Programs & Examples On #Spamassassin

SpamAssassin is an open source server daemon used to examine and mark email that it identifies as spam.

Failed to load resource 404 (Not Found) - file location error?

Looks like the path you gave doesn't have any bootstrap files in them.


Make sure the files exist over there , else point the files to the correct path, which should be in your case


Position absolute but relative to parent

If you don't give any position to parent then by default it takes static. If you want to understand that difference refer to this example

Example 1::



Here parent class has no position so element is placed according to body.

Example 2::


In this example parent has relative position hence element are positioned absolute inside relative parent.

registerForRemoteNotificationTypes: is not supported in iOS 8.0 and later

So it turns out that because AnyObject is the spiritual successor to id, you can call any message you want on AnyObject. That's the equivalent of sending a message to id. Ok, fair enough. But now we add in the concept that all methods are optional on AnyObject, and we have something we can work with.

Given the above, I was hopeful I could just cast UIApplication.sharedApplication() to AnyObject, then create a variable equal to the method signature, set that variable to the optional method, then test the variable. This didn't seem to work. My guess is that when compiled against the iOS 8.0 SDK, the compiler knows where it thinks that method should be, so it optimizes this all down to a memory lookup. Everything works fine until I try to test the variable, at which point I get a EXC_BAD_ACCESS.

However, in the same WWDC talk where I found the gem about all methods being optional, they use Optional Chaining to call an optional method - and this seems to work. The lame part is that you have to actually attempt to call the method in order to know if it exists, which in the case of registering for notifications is a problem because you're trying to figure out if this method exists before you go creating a UIUserNotificationSettings object. It seems like calling that method with nil though is okay, so the solution that seems to be working for me is:

var ao: AnyObject = UIApplication.sharedApplication()
if let x:Void = ao.registerUserNotificationSettings?(nil) {
    // It's iOS 8
    var types = UIUserNotificationType.Badge | UIUserNotificationType.Sound | UIUserNotificationType.Alert
    var settings = UIUserNotificationSettings(forTypes: types, categories: nil)
} else {
    // It's older
    var types = UIRemoteNotificationType.Badge | UIRemoteNotificationType.Sound | UIRemoteNotificationType.Alert

After much searching related to this, the key info came from this WWDC talk right in the middle at the section about "Optional Methods in Protocols"

In Xcode 6.1 beta the above code does not work anymore, the code below works:

   if UIApplication.sharedApplication().respondsToSelector("registerUserNotificationSettings:") {
        // It's iOS 8
        var types = UIUserNotificationType.Badge | UIUserNotificationType.Sound | UIUserNotificationType.Alert
       var settings = UIUserNotificationSettings(forTypes: types, categories: nil)
    } else {
        // It's older
        var types = UIRemoteNotificationType.Badge | UIRemoteNotificationType.Sound | UIRemoteNotificationType.Alert

Split function in oracle to comma separated values with automatic sequence

Try like below

    split.field(column_name,1,',','"') name1,
    split.field(column_name,2,',','"') name2
from table_name

How do I get the current time only in JavaScript

var d = new Date("2011-04-20T09:30:51.01");
d.getHours(); // => 9
d.getMinutes(); // =>  30
d.getSeconds(); // => 51


var d = new Date(); // for now
d.getHours(); // => 9
d.getMinutes(); // =>  30
d.getSeconds(); // => 51

In Python, how do I split a string and keep the separators?

If you are splitting on newline, use splitlines(True).

>>> 'line 1\nline 2\nline without newline'.splitlines(True)
['line 1\n', 'line 2\n', 'line without newline']

(Not a general solution, but adding this here in case someone comes here not realizing this method existed.)

Programmatically add custom event in the iPhone Calendar

Working code in Swift-4.2

import UIKit
import EventKit
import EventKitUI

class yourViewController: UIViewController{

    let eventStore = EKEventStore()

    func addEventToCalendar() {

    eventStore.requestAccess( to: EKEntityType.event, completion:{(granted, error) in
        DispatchQueue.main.async {
            if (granted) && (error == nil) {
                let event = EKEvent(eventStore: self.eventStore)
                event.title = self.headerDescription
                event.startDate = self.parse(self.requestDetails.value(forKey: "session_time") as? String ?? "")
                event.endDate = self.parse(self.requestDetails.value(forKey: "session_end_time") as? String ?? "")
                let eventController = EKEventEditViewController()
                eventController.event = event
                eventController.eventStore = self.eventStore
                eventController.editViewDelegate = self
                self.present(eventController, animated: true, completion: nil)




Now we will get the event screen and here you can also modify your settings:

enter image description here

Now add delegate method to handle Cancel and add the event button action of event screen:

    extension viewController: EKEventEditViewDelegate {

    func eventEditViewController(_ controller: EKEventEditViewController, didCompleteWith action: EKEventEditViewAction) {
        controller.dismiss(animated: true, completion: nil)


Note: Don't forget to add NSCalendarsUsageDescription key into info plist.

Print a file, skipping the first X lines, in Bash

This shell script works fine for me:

awk -v initial_line=$1 -v end_line=$2 '{
    if (NR >= initial_line && NR <= end_line) 
    print $0
}' $3

Used with this sample file (file.txt):


The command (it will extract from second to fourth line in the file):

edu@debian5:~$./ 2 4 file.txt

Output of this command:


Of course, you can improve it, for example by testing that all argument values are the expected :-)

Any way to generate ant build.xml file automatically from Eclipse?

  • Select File > Export from main menu (or right click on the project name and select Export > Export…).
  • In the Export dialog, select General > Ant Buildfiles as follows: enter image description here

  • Click Next. In the Generate Ant Buildfilesscreen:

    • Check the project in list.
    • Uncheck the option "Create target to compile project using Eclipse compiler" - because we want to create a build file which is independent of Eclipse.
    • Leave the Name for Ant buildfile as default: build.xml

enter image description here

  • Click Finish, Eclipse will generate the build.xml file under project’s directory as follows:
    enter image description here
  • Double click on the build.xml file to open its content in Ant editor: enter image description here


How to run ~/.bash_profile in mac terminal

On MacOS: add source ~/.bash_profile to the end of ~/.zshrc. Then this profile will be in effect when you open zsh.

