<div style="float:right">world</div>
<div style="clear:both></div>

Oh and just for completeness, you should really prefer classes to direct CSS styles.

Read an Excel file directly from a R script

Yes. See the relevant page on the R wiki. Short answer: read.xls from the gdata package works most of the time (although you need to have Perl installed on your system -- usually already true on MacOS and Linux, but takes an extra step on Windows, i.e. see There are various caveats, and alternatives, listed on the R wiki page.

The only reason I see not to do this directly is that you may want to examine the spreadsheet to see if it has glitches (weird headers, multiple worksheets [you can only read one at a time, although you can obviously loop over them all], included plots, etc.). But for a well-formed, rectangular spreadsheet with plain numbers and character data (i.e., not comma-formatted numbers, dates, formulas with divide-by-zero errors, missing values, etc. etc. ..) I generally have no problem with this process.

How do I POST urlencoded form data with $http without jQuery?

If it is a form try changing the header to:

headers[ "Content-type" ] = "application/x-www-form-urlencoded; charset=utf-8";

and if it is not a form and a simple json then try this header:

headers[ "Content-type" ] = "application/json";

Make index.html default, but allow index.php to be visited if typed in

RewriteEngine on
RewriteRule ^(.*)\.html$ $1.php%{QUERY_STRING} [L]

Put these two lines at the top of your .htaccess file. It will show .html in the URL for your .php pages.

RewriteEngine on
RewriteRule ^(.*)\.php$ $1.html%{QUERY_STRING} [L]

Use this for showing .php in URL for your .html pages.

Can't find how to use HttpContent

Just use...

var stringContent = new StringContent(jObject.ToString());
var response = await httpClient.PostAsync("", stringContent);


var stringContent = new StringContent(JsonConvert.SerializeObject(model), Encoding.UTF8, "application/json");
var response = await httpClient.PostAsync("", stringContent);

Changing SVG image color with javascript

Here's a full example that shows how to modify the fill color of an svg referenced via <embed>, <object> and <iframe>.

Also see How to apply a style to an embedded SVG?

How do I create a dictionary with keys from a list and values defaulting to (say) zero?

In python version >= 2.7 and in python 3:

d = {el:0 for el in a}

How to remove decimal part from a number in C#

Reading all the comments by you, I think you are just trying to display it in a certain format rather than changing the value / casting it to int.

I think the easiest way to display 12.00 as "12" would be using string format specifiers.

double val = 12.00;

string displayed_value = val.ToString("N0"); // Output will be "12"

The best part about this solution is, that it will change 1200.00 to "1,200" (add a comma to it) which is very useful to display amount/money/price of something.

More information can be found here:

Proper way to rename solution (and directories) in Visual Studio

I'm new to VS. I just had that same problem: Needed to rename an started project after a couple weeks work. This what I did and it worked.

  1. Just in case, make a backup of your folder Project, although you won't be touching it, but just in case!
  2. Create a new project and save it using the name you wish for your 'new' project, meaning the name you want to change your 'old' project to.
  3. Build it. After that you'll have a Project with the name you wanted but that it does not anything at all but open a window (a Windows Form App in my case).
  4. With the new proyect opened, click on Project->Add Existing Ítem and using Windows Explorer locate your 'old' folder Project and select all the files under ...Visual Studio xxx\Projects\oldApp\oldApp
  5. Select all files in there (.vb, .resx) and add them to your 'new' Project (the one that should be already opened).
  6. Almost last step would be to open your Project file using the Solution
    Explorer and in the 1st tab change the default startup form to the form it should be.
  7. Rebuild everything.

Maybe more steps but less or no typing at all, just some mouse clicks. Hope it helps :)

Why is my toFixed() function not working?

Your conversion data is response[25] and follow the below steps.

var i = parseFloat(response[25]).toFixed(2)

How to center buttons in Twitter Bootstrap 3?

According to the Twitter Bootstrap documentation:

<!-- Button -->
<div class="form-group">
   <label class="col-md-4 control-label" for="singlebutton"></label>
   <div class="col-md-4 center-block">
      <button id="singlebutton" name="singlebutton" class="btn btn-primary center-block">
          Next Step!

All the class center-block does is to tell the element to have a margin of 0 auto, the auto being the left/right margins. However, unless the class text-center or css text-align:center; is set on the parent, the element does not know the point to work out this auto calculation from so will not center itself as anticipated.

See an example of the code above here:

How to count total lines changed by a specific author in a Git repository?

Save your logs into file using:

git log --author="<authorname>" --oneline --shortstat > logs.txt

For Python lovers:

with open(r".\logs.txt", "r", encoding="utf8") as f:
    files = insertions = deletions = 0
    for line in f:
        if ' changed' in line:
            line = line.strip()
            spl = line.split(', ')
            if len(spl) > 0:
                files += int(spl[0].split(' ')[0])
            if len(spl) > 1:
                insertions += int(spl[1].split(' ')[0])
            if len(spl) > 2:
                deletions += int(spl[2].split(' ')[0])

    print(str(files).ljust(10) + ' files changed')
    print(str(insertions).ljust(10) + ' insertions')
    print(str(deletions).ljust(10) + ' deletions')

Your outputs would be like:

225        files changed
6751       insertions
1379       deletions

Putting GridView data in a DataTable

Copying Grid to datatable

        if (GridView.Rows.Count != 0)
            //Forloop for header
            for (int i = 0; i < GridView.HeaderRow.Cells.Count; i++)
            //foreach for datarow
            foreach (GridViewRow row in GridView.Rows)
                DataRow dr = dt.NewRow();
                for (int j = 0; j < row.Cells.Count; j++)
                    dr[GridView.HeaderRow.Cells[j].Text] = row.Cells[j].Text;
            //Loop for footer
            if (GridView.FooterRow.Cells.Count != 0)
                DataRow dr = dt.NewRow();
                for (int i = 0; i < GridView.FooterRow.Cells.Count; i++)
                    //You have to re-do the work if you did anything in databound for footer.  
            dt.TableName = "tb";

How to get all the AD groups for a particular user?

This is how I list all the groups (direct and indirect) for a specific Distinguished Name:

The string 1.2.840.113556.1.4.1941 specifies LDAP_MATCHING_RULE_IN_CHAIN.

This rule is limited to filters that apply to the DN. This is a special "extended" match operator that walks the chain of ancestry in objects all the way to the root until it finds a match.

This method is 25 times faster than the UserPrincipal.GetGroups() method in my testing.

Note: The primary group (typically Domain Users) is not returned by this or GetGroups() method. To get the primary group name too, I've confirmed this method works.

Additionally, I found this list of LDAP filters extremely useful.

private IEnumerable<string> GetGroupsForDistinguishedName(DirectoryEntry domainDirectoryEntry, string distinguishedName)
    var groups = new List<string>();
    if (!string.IsNullOrEmpty(distinguishedName))
        var getGroupsFilterForDn = $"(&(objectCategory=group)(member:1.2.840.113556.1.4.1941:={distinguishedName}))";
        using (DirectorySearcher dirSearch = new DirectorySearcher(domainDirectoryEntry))
            dirSearch.Filter = getGroupsFilterForDn;

            using (var results = dirSearch.FindAll())
                foreach (SearchResult result in results)
                    if (result.Properties.Contains("name"))

    return groups;

How do I mount a remote Linux folder in Windows through SSH?

Second David's answer below: I needed to mount a network drive automatically when users logged in. Dokan SSHFS is a nice tool, but wasn't reliable enough in this case. The copy of Netdrive I found didn't support SSHFS or sftp - not sure if a more recent one does.

The solution I'm trialling now involves adding a virtual network adapter (with file sharing disabled), using plink to open a tunnel via the new adapter to the remote machine running SAMBA, and mounting the network drive against the new adapter. There's another useful tutorial here

The tunnel and network drive can be set up with a login script, so a few seconds after login users can use the mapped drive without needing to take any action.

Fixed height and width for bootstrap carousel

set style="height:300px !important;" and "imgBanner" for img tag.