How to set up default schema name in JPA configuration?

For those who uses last versions of spring boot will help this:

.properties:<name of your schema>


                default_schema: <name of your schema>

When should null values of Boolean be used?

I suppose in some case, you should have a mechanism to distinguish a Boolean field which already set value or not.

openssl s_client using a proxy

since openssl v1.1.0

C:\openssl>openssl version
OpenSSL 1.1.0g  2 Nov 2017
C:\openssl>openssl s_client -proxy -connect -CAfile C:\TEMP\internalCA.crt
depth=2 DC = com, DC = xxxx, CN = xxxx CA interne
verify return:1
depth=1 C = FR, L = CROIX, CN = svproxysg1, emailAddress = [email protected]
verify return:1
depth=0 C = US, ST = California, L = Mountain View, O = Google Inc, CN =
verify return:1
Certificate chain
 0 s:/C=US/ST=California/L=Mountain View/O=Google Inc/
   i:/C=xxxx/L=xxxx/CN=svproxysg1/[email protected]
 1 s:/C=xxxx/L=xxxx/CN=svproxysg1/[email protected]
   i:/DC=com/DC=xxxxx/CN=xxxxx CA interne
Server certificate

Import CSV file as a pandas DataFrame

You can use the csv module found in the python standard library to manipulate CSV files.


import csv
with open('some.csv', 'rb') as f:
    reader = csv.reader(f)
    for row in reader:
        print row

Export to csv/excel from kibana

In Kibana 6.5, you can generate CSV under the Share Tab -> CSV Reports.

The request will be queued. Once the CSV is generated, it will be available for download under Management -> Reporting

How to convert an NSTimeInterval (seconds) into minutes

Since it's essentially a double...

Divide by 60.0 and extract the integral part and the fractional part.

The integral part will be the whole number of minutes.

Multiply the fractional part by 60.0 again.

The result will be the remaining seconds.

Regular expression [Any number]

UPDATE: for your updated question


Try this:

variable.match(/[0-9]+/);    // for unsigned integers
variable.match(/[-0-9]+/);   // for signed integers
variable.match(/[-.0-9]+/);  // for signed float numbers

Hope this helps!

Access a URL and read Data with R

scan can read from a web page automatically; you don't necessarily have to mess with connections.

How to create materialized views in SQL Server?

When indexed view is not an option, and quick updates are not necessary, you can create a hack cache table:

select * into cachetablename from myviewname
alter table cachetablename add primary key (columns)
-- OR alter table cachetablename add rid bigint identity primary key
create index...

then sp_rename view/table or change any queries or other views that reference it to point to the cache table.

schedule daily/nightly/weekly/whatnot refresh like

begin transaction
truncate table cachetablename
insert into cachetablename select * from viewname
commit transaction

NB: this will eat space, also in your tx logs. Best used for small datasets that are slow to compute. Maybe refactor to eliminate "easy but large" columns first into an outer view.

Google Chrome "" workaround?

This worked for me:

newwindow =, "_blank", "resizable=yes, scrollbars=yes, titlebar=yes, width=800, height=900, top=10, left=10");

A html space is showing as %2520 instead of %20

The following code snippet resolved my issue. Thought this might be useful to others.

var strEnc = this.$.txtSearch.value.replace(/\s/g, "-");_x000D_
strEnc = strEnc.replace(/-/g, " ");

Rather using default encodeURIComponent my first line of code is converting all spaces into hyphens using regex pattern /\s\g and the following line just does the reverse, i.e. converts all hyphens back to spaces using another regex pattern /-/g. Here /g is actually responsible for finding all matching characters.

When I am sending this value to my Ajax call, it traverses as normal spaces or simply %20 and thus gets rid of double-encoding.

Datepicker: How to popup datepicker when click on edittext

Using DataBinding:

  android:onClick="@{() -> viewModel.onDateEditTextClicked()}"
  android:text="@={viewModel.filterDate}" />

(see focusable, inputType and onClick)

Inside ViewModel:

public void onDateEditTextClicked() {
    // do something

HTTP redirect: 301 (permanent) vs. 302 (temporary)

Status 301 means that the resource (page) is moved permanently to a new location. The client/browser should not attempt to request the original location but use the new location from now on.

Status 302 means that the resource is temporarily located somewhere else, and the client/browser should continue requesting the original url.

E: Unable to locate package mongodb-org

I'm running Ubuntu 14.04; and apt still couldn't find package; I tried all the answers above and more. The URL that worked for me is this:

echo 'deb dist 10gen' | sudo tee /etc/apt/sources.list.d/mongodb.list


How to use private Github repo as npm dependency

It can be done via https and oauth or ssh.

https and oauth: create an access token that has "repo" scope and then use this syntax:

"package-name": "git+https://<github_token>:[email protected]/<user>/<repo>.git"


ssh: setup ssh and then use this syntax:

"package-name": "git+ssh://[email protected]:<user>/<repo>.git"

(note the use of colon instead of slash before user)

Java FileWriter how to write to next Line

.newLine() is the best if your system property line.separator is proper . and sometime you don't want to change the property runtime . So alternative solution is appending \n

How to automatically update an application without ClickOnce?

There are a lot of questions already about this, so I will refer you to those.

One thing you want to make sure to prevent the need for uninstallation, is that you use the same upgrade code on every release, but change the product code. These values are located in the Installshield project properties.

Some references:

What is the best way to repeatedly execute a function every x seconds?

If your program doesn't have a event loop already, use the sched module, which implements a general purpose event scheduler.

import sched, time
s = sched.scheduler(time.time, time.sleep)
def do_something(sc): 
    print("Doing stuff...")
    # do your stuff
    s.enter(60, 1, do_something, (sc,))

s.enter(60, 1, do_something, (s,))

If you're already using an event loop library like asyncio, trio, tkinter, PyQt5, gobject, kivy, and many others - just schedule the task using your existing event loop library's methods, instead.

Counting repeated characters in a string in Python

If someone is looking for the simplest way without collections module. I guess this will be helpful:

>>> s = "asldaksldkalskdla"
>>> {i:s.count(i) for i in set(s)}
{'a': 4, 'd': 3, 'k': 3, 's': 3, 'l': 4}


>>> [(i,s.count(i)) for i in set(s)]
[('a', 4), ('k', 3), ('s', 3), ('l', 4), ('d', 3)]

Simple way to find if two different lists contain exactly the same elements?