<img src="/image/1.jpg" class="imgBanner" style="width:100%; height:300px !important;">

then if you want responsive image, so you can use jquery as:


       if (pagesize < 578) {
        } else if (pagesize > 578 ) {

insert echo into the specific html element like div which has an id or class

You can write the php code in another file and include it in the proper place where you want it.

AJAX is also used to display HTML content that is formed by PHP into a specified HTML tag.

Using jQuery:

$.ajax({url: "test.php"}).done(function( html ) {

Above code will execute test.php and result will be displayed in the element with id results.

What does LayoutInflater in Android do?

What inflater does

It takes a xml layout as input (say) and converts it to View object.

Why needed

Let us think a scenario where we need to create a custom listview. Now each row should be custom. But how can we do it. Its not possible to assign a xml layout to a row of listview. So, we create a View object. Thus we can access the elements in it (textview,imageview etc) and also assign the object as row of listview

So, whenever we need to assign view type object somewhere and we have our custom xml design we just convert it to object by inflater and use it.

VBA module that runs other modules

Is "Module1" part of the same workbook that contains "moduleController"?
If not, you could call public method of "Module1" using Application.Run someWorkbook.xlsm!methodOfModule.

How to check if input is numeric in C++

I find myself using boost::lexical_cast for this sort of thing all the time these days. Example:

std::string input;
int input_value;
try {
} catch(boost::bad_lexical_cast &) {
  // Deal with bad input here

The pattern works just as well for your own classes too, provided they meet some simple requirements (streamability in the necessary direction, and default and copy constructors).

Rails: select unique values from a column

This code works as 'DISTINCT' (not as Array#uniq) since rails 3.2

Why do access tokens expire?

This is very much implementation specific, but the general idea is to allow providers to issue short term access tokens with long term refresh tokens. Why?

  • Many providers support bearer tokens which are very weak security-wise. By making them short-lived and requiring refresh, they limit the time an attacker can abuse a stolen token.
  • Large scale deployment don't want to perform a database lookup every API call, so instead they issue self-encoded access token which can be verified by decryption. However, this also means there is no way to revoke these tokens so they are issued for a short time and must be refreshed.
  • The refresh token requires client authentication which makes it stronger. Unlike the above access tokens, it is usually implemented with a database lookup.

Cannot connect to the Docker daemon on macOS

I had the same problem. Docker running but couldn't access it through CLI.

For me the problem was solved by executing "Docker Quickstart". This is located in the "/Applications/Docker/" folder. As long as I work in this instance of the Terminal app Docker works perfectly. If a second window is needed I have to run the "Quickstart" app once more.

I have a Docker for Mac installation. Therefore I am not sure if my solution is valid for a Homebrew installation.

The "Docker Quickstart Terminal" app seems to be essentially some applescripts to launch the terminal app and a bash start script that initialise all the necessary environment variables.

Hope this helps someone else !

Font size of TextView in Android application changes on changing font size from native settings

The easiest to do so is simply to use something like the following:


If you'd like to know more about the textSize property, you can check the Android developer documentation.

Scrolling to element using webdriver?

You are trying to run Java code with Python. In Python/Selenium, the org.openqa.selenium.interactions.Actions are reflected in ActionChains class:

from selenium.webdriver.common.action_chains import ActionChains

element = driver.find_element_by_id("my-id")

actions = ActionChains(driver)

Or, you can also "scroll into view" via scrollIntoView():

driver.execute_script("arguments[0].scrollIntoView();", element)

If you are interested in the differences:

How to set a:link height/width with css?

add display: block;

a-tag is an inline element so your height and width are ignored.

#header div#snav div a{

How to set ssh timeout?

ssh -o ConnectTimeout=10  <hostName>

Where 10 is time in seconds. This Timeout applies only to the creation of the connection.

How to get pandas.DataFrame columns containing specific dtype

To get the column names from pandas dataframe in python3- Here I am creating a data frame from a fileName.csv file

>>> import pandas as pd
>>> df = pd.read_csv('fileName.csv')
>>> columnNames = list(df.head(0)) 
>>> print(columnNames)

How do I print colored output to the terminal in Python?

There are a few libraries that help out here. For cmdline tools I sometimes use colorama.


from colorama import init, Fore, Back, Style

def cprint(msg, foreground = "black", background = "white"):
    fground = foreground.upper()
    bground = background.upper()
    style = getattr(Fore, fground) + getattr(Back, bground)
    print(style + msg + Style.RESET_ALL)

cprint("colorful output, wohoo", "red", "black")

But instead of using strings, you might want to use an enum and/or add a few checks. Not the prettiest solution, but works on osx/linux and windows and is easy to use.

Other threads about this topic and cross-platform support: e.g. here.

jQuery see if any or no checkboxes are selected

You can do a simple return of the .length here:

function areAnyChecked(formID) {
  return !!$('#'+formID+' input[type=checkbox]:checked').length;

This look for checkboxes in the given form, sees if any are :checked and returns true if they are (since the length would be 0 otherwise). To make it a bit clearer, here's the non boolean converted version:

function howManyAreChecked(formID) {
  return $('#'+formID+' input[type=checkbox]:checked').length;

This would return a count of how many were checked.

How can I force browsers to print background images in CSS?

Make sure to use the !important attribute. This dramatically increases the likelihood your styles are retained when printed.

#example1 {
    background:url(image.png) no-repeat !important;

#example2 {
    background-color: #123456 !important;

mailto link multiple body lines

To get body lines use escape()

body_line =  escape("\n");


href = "mailto:[email protected]?body=hello,"+body_line+"I like this.";

How to set text color to a text view programmatically





Or if you have defined color code in resource's color.xml file than

(From API >= 23)

mTextView.setTextColor(ContextCompat.getColor(context, R.color.<name_of_color>));

(For API < 23)


Getting current unixtimestamp using Moment.js

To find the Unix Timestamp in seconds:


The documentation is your friend. :)

initialize a vector to zeros C++/C++11

You don't need initialization lists for that:

std::vector<int> vector1(length, 0);
std::vector<double> vector2(length, 0.0);

Submit two forms with one button

if you want to submit two forms with one button you need to do this:

1- use setTimeout()

2- allow show pop up

function myFunction() {
setTimeout(function(){ document.getElementById("form1").submit();}, 3000);   
setTimeout(function(){ document.getElementById("form2").submit();}, 6000);   
<form  target="_blank" id="form1">
<input type="text">
<input type="submit">
<form target="_blank" id="form2">
<input type="text">
<input type="submit">

javascript doesn't submit two forms at the same time. we submit two forms with one button not at the same time but after secounds.

edit: when we use this code, browser doesn't allow pop up.
if you use this code for your software like me just set browser for show pop up but if you use it in designing site, browser is a barrier and code doesn't run.

What is the difference between C# and .NET?

When people talk about the ".net framework" they tend to be combining two main areas - the runtime library and the virtual machine that actually runs the .net code.

When you create a class library in Visual Studio in C#, the DLL follows a prescribed format - very roughly, there is section that contains meta data that describes what classes are included in it and what functions they have, etc.. and that describes where in the binary those objects exist. This common .net format is what allows libraries to be shared between .net languages (C#, VB.Net, F# and others) easily. Although much of the .net "runtime library" is written in C# now (I believe), you can imagine how many of them could have been written in unmanaged languages but arranged in this prescribed format so that they could be consumed by .net languages.

The real "meat" of the library that you build consists of CIL ("Common Intermediate Language") which is a bit like the assembly language of .net - again, this language is the common output of all .net languages, which is what makes .net libraries consumable by any .net language.

Using the tool "ildasm.exe", which is freely available in Microsoft SDKs (and might already be on your computer), you can see how C# code is converted into meta data and IL. I've included a sample at the bottom of this answer as an example.

When you run execute .net code, what is commonly happening is the .net virtual machine is reading that IL and processing it. This is the other side of .net and, again, you can likely imagine that this could easily be written in an unmanaged language - it "only" needs to read VM instructions and run them (and integrate with the garbage collector, which also need not be .net code).