In addition to Laurence's answer, if you also want to make it null-safe:

private static <T> boolean listEqualsIgnoreOrder(List<T> list1, List<T> list2) {
    if (list1 == null)
        return list2==null;
    if (list2 == null)
        return list1 == null;
    return new HashSet<>(list1).equals(new HashSet<>(list2));

TypeScript Objects as Dictionary types as in C#

In newer versions of typescript you can use:

type Customers = Record<string, Customer>

In older versions you can use:

var map: { [email: string]: Customer; } = { };
map['[email protected]'] = new Customer(); // OK
map[14] = new Customer(); // Not OK, 14 is not a string
map['[email protected]'] = 'x'; // Not OK, 'x' is not a customer

You can also make an interface if you don't want to type that whole type annotation out every time:

interface StringToCustomerMap {
    [email: string]: Customer;

var map: StringToCustomerMap = { };
// Equivalent to first line of above

Alternative to Intersect in MySQL

There is a more effective way of generating an intersect, by using UNION ALL and GROUP BY. Performances are twice better according to my tests on large datasets.


SELECT t1.value from (
  (SELECT DISTINCT value FROM table_a)
  (SELECT DISTINCT value FROM table_b)
) AS t1 GROUP BY value HAVING count(*) >= 2;

It is more effective, because with the INNER JOIN solution, MySQL will look up for the results of the first query, then for each row, look up for the result in the second query. With the UNION ALL-GROUP BY solution, it will query results of the first query, results of the second query, then group the results all together at once.

An unhandled exception occurred during the execution of the current web request. ASP.NET

I had the same problem and found out that I had forgotten to include the script in the file which I want to include in the live site.

Also, you should try this:

bundles.Add(new ScriptBundle("~/bundles/jquery").Include(

Getting time difference between two times in PHP

$start = strtotime("12:00");
$end = // Run query to get datetime value from db
$elapsed = $end - $start;
echo date("H:i", $elapsed);

Convert JSON to Map

If you're using org.json, JSONObject has a method toMap(). You can easily do:

Map<String, Object> myMap = myJsonObject.toMap();

Get value of div content using jquery

You can simply use the method text() of jQuery to get all the content of the text contained in the element. The text() method also returns the textual content of the child elements.

HTML Code:

<div id="box">
  <p>Lorem ipsum elit sit ut, consectetur adipiscing dolor.</p> 

JQuery Code:

      var divContent = $('#box').text();

You can see an example here: How to get the text content of an element with jQuery

Disable back button in android

Just using this code: If you want backpressed disable, you dont use super.OnBackPressed();

public void onBackPressed() {


How to check file input size with jQuery?

I am posting my solution too, used for an ASP.NET FileUpload control. Perhaps someone will find it useful.

    $(function () {        
    $('<%= fileUploadCV.ClientID %>').change(function () {

        //because this is single file upload I use only first index
        var f = this.files[0]

        //here I CHECK if the FILE SIZE is bigger than 8 MB (numbers below are in bytes)
        if (f.size > 8388608 || f.fileSize > 8388608)
           //show an alert to the user
           alert("Allowed file size exceeded. (Max. 8 MB)")

           //reset file upload control
           this.value = null;

beyond top level package error in relative import

from package.A import foo

I think it's clearer than

import sys

Add to integers in a list

If you try appending the number like, say listName.append(4) , this will append 4 at last. But if you are trying to take <int> and then append it as, num = 4 followed by listName.append(num), this will give you an error as 'num' is of <int> type and listName is of type <list>. So do type cast int(num) before appending it.

Nested Git repositories?


Can I nest git repositories?

Yes. However, by default git does not track the .git folder of the nested repository. Git has features designed to manage nested repositories (read on).

Does it make sense to git init/add the /project_root to ease management of everything locally or do I have to manage my_project and the 3rd party one separately?

It probably doesn't make sense as git has features to manage nested repositories. Git's built in features to manage nested repositories are submodule and subtree.

Here is a blog on the topic and here is a SO question that covers the pros and cons of using each.

How to convert file to base64 in JavaScript?

Building up on Dmitri Pavlutin and joshua.paling answers, here's an extended version that extracts the base64 content (removes the metadata at the beginning) and also ensures padding is done correctly.

function getBase64(file) {
  return new Promise((resolve, reject) => {
    const reader = new FileReader();
    reader.onload = () => {
      let encoded = reader.result.toString().replace(/^data:(.*,)?/, '');
      if ((encoded.length % 4) > 0) {
        encoded += '='.repeat(4 - (encoded.length % 4));
    reader.onerror = error => reject(error);

Can't create project on Netbeans 8.2

Faced same issue with jdk 10. While installing netbeans prompted for jdk default location was taken as jdk 10. This was the issue, it should be jdk8 (1.8).

  1. Close Netbeans
  2. Open below file
    C:\Program Files\NetBeans 8.2\etc\netbeans.conf
  3. Comment jdkhome line jdk9 or jdk10 with # sign:
    # netbeans_jdkhome="C:\Program Files\Java\jdk-10.0.1"
  4. Add new jdkhome line for jdk8:
    netbeans_jdkhome="C:\Program Files\Java\jdk1.8.0_171"
  5. Start Netbeans

Note: If the above .conf file is not editable, then use Administrator mode. I use Notepad++, it prompted for restarting Notepad++ in Administrator mode, then save worked fine.

How to call an action after click() in Jquery?

If I've understood your question correctly, then you are looking for the mouseup event, rather than the click event:

$("#message_link").mouseup(function() {
    //Do stuff here

The mouseup event fires when the mouse button is released, and does not take into account whether the mouse button was pressed on that element, whereas click takes into account both mousedown and mouseup.

However, click should work fine, because it won't actually fire until the mouse button is released.

How to run C program on Mac OS X using Terminal?

For compiling a c program on your latest macOS just type the following in terminal after saving the file with a .c extension and on reaching the path where the file is saved :

cc yourfilename.c

Once you have checked all the errors after compilation (if any), type the following for executing the code :


These commands are tested on macOS Mojave and are working perfectly fine, cheers coding!