What I've described is (again, roughly) what happens when you build an executable in Visual Studio (for more information, I highly recommend the book "CLR via C# by Jeffrey Richter" - it's very detailed and excellently written).

However, there are times that you might write C# that will not be executed within a .net environment - for example, Bridge.NET "compiles" C# code into JavaScript which is then run in the browser (the team that produce it have gone to the effort of writing versions of the .net runtime library that are written in JavaScript and so the power and flexibility of the .net library is available to the generated JavaScript). This is a perfect example of the separation between C# and .net - it's possible to write C# for different "targets"; you might target the .net runtime environment (when you build an executable) or you might target the browser environment (when you use Bridge.NET).

A (very) simple example class:

using System;

namespace Example
    public class Class1
        public void SayHello()

The resulting meta data and IL (retrieved via ildasm.exe):

// Metadata version: v4.0.30319
.assembly extern mscorlib
  .publickeytoken = (B7 7A 5C 56 19 34 E0 89 )                         // .z\V.4..
  .ver 4:0:0:0
.assembly Example
  .custom instance void [mscorlib]System.Runtime.CompilerServices.CompilationRelaxationsAttribute::.ctor(int32) = ( 01 00 08 00 00 00 00 00 ) 
  .custom instance void [mscorlib]System.Runtime.CompilerServices.RuntimeCompatibilityAttribute::.ctor() = ( 01 00 01 00 54 02 16 57 72 61 70 4E 6F 6E 45 78   // ....T..WrapNonEx
                                                                                                            63 65 70 74 69 6F 6E 54 68 72 6F 77 73 01 )       // ceptionThrows.

  // --- The following custom attribute is added automatically, do not uncomment -------
  //  .custom instance void [mscorlib]System.Diagnostics.DebuggableAttribute::.ctor(valuetype [mscorlib]System.Diagnostics.DebuggableAttribute/DebuggingModes) = ( 01 00 07 01 00 00 00 00 ) 

  .custom instance void [mscorlib]System.Reflection.AssemblyTitleAttribute::.ctor(string) = ( 01 00 0A 54 65 73 74 49 4C 44 41 53 4D 00 00 )    // ...TestILDASM..
  .custom instance void [mscorlib]System.Reflection.AssemblyDescriptionAttribute::.ctor(string) = ( 01 00 00 00 00 ) 
  .custom instance void [mscorlib]System.Reflection.AssemblyConfigurationAttribute::.ctor(string) = ( 01 00 00 00 00 ) 
  .custom instance void [mscorlib]System.Reflection.AssemblyCompanyAttribute::.ctor(string) = ( 01 00 00 00 00 ) 
  .custom instance void [mscorlib]System.Reflection.AssemblyProductAttribute::.ctor(string) = ( 01 00 0A 54 65 73 74 49 4C 44 41 53 4D 00 00 )    // ...TestILDASM..
  .custom instance void [mscorlib]System.Reflection.AssemblyCopyrightAttribute::.ctor(string) = ( 01 00 12 43 6F 70 79 72 69 67 68 74 20 C2 A9 20   // ...Copyright .. 
                                                                                                  20 32 30 31 36 00 00 )                            //  2016..
  .custom instance void [mscorlib]System.Reflection.AssemblyTrademarkAttribute::.ctor(string) = ( 01 00 00 00 00 ) 
  .custom instance void [mscorlib]System.Runtime.InteropServices.ComVisibleAttribute::.ctor(bool) = ( 01 00 00 00 00 ) 
  .custom instance void [mscorlib]System.Runtime.InteropServices.GuidAttribute::.ctor(string) = ( 01 00 24 31 39 33 32 61 32 30 65 2D 61 37 36 64   // ..$1932a20e-a76d
                                                                                                  2D 34 36 33 35 2D 62 36 38 66 2D 36 63 35 66 36   // -4635-b68f-6c5f6
                                                                                                  32 36 36 31 36 37 62 00 00 )                      // 266167b..
  .custom instance void [mscorlib]System.Reflection.AssemblyFileVersionAttribute::.ctor(string) = ( 01 00 07 31 2E 30 2E 30 2E 30 00 00 )             // ...
  .custom instance void [mscorlib]System.Runtime.Versioning.TargetFrameworkAttribute::.ctor(string) = ( 01 00 1C 2E 4E 45 54 46 72 61 6D 65 77 6F 72 6B   // ....NETFramework
                                                                                                        2C 56 65 72 73 69 6F 6E 3D 76 34 2E 35 2E 32 01   // ,Version=v4.5.2.
                                                                                                        00 54 0E 14 46 72 61 6D 65 77 6F 72 6B 44 69 73   // .T..FrameworkDis
                                                                                                        70 6C 61 79 4E 61 6D 65 14 2E 4E 45 54 20 46 72   // playName..NET Fr
                                                                                                        61 6D 65 77 6F 72 6B 20 34 2E 35 2E 32 )          // amework 4.5.2
  .hash algorithm 0x00008004
  .ver 1:0:0:0
.module Example.dll
// MVID: {80A91E4C-0994-4773-9B73-2C4977BB1F17}
.imagebase 0x10000000
.file alignment 0x00000200
.stackreserve 0x00100000
.subsystem 0x0003       // WINDOWS_CUI
.corflags 0x00000001    //  ILONLY
// Image base: 0x05DB0000

// =============== CLASS MEMBERS DECLARATION ===================

.class public auto ansi beforefieldinit Example.Class1
       extends [mscorlib]System.Object
  .method public hidebysig instance void 
          SayHello() cil managed
    // Code size       13 (0xd)
    .maxstack  8
    IL_0000:  nop
    IL_0001:  ldstr      "Hello"
    IL_0006:  call       void [mscorlib]System.Console::WriteLine(string)
    IL_000b:  nop
    IL_000c:  ret
  } // end of method Class1::SayHello

  .method public hidebysig specialname rtspecialname 
          instance void  .ctor() cil managed
    // Code size       8 (0x8)
    .maxstack  8
    IL_0000:  ldarg.0
    IL_0001:  call       instance void [mscorlib]System.Object::.ctor()
    IL_0006:  nop
    IL_0007:  ret
  } // end of method Class1::.ctor

} // end of class Example.Class1

// =============================================================

How to retrieve unique count of a field using Kibana + Elastic Search

For Kibana 4 go to this answer

This is easy to do with a terms panel:

Adding a terms panel to Kibana

If you want to select the count of distinct IP that are in your logs, you should specify in the field clientip, you should put a big enough number in length (otherwise, it will join different IP under the same group) and specify in the style table. After adding the panel, you will have a table with IP, and the count of that IP:

Table with IP and count

How to find out line-endings in a text file?

You may use the command todos filename to convert to DOS endings, and fromdos filename to convert to UNIX line endings. To install the package on Ubuntu, type sudo apt-get install tofrodos.

Trigger standard HTML5 validation (form) without using submit button?

i was using

objectName.addEventListener('click', function() {

but its show error "event is undefined" so in this case use event parameter like

objectName.addEventListener('click', function(event) {

now its works fine

Illegal mix of collations MySQL Error

I had my table originally created with CHARSET=latin1. After table conversion to utf8 some columns were not converted, however that was not really obvious. You can try to run SHOW CREATE TABLE my_table; and see which column was not converted or just fix incorrect character set on problematic column with query below (change varchar length and CHARSET and COLLATE according to your needs):

 ALTER TABLE `my_table` CHANGE `my_column` `my_column` VARCHAR(10) CHARSET utf8 
 COLLATE utf8_general_ci NULL;

How to set timeout on python's socket recv method?

As mentioned in previous replies, you can use something like: .settimeout() For example:

import socket

s = socket.socket()

s.settimeout(1) # Sets the socket to timeout after 1 second of no activity

host, port = "somehost", 4444
s.connect((host, port))

s.send("Hello World!\r\n")

    rec = s.recv(100) # try to receive 100 bytes
except socket.timeout: # fail after 1 second of no activity
    print("Didn't receive data! [Timeout]")

I hope this helps!!