Why doesn't Java offer operator overloading?

Assuming Java as the implementation language then a, b, and c would all be references to type Complex with initial values of null. Also assuming that Complex is immutable as the mentioned BigInteger and similar immutable BigDecimal, I'd I think you mean the following, as you're assigning the reference to the Complex returned from adding b and c, and not comparing this reference to a.

Isn't :

Complex a, b, c; a = b + c;

much simpler than:

Complex a, b, c; a = b.add(c);

Load local JSON file into variable

For the given json format as in file ~/my-app/src/db/abc.json:


inorder to import to .js file like ~/my-app/src/app.js:

 const json = require("./db/abc.json");

 class Arena extends React.Component{

 export default Arena;


Ankit Aditi Avani

How to convert a time string to seconds?

def time_to_sec(time):
    sep = ','
    rest = time.split(sep, 1)[0]
    splitted = rest.split(":")
    emel = len(splitted) - 1
    i = 0
    summa = 0
    for numb in splitted:
        szor = 60 ** (emel - i)
        i += 1
        summa += int(numb) * szor
    return summa

The infamous java.sql.SQLException: No suitable driver found

I found the followig tip helpful, to eliminate this issue in Tomcat -

be sure to load the driver first doing a Class.forName(" org.postgresql.Driver"); in your code.

This is from the post -[email protected]

The jdbc code worked fine as a standalone program but, in TOMCAT it gave the error -'No suitable driver found'

Error Code: 2013. Lost connection to MySQL server during query

Just perform a MySQL upgrade that will re-build innoDB engine along with rebuilding of many tables required for proper functioning of MySQL such as performance_schema, information_schema, etc.

Issue the below command from your shell:

sudo mysql_upgrade -u root -p

Concatenate a vector of strings/character

For sdata:

gsub(", ","",toString(sdata))

For a vector of integers:

gsub(", ","",toString(c(1:10)))

Programmatically read from STDIN or input file in Perl

If there is a reason you can't use the simple solution provided by ennuikiller above, then you will have to use Typeglobs to manipulate file handles. This is way more work. This example copies from the file in $ARGV[0] to that in $ARGV[1]. It defaults to STDIN and STDOUT respectively if files are not specified.

use English;

my $in;
my $out;

if ($#ARGV >= 0){
    unless (open($in,  "<", $ARGV[0])){
      die "could not open $ARGV[0] for reading.";
else {
    $in  = *STDIN;

if ($#ARGV >= 1){
    unless (open($out, ">", $ARGV[1])){
      die "could not open $ARGV[1] for writing.";
else {
    $out  = *STDOUT;

while ($_ = <$in>){

CSS Animation and Display None

CSS (or jQuery, for that matter) can't animate between display: none; and display: block;. Worse yet: it can't animate between height: 0 and height: auto. So you need to hard code the height (if you can't hard code the values then you need to use javascript, but this is an entirely different question);

    height: 0;
    overflow: hidden;
    background: red;
   -prefix-animation: slide 1s ease 3.5s forwards;

@-prefix-keyframes slide {
  from {height: 0;}
  to {height: 300px;}

You mention that you're using Animate.css, which I'm not familiar with, so this is a vanilla CSS.

You can see a demo here:

Error occurred during initialization of VM Could not reserve enough space for object heap Could not create the Java virtual machine

I've just seen this problem myself, Jboss AS7 with jdk1.5.0_09. Update System Property JAVA_HOME to jdk1.7+ to fix (I'm using jdk1.7.0_67).

How do I unlock a SQLite database?

Deleting the -journal file sounds like a terrible idea. It's there to allow sqlite to roll back the database to a consistent state after a crash. If you delete it while the database is in an inconsistent state, then you're left with a corrupted database. Citing a page from the sqlite site:

If a crash or power loss does occur and a hot journal is left on the disk, it is essential that the original database file and the hot journal remain on disk with their original names until the database file is opened by another SQLite process and rolled back. [...]

We suspect that a common failure mode for SQLite recovery happens like this: A power failure occurs. After power is restored, a well-meaning user or system administrator begins looking around on the disk for damage. They see their database file named "". This file is perhaps familiar to them. But after the crash, there is also a hot journal named "". The user then deletes the hot journal, thinking that they are helping to cleanup the system. We know of no way to prevent this other than user education.

The rollback is supposed to happen automatically the next time the database is opened, but it will fail if the process can't lock the database. As others have said, one possible reason for this is that another process currently has it open. Another possibility is a stale NFS lock, if the database is on an NFS volume. In that case, a workaround is to replace the database file with a fresh copy that isn't locked on the NFS server (mv database.db original.db; cp original.db database.db). Note that the sqlite FAQ recommends caution regarding concurrent access to databases on NFS volumes, because of buggy implementations of NFS file locking.

I can't explain why deleting a -journal file would let you lock a database that you couldn't before. Is that reproducible?

By the way, the presence of a -journal file doesn't necessarily mean that there was a crash or that there are changes to be rolled back. Sqlite has a few different journal modes, and in PERSIST or TRUNCATE modes it leaves the -journal file in place always, and changes the contents to indicate whether or not there are partial transactions to roll back.

Download pdf file using jquery ajax

For those looking a more modern approach, you can use the fetch API. The following example shows how to download a PDF file. It is easily done with the following code.

fetch(url, {
    body: JSON.stringify(data),
    method: 'POST',
    headers: {
        'Content-Type': 'application/json; charset=utf-8'
.then(response => response.blob())
.then(response => {
    const blob = new Blob([response], {type: 'application/pdf'});
    const downloadUrl = URL.createObjectURL(blob);
    const a = document.createElement("a");
    a.href = downloadUrl; = "file.pdf";

I believe this approach to be much easier to understand than other XMLHttpRequest solutions. Also, it has a similar syntax to the jQuery approach, without the need to add any additional libraries.

Of course, I would advise checking to which browser you are developing, since this new approach won't work on IE. You can find the full browser compatibility list on the following [link][1].

Important: In this example I am sending a JSON request to a server listening on the given url. This url must be set, on my example I am assuming you know this part. Also, consider the headers needed for your request to work. Since I am sending a JSON, I must add the Content-Type header and set it to application/json; charset=utf-8, as to let the server know the type of request it will receive.

check if jquery has been loaded, then load it if false

Even though you may have a head appending it may not work in all browsers. This was the only method I found to work consistently.

<script type="text/javascript">
if (typeof jQuery == 'undefined') {
  document.write('<script type="text/javascript" src=""><\/script>');        

Using '<%# Eval("item") %>'; Handling Null Value and showing 0 against

Try replacing <%# Eval("item") %> with <%# If(Eval("item"), "0 value") %> (or <%# Eval("item") ?? "0 value" %>, when using C#).

How can I select an element with multiple classes in jQuery?

your code $(".a, .b") will work for below multiple elements (at a same time)

<element class="a">
<element class="b">

if you want to select element having a and b both class like <element class="a b"> than use js without coma


Can I set variables to undefined or pass undefined as an argument?

The best way to check for a null values is

if ( testVar !== null )
    // do action here

and for undefined

if ( testVar !== undefined )
    // do action here

You can assign a avariable with undefined.

testVar = undefined;
//typeof(testVar) will be equal to undefined.

Create iOS Home Screen Shortcuts on Chrome for iOS

The is no API for adding a shortcut to the home screen in iOS, so no third-party browser is capable of providing that functionality.

Extract XML Value in bash script

As Charles Duffey has stated, XML parsers are best parsed with a proper XML parsing tools. For one time job the following should work.

grep -oPm1 "(?<=<title>)[^<]+"


$ echo "$data"
  <title>15:54:57 - George:</title>
  <description>Diane DeConn? You saw Diane DeConn!</description> 
  <title>15:55:17 - Jerry:</title> 
  <description>Something huh?</description>
$ title=$(grep -oPm1 "(?<=<title>)[^<]+" <<< "$data")
$ echo "$title"
15:54:57 - George:

Replace all whitespace with a line break/paragraph mark to make a word list

  1. option 1

    echo $(cat testfile)
  2. Option 2

    tr ' ' '\n' < testfile

Undefined symbols for architecture armv7

I had the same problem. I tried every thing from the huge list of answer but in the end my problem was: I'm working with openCV so I need to combine C++ code in my code. To do this you should change the files which use objective-c and C++ to .mm I didn't changed one file and this file has no connection to the C++ code but I had to change it.

How do you get a list of the names of all files present in a directory in Node.js?

Here's a simple solution using only the native fs and path modules:

// sync version
function walkSync(currentDirPath, callback) {
    var fs = require('fs'),
        path = require('path');
    fs.readdirSync(currentDirPath).forEach(function (name) {
        var filePath = path.join(currentDirPath, name);
        var stat = fs.statSync(filePath);
        if (stat.isFile()) {
            callback(filePath, stat);
        } else if (stat.isDirectory()) {
            walkSync(filePath, callback);

or async version (uses fs.readdir instead):

// async version with basic error handling
function walk(currentDirPath, callback) {
    var fs = require('fs'),
        path = require('path');
    fs.readdir(currentDirPath, function (err, files) {
        if (err) {
            throw new Error(err);
        files.forEach(function (name) {
            var filePath = path.join(currentDirPath, name);
            var stat = fs.statSync(filePath);
            if (stat.isFile()) {
                callback(filePath, stat);
            } else if (stat.isDirectory()) {
                walk(filePath, callback);

Then you just call (for sync version):

walkSync('path/to/root/dir', function(filePath, stat) {
    // do something with "filePath"...

or async version:

walk('path/to/root/dir', function(filePath, stat) {
    // do something with "filePath"...

The difference is in how node blocks while performing the IO. Given that the API above is the same, you could just use the async version to ensure maximum performance.

However there is one advantage to using the synchronous version. It is easier to execute some code as soon as the walk is done, as in the next statement after the walk. With the async version, you would need some extra way of knowing when you are done. Perhaps creating a map of all paths first, then enumerating them. For simple build/util scripts (vs high performance web servers) you could use the sync version without causing any damage.

React Js conditionally applying class attributes


<div className="btn-group pull-right {this.props.showBulkActions ? 'show' : 'hidden'}">`


<div className={`btn-group pull-right ${this.props.showBulkActions ? 'show' : 'hidden'}`}

Spacing between elements

It depends on what exactly you want to accomplish. Let's assume you have this structure:

<p style="width:400px;">
    Lorem ipsum dolor sit amet, consectetuer adipiscing elit. Aenean commodo ligula eget dolor. Aenean massa. Cum sociis natoque penatibus et magnis dis parturient montes, nascetur ridiculus mus. Donec quam felis, ultricies nec, pellentesque eu, pretium quis, sem. Nulla consequat massa quis enim. Donec pede justo, fringilla vel, aliquet nec, vulputate eget, arcu. In enim justo, rhoncus ut, imperdiet a, venenatis vitae, justo. Nullam dictum felis eu pede mollis pretium. Integer tincidunt. Cras dapibus. Vivamus elementum semper nisi. Aenean vulputate eleifend tellus. Aenean leo ligula, porttitor eu, consequat vitae, eleifend ac, enim. Aliquam lorem ante, dapibus in, viverra quis, feugiat a, tellus. Phasellus viverra nulla ut metus varius laoreet.

If you want the space between the single lines to be bigger, you should increase


If you want the space at the end to be bigger, you should increase


If you want the space at the end to be bigger, but have the background fill the space (or the border around the space) use


Of course, there are also the corresponding values for space on the top:


Some examples:

<p style="line-height: 30px; width: 300px; border: 1px solid black;">
     Space between single lines 
     Space between single lines
     Space between single lines
     Space between single lines
     Space between single lines
     Space between single lines
     Space between single lines
     Space between single lines
<p style="margin-bottom: 30px; width: 300px; border: 1px solid black;">
     Space at the bottom, outside of the border
     Space at the bottom, outside of the border
     Space at the bottom, outside of the border
     Space at the bottom, outside of the border
     Space at the bottom, outside of the border
     Space at the bottom, outside of the border
     Space at the bottom, outside of the border
     Space at the bottom, outside of the border
     Space at the bottom, outside of the border
<p style="padding-bottom: 30px; width: 300px; border: 1px solid black;">
     Space at the bottom, inside of the border
     Space at the bottom, inside of the border
     Space at the bottom, inside of the border
     Space at the bottom, inside of the border
     Space at the bottom, inside of the border
     Space at the bottom, inside of the border
     Space at the bottom, inside of the border
     Space at the bottom, inside of the border
     Space at the bottom, inside of the border

here you can see this code in action:

Of course you should put your styles in a separate stylesheet, the inline code was just to show the effect.

here you have a little schematic demonstration of what which value affects:

           content                 +
                                   |      padding-bottom
                  <----------------+      +
           content                        |    border-bottom
                                          |    +
                                          |    |
        +-------------+<------------------+    |       margin-bottom
                                               |       +
     +===================+ <-------------------+       |
  +-------------------------+ <------------------------+

error: ORA-65096: invalid common user or role name in oracle

99.9% of the time the error ORA-65096: invalid common user or role name means you are logged into the CDB when you should be logged into a PDB.

But if you insist on creating users the wrong way, follow the steps below.


Setting undocumented parameters like this (as indicated by the leading underscore) should only be done under the direction of Oracle Support. Changing such parameters without such guidance may invalidate your support contract. So do this at your own risk.

Specifically, if you set "_ORACLE_SCRIPT"=true, some data dictionary changes will be made with the column ORACLE_MAINTAINED set to 'Y'. Those users and objects will be incorrectly excluded from some DBA scripts. And they may be incorrectly included in some system scripts.

If you are OK with the above risks, and don't want to create common users the correct way, use the below answer.

Before creating the user run:

alter session set "_ORACLE_SCRIPT"=true;  

I found the answer here

How to generate all permutations of a list?

for Python we can use itertools and import both permutations and combinations to solve your problem

from itertools import product, permutations
A = ([1,2,3])
print (list(permutations(sorted(A),2)))

Mock a constructor with parameter

Mockito has limitations testing final, static, and private methods.

with jMockit testing library, you can do few stuff very easy and straight-forward as below:

Mock constructor of a class:

new MockUp<File>(){
    public void $init(String pathname){
        // or do whatever you want
  • the public constructor name should be replaced with $init
  • arguments and exceptions thrown remains same
  • return type should be defined as void

Mock a static method:

  • remove static from the method mock signature
  • method signature remains same otherwise

How can I make my layout scroll both horizontally and vertically?

its too late but i hope your issue will be solve quickly with this code. nothing to do more just put your code in below scrollview.


            //xml code

Toggle Checkboxes on/off

I know this is old but the question was a bit ambiguous in that toggle may mean each checkbox should toggle its state, whatever that is. If you have 3 checked and 2 unchecked, then toggling would make the first 3 unchecked and the last 2 checked.

For that, none of the solutions here work as they make all the checkboxes have the same state, rather than toggle each checkbox's state. Doing $(':checkbox').prop('checked') on many checkboxes returns the logical AND between all .checked binary properties, i.e. if one of them is unchecked, the returned value is false.

You need to use .each() if you want to actually toggle each checkbox state rather than make them all equal, e.g.

   $(':checkbox').each(function () { this.checked = !this.checked; });

Note that you don't need $(this) inside the handler as the .checked property exists in all browsers.

How to get difference between two rows for a column field?

Query to Find the date difference between 2 rows of a single column

Column name,
(SELECT MAX(date) FROM table name WHERE Column name < b. Column name),
Column name) AS days_since_last
FROM table name AS b

Testing for empty or nil-value string

If you're in Rails, .blank? should be the method you are looking for:

a = nil
b = []
c = ""

a.blank? #=> true
b.blank? #=> true
c.blank? #=> true

d = "1"
e = ["1"]

d.blank? #=> false
e.blank? #=> false

So the answer would be:

variable = id if variable.blank?

Excel doesn't update value unless I hit Enter

Select all the data and use the option "Text to Columns", that will allow your data for Applying Number Formatting ERIK

How to disable Google Chrome auto update?

Disable Chrome Version Auto Update - All-in-One Solution

With some of the answers here for disabling Google Chrome automatic updates, I've come up with a solution that uses specific group policy settings and also a PowerShell startup script to rename the GoogleUpdate.exe, disable the correlated services, and disable the correlated Task Scheduler tasks.

I'm posting as an answer in case someone else needs an all-in-one solution that can easily be expanded on (or toned down some) if needed and potentially save them some time.

PowerShell (Startup Script)

## -- Rename the Google Update executable file
$Chrome = "${env:ProgramFiles(x86)}\Google\Update\GoogleUpdate.exe";
If(Test-Path($Chrome)){Rename-Item -Path $Chrome -NewName "Old_GoogleUpdate.exe.old" -Force};

$Chrome = "$env:ProgramFiles\Google\Update\GoogleUpdate.exe";
If(Test-Path($Chrome)){Rename-Item -Path $Chrome -NewName "Old_GoogleUpdate.exe.old" -Force};

## -- Stop and disable the Google Update services that run to update Chrome
$GUpdateServices = (Get-Service | ?{$_.DisplayName -match "Google Update Service"}).Name;
$GUpdateServices | % {
    $status = (Get-Service -Name $_).Status;
    If($status -ne "Stopped"){Stop-Service $_ -Force};
    $sType  = (Get-Service -Name $_).StartType;
    If($sType -ne "Disabled"){Set-Service $_ -StartupType Disabled};

## -- Disable Chrome Update Scheduled Tasks
$GUdateTasks = (Get-ScheduledTask -TaskPath "\" -TaskName "*GoogleUpdateTask*");
$GUdateTasks | % {If($_.State -ne "Disabled"){Disable-ScheduledTask -TaskName $_.TaskName}};

Group Policy Settings (Computer Configuration)

Be sure the Software Restriction policy blocks EXE file types at a minimum for these specific folder locations but the defaults should work fine if you leave as-is.

enter image description here

Additional Resources

How to display errors on laravel 4?

Go to app/config/app.php

and set 'debug' => true,

initialize a numpy array

To initialize a numpy array with a specific matrix:

import numpy as np

mat = np.array([[1, 1, 0, 0, 0],
                [0, 1, 0, 0, 1],
                [1, 0, 0, 1, 1],
                [0, 0, 0, 0, 0],
                [1, 0, 1, 0, 1]])

print mat.shape
print mat


(5, 5)
[[1 1 0 0 0]
 [0 1 0 0 1]
 [1 0 0 1 1]
 [0 0 0 0 0]
 [1 0 1 0 1]]

How to uninstall jupyter

In pip3

pip3 uninstall jupyterlab

Left padding a String with Zeros

An old question, but I also have two methods.

For a fixed (predefined) length:

    public static String fill(String text) {
        if (text.length() >= 10)
            return text;
            return "0000000000".substring(text.length()) + text;

For a variable length:

    public static String fill(String text, int size) {
        StringBuilder builder = new StringBuilder(text);
        while (builder.length() < size) {
        return builder.toString();


Maybe try this

Select cust.*

From dbo.Customers cust
Left Join dbo.Subscribers subs on cust.Customer_ID = subs.Customer_ID
Where subs.Customer_Id Is Null

java.lang.IllegalStateException: Error processing condition on org.springframework.boot.autoconfigure.jdbc.JndiDataSourceAutoConfiguration

I had the same its because of version incompatibility check for version or remove version if using spring boot

PHP FPM - check if running

For php7.0-fpm I call:

service php7.0-fpm status

php7.0-fpm start/running, process 25993

Now watch for the good part. The process name is actually php-fpm7.0

echo `/bin/pidof php-fpm7.0`

26334 26297 26286 26285 26282

Show DialogFragment with animation growing from a point

Have you looked at Android Developers Training on Zooming a View? Might be a good starting point.

You probably want to create a custom class extending DialogFragment to get this working.

Also, take a look at Jake Whartons NineOldAndroids for Honeycomb Animation API compatibility all the way back to API Level 1.

How to use GROUP BY to concatenate strings in SQL Server?

Don't need a cursor... a while loop is sufficient.

-- Setup

  id int,
  Name varchar(30),
  Value int

  id int,
  Result varchar(max) 

INSERT INTO @Source(id, Name, Value) SELECT 1, 'A', 4
INSERT INTO @Source(id, Name, Value) SELECT 1, 'B', 8
INSERT INTO @Source(id, Name, Value) SELECT 2, 'C', 9

-- Technique

INSERT INTO @Target (id)
FROM @Source

DECLARE @id int, @Result varchar(max)
SET @id = (SELECT MIN(id) FROM @Target)

WHILE @id is not null
  SET @Result = null

  SELECT @Result =
      WHEN @Result is null
      THEN ''
      ELSE @Result + ', '
    END + s.Name + ':' + convert(varchar(30),s.Value)
  FROM @Source s
  WHERE id = @id

  UPDATE @Target
  SET Result = @Result
  WHERE id = @id

  SET @id = (SELECT MIN(id) FROM @Target WHERE @id < id)

FROM @Target

How to load all the images from one of my folder into my web page, using Jquery/Javascript

Here is one way to do it. Involves doing a little PHP as well.

The PHP part:

$filenameArray = [];

$handle = opendir(dirname(realpath(__FILE__)).'/images/');
        while($file = readdir($handle)){
            if($file !== '.' && $file !== '..'){
                array_push($filenameArray, "images/$file");

echo json_encode($filenameArray);

The jQuery part:

            url: "getImages.php",
            dataType: "json",
            success: function (data) {

                $.each(data, function(i,filename) {
                    $('#imageDiv').prepend('<img src="'+ filename +'"><br>');

So basically you do a PHP file to return you the list of image filenames as JSON, grab that JSON using an ajax call, and prepend/append them to the html. You would probably want to filter the files u grab from the folder.

Had some help on the php part from 1

Define the selected option with the old input in Laravel / Blade

After Playing around a bit I came up with this and it seems to work just splendidly

<select name="options[]" id="options" class="form-control" multiple>
    @foreach($settings->includes->get('optionList') as $option)
        <option value="{{ $option->id }}" {{ (collect(old('options'))->contains($option->id)) ? 'selected':'' }}>{{ $option->name }}</option>

I may be 100% wrong in leveraging the collect function but it works fine on many of my tests. After seeing a few other posts on the site I saw someone recommend leveraging the in_array($needle, $array) function but after noticing that if my old('options') was null it would error out because it requires in_array requires, bet you guessed an array. So after finding the solution to that albeit ugly solution I played with the collect method because after all we are using larval right! well anyway the ugly solution is as follows

@if (old("options")){{ (in_array($option->id, old("options")) ? "selected":"") }}@endif

inline but man that looks ugly to me so long story short I am using the following instead

{{ (collect(old('options'))->contains($option->id)) ? 'selected':'' }}

Hope this helps others!!

This does not seem to work for a non multiple select field ill get back with one that does work for that though.

How do I use Ruby for shell scripting?

By default, you already have access to Dir and File, which are pretty useful by themselves.

Dir['*.rb'] #basic globs
Dir['**/*.rb'] #** == any depth of directory, including current dir.
#=> array of relative names

File.expand_path('~/file.txt') #=> "/User/mat/file.txt"
File.dirname('dir/file.txt') #=> 'dir'
File.basename('dir/file.txt') #=> 'file.txt'
File.join('a', 'bunch', 'of', 'strings') #=> 'a/bunch/of/strings'

__FILE__ #=> the name of the current file

Also useful from the stdlib is FileUtils

require 'fileutils' #I know, no underscore is not ruby-like
include FileUtils
# Gives you access (without prepending by 'FileUtils.') to
cd(dir, options)
cd(dir, options) {|dir| .... }
mkdir(dir, options)
mkdir(list, options)
mkdir_p(dir, options)
mkdir_p(list, options)
rmdir(dir, options)
rmdir(list, options)
ln(old, new, options)
ln(list, destdir, options)
ln_s(old, new, options)
ln_s(list, destdir, options)
ln_sf(src, dest, options)
cp(src, dest, options)
cp(list, dir, options)
cp_r(src, dest, options)
cp_r(list, dir, options)
mv(src, dest, options)
mv(list, dir, options)
rm(list, options)
rm_r(list, options)
rm_rf(list, options)
install(src, dest, mode = <src's>, options)
chmod(mode, list, options)
chmod_R(mode, list, options)
chown(user, group, list, options)
chown_R(user, group, list, options)
touch(list, options)

Which is pretty nice

header location not working in my php code

Check if below are enabled

bz, mbstring, intl, ioncube_loader and Json extension.

How do I convert a Python program to a runnable .exe Windows program?

py2exe works with Python 2.7 (as well as other versions). You just need the MSVCR90.dll

How to find files that match a wildcard string in Java?

The wildcard library efficiently does both glob and regex filename matching:

The implementation is succinct -- JAR is only 12.9 kilobytes.

struct.error: unpack requires a string argument of length 4

The struct module mimics C structures. It takes more CPU cycles for a processor to read a 16-bit word on an odd address or a 32-bit dword on an address not divisible by 4, so structures add "pad bytes" to make structure members fall on natural boundaries. Consider:

struct {                   11
    char a;      012345678901
    short b;     ------------
    char c;      axbbcxxxdddd
    int d;

This structure will occupy 12 bytes of memory (x being pad bytes).

Python works similarly (see the struct documentation):

>>> import struct
>>> struct.pack('BHBL',1,2,3,4)
>>> struct.calcsize('BHBL')

Compilers usually have a way of eliminating padding. In Python, any of =<>! will eliminate padding:

>>> struct.calcsize('=BHBL')
>>> struct.pack('=BHBL',1,2,3,4)

Beware of letting struct handle padding. In C, these structures:

struct A {       struct B {
    short a;         int a;
    char b;          char b;
};               };

are typically 4 and 8 bytes, respectively. The padding occurs at the end of the structure in case the structures are used in an array. This keeps the 'a' members aligned on correct boundaries for structures later in the array. Python's struct module does not pad at the end:

>>> struct.pack('LB',1,2)
>>> struct.pack('LBLB',1,2,3,4)

Javascript: How to generate formatted easy-to-read JSON straight from an object?

JSON.stringify takes more optional arguments.


 JSON.stringify({a:1,b:2,c:{d:1,e:[1,2]}}, null, 4); // Indented 4 spaces
 JSON.stringify({a:1,b:2,c:{d:1,e:[1,2]}}, null, "\t"); // Indented with tab


How can I beautify JSON programmatically?

Should work in modern browsers, and it is included in json2.js if you need a fallback for browsers that don't support the JSON helper functions. For display purposes, put the output in a <pre> tag to get newlines to show.

How to access form methods and controls from a class in C#?

  1. you have to have a reference to the form object in order to access its elements
  2. the elements have to be declared public in order for another class to access them
  3. don't do this - your class has to know too much about how your form is implemented; do not expose form controls outside of the form class
  4. instead, make public properties on your form to get/set the values you are interested in
  5. post more details of what you want and why, it sounds like you may be heading off in a direction that is not consistent with good encapsulation practices

index.php not loading by default

At a guess I'd say the directory index is set to index.html, or some variant, try:

DirectoryIndex index.html index.php

This will still give index.html priority over index.php (handy if you need to throw up a maintenance page)

How can I turn a string into a list in Python?

The list() function [docs] will convert a string into a list of single-character strings.

>>> list('hello')
['h', 'e', 'l', 'l', 'o']

Even without converting them to lists, strings already behave like lists in several ways. For example, you can access individual characters (as single-character strings) using brackets:

>>> s = "hello"
>>> s[1]
>>> s[4]

You can also loop over the characters in the string as you can loop over the elements of a list:

>>> for c in 'hello':
...     print c + c,
hh ee ll ll oo

Where does VBA Debug.Print log to?

Where do you want to see the output?

Messages being output via Debug.Print will be displayed in the immediate window which you can open by pressing Ctrl+G.

You can also Activate the so called Immediate Window by clicking View -> Immediate Window on the VBE toolbar

enter image description here

Turn off warnings and errors on PHP and MySQL

Always show errors on a testing server. Never show errors on a production server.

Write a script to determine whether the page is on a local, testing, or live server, and set $state to "local", "testing", or "live". Then:

if( $state == "local" || $state == "testing" )
    ini_set( "display_errors", "1" );
    error_reporting( E_ALL & ~E_NOTICE );
    error_reporting( 0 );

how to set imageview src?

What you are looking for is probably this:

ImageView myImageView;
myImageView = mDialog.findViewById(;
String src = "imageFileName"

int drawableId = this.getResources().getIdentifier(src, "drawable", context.getPackageName())

Let me know if this was helpful :)

Filtering collections in C#

You can use IEnumerable to eliminate the need of a temp list.

public IEnumerable<T> GetFilteredItems(IEnumerable<T> collection)
    foreach (T item in collection)
    if (Matches<T>(item))
        yield return item;

where Matches is the name of your filter method. And you can use this like:

IEnumerable<MyType> filteredItems = GetFilteredItems(myList);
foreach (MyType item in filteredItems)
    // do sth with your filtered items

This will call GetFilteredItems function when needed and in some cases that you do not use all items in the filtered collection, it may provide some good performance gain.

Set custom HTML5 required field validation message

Code snippet

Since this answer got very much attention, here is a nice configurable snippet I came up with:

  * @author ComFreek <>
  * @link
  * @license MIT 2013-2015 ComFreek
  * @license[dual licensed] CC BY-SA 3.0 2013-2015 ComFreek
  * You MUST retain this license header!
(function (exports) {
    function valOrFunction(val, ctx, args) {
        if (typeof val == "function") {
            return val.apply(ctx, args);
        } else {
            return val;

    function InvalidInputHelper(input, options) {
        input.setCustomValidity(valOrFunction(options.defaultText, window, [input]));

        function changeOrInput() {
            if (input.value == "") {
                input.setCustomValidity(valOrFunction(options.emptyText, window, [input]));
            } else {

        function invalid() {
            if (input.value == "") {
                input.setCustomValidity(valOrFunction(options.emptyText, window, [input]));
            } else {
               input.setCustomValidity(valOrFunction(options.invalidText, window, [input]));

        input.addEventListener("change", changeOrInput);
        input.addEventListener("input", changeOrInput);
        input.addEventListener("invalid", invalid);
    exports.InvalidInputHelper = InvalidInputHelper;



<input id="email" type="email" required="required" />
InvalidInputHelper(document.getElementById("email"), {
  defaultText: "Please enter an email address!",

  emptyText: "Please enter an email address!",

  invalidText: function (input) {
    return 'The email address "' + input