My Application Could not open ServletContext resource

Make sure your maven war plugin block in pom.xml includes all files (especially xml files) while building the war. But you don't need to include the .java files though.


          <include>**/*.*</include> <!--this line includes the xml files into the war, which will be found when it is exploded in server during deployment -->


This is more of an example where TABLOCK did not work for me and TABLOCKX did.

I have 2 sessions, that both use the default (READ COMMITTED) isolation level:

Session 1 is an explicit transaction that will copy data from a linked server to a set of tables in a database, and takes a few seconds to run. [Example, it deletes Questions] Session 2 is an insert statement, that simply inserts rows into a table that Session 1 doesn't make changes to. [Example, it inserts Answers].

(In practice there are multiple sessions inserting multiple records into the table, simultaneously, while Session 1 is running its transaction).

Session 1 has to query the table Session 2 inserts into because it can't delete records that depend on entries that were added by Session 2. [Example: Delete questions that have not been answered].

So, while Session 1 is executing and Session 2 tries to insert, Session 2 loses in a deadlock every time.

So, a delete statement in Session 1 might look something like this: DELETE tblA FROM tblQ LEFT JOIN tblX on ... LEFT JOIN tblA a ON tblQ.Qid = tblA.Qid WHERE ... a.QId IS NULL and ...

The deadlock seems to be caused from contention between querying tblA while Session 2, [3, 4, 5, ..., n] try to insert into tblA.

In my case I could change the isolation level of Session 1's transaction to be SERIALIZABLE. When I did this: The transaction manager has disabled its support for remote/network transactions.

So, I could follow instructions in the accepted answer here to get around it: The transaction manager has disabled its support for remote/network transactions

But a) I wasn't comfortable with changing the isolation level to SERIALIZABLE in the first place- supposedly it degrades performance and may have other consequences I haven't considered, b) didn't understand why doing this suddenly caused the transaction to have a problem working across linked servers, and c) don't know what possible holes I might be opening up by enabling network access.

There seemed to be just 6 queries within a very large transaction that are causing the trouble.

So, I read about TABLOCK and TabLOCKX.

I wasn't crystal clear on the differences, and didn't know if either would work. But it seemed like it would. First I tried TABLOCK and it didn't seem to make any difference. The competing sessions generated the same deadlocks. Then I tried TABLOCKX, and no more deadlocks.

So, in six places, all I needed to do was add a WITH (TABLOCKX).

So, a delete statement in Session 1 might look something like this: DELETE tblA FROM tblQ q LEFT JOIN tblX x on ... LEFT JOIN tblA a WITH (TABLOCKX) ON tblQ.Qid = tblA.Qid WHERE ... a.QId IS NULL and ...

How to check whether a string is Base64 encoded or not

There is no way to distinct string and base64 encoded, except the string in your system has some specific limitation or identification.

How do I add a newline using printf?

To write a newline use \n not /n the latter is just a slash and a n

How to Validate Google reCaptcha on Form Submit

You can verify the response in 3 ways as per the Google reCAPTCHA documentation:

  1. g-recaptcha-response: Once user checks the checkbox (I am not a robot), a field with id g-recaptcha-response gets populated in your HTML.
    You can now use the value of this field to know if the user is a bot or not, using the below mentioed lines:-

    var captchResponse = $('#g-recaptcha-response').val();
    if(captchResponse.length == 0 )
        //user has not yet checked the 'I am not a robot' checkbox
        //user is a verified human and you are good to submit your form now
  2. Before you are about to submit your form, you can make a call as follows:-

    var isCaptchaValidated = false;
    var response = grecaptcha.getResponse();
    if(response.length == 0) {
        isCaptchaValidated = false;
        toast('Please verify that you are a Human.');
    } else {
        isCaptchaValidated = true;
    if (isCaptchaValidated ) {
        //you can now submit your form
  3. You can display your reCAPTCHA as follows:-

    <div class="col s12 g-recaptcha" data-sitekey="YOUR_PRIVATE_KEY" data-callback='doSomething'></div>

    And then define the function in your JavaScript, which can also be used to submit your form.

    function doSomething() { alert(1); }

    Now, once the checkbox (I am not a robot) is checked, you will get a callback to the defined callback, which is doSomething in your case.

Adding n hours to a date in Java?

Using the newish java.util.concurrent.TimeUnit class you can do it like this

Date oldDate = new Date(); // oldDate == current time
Date newDate = new Date(oldDate.getTime() + TimeUnit.HOURS.toMillis(2)); // Add 2 hours

A simple jQuery form validation script

You can simply use the jQuery Validate plugin as follows.


$(document).ready(function () {

    $('#myform').validate({ // initialize the plugin
        rules: {
            field1: {
                required: true,
                email: true
            field2: {
                required: true,
                minlength: 5



<form id="myform">
    <input type="text" name="field1" />
    <input type="text" name="field2" />
    <input type="submit" />




Standard Rules:

Optional Rules available with the additional-methods.js file:

email2 (optional TLD)
url2 (optional TLD)

How to send email attachments?

Here is the modified version from Oli for python 3

import smtplib
from pathlib import Path
from email.mime.multipart import MIMEMultipart
from email.mime.base import MIMEBase
from email.mime.text import MIMEText
from email.utils import COMMASPACE, formatdate
from email import encoders

def send_mail(send_from, send_to, subject, message, files=[],
              server="localhost", port=587, username='', password='',
    """Compose and send email with provided info and attachments.

        send_from (str): from name
        send_to (list[str]): to name(s)
        subject (str): message title
        message (str): message body
        files (list[str]): list of file paths to be attached to email
        server (str): mail server host name
        port (int): port number
        username (str): server auth username
        password (str): server auth password
        use_tls (bool): use TLS mode
    msg = MIMEMultipart()
    msg['From'] = send_from
    msg['To'] = COMMASPACE.join(send_to)
    msg['Date'] = formatdate(localtime=True)
    msg['Subject'] = subject


    for path in files:
        part = MIMEBase('application', "octet-stream")
        with open(path, 'rb') as file:
                        'attachment; filename="{}"'.format(Path(path).name))

    smtp = smtplib.SMTP(server, port)
    if use_tls:
    smtp.login(username, password)
    smtp.sendmail(send_from, send_to, msg.as_string())

restrict edittext to single line

Add this line to your edittext


How to get exit code when using Python subprocess communicate method?

Popen.communicate will set the returncode attribute when it's done(*). Here's the relevant documentation section:

  The child return code, set by poll() and wait() (and indirectly by communicate()). 
  A None value indicates that the process hasn’t terminated yet.

  A negative value -N indicates that the child was terminated by signal N (Unix only).

So you can just do (I didn't test it but it should work):

import subprocess as sp
child = sp.Popen(openRTSP + opts.split(), stdout=sp.PIPE)
streamdata = child.communicate()[0]
rc = child.returncode

(*) This happens because of the way it's implemented: after setting up threads to read the child's streams, it just calls wait.

IOS 7 Navigation Bar text and arrow color

Swift3, ios 10

To globally assign the color, in AppDelegate didFinishLaunchingWithOptions:

let textAttributes = [NSForegroundColorAttributeName:UIColor.white]
UINavigationBar.appearance().titleTextAttributes = textAttributes

Swift 4, iOS 11

let textAttributes = [NSAttributedStringKey.foregroundColor:UIColor.white]
UINavigationBar.appearance().titleTextAttributes = textAttributes

How to NodeJS require inside TypeScript file?

The correct syntax is:

import sampleModule = require('modulename');


import * as sampleModule from 'modulename';

Then compile your TypeScript with --module commonjs.

If the package doesn't come with an index.d.ts file and its package.json doesn't have a "typings" property, tsc will bark that it doesn't know what 'modulename' refers to. For this purpose you need to find a .d.ts file for it on, or write one yourself.

If you are writing code for Node.js you will also want the node.d.ts file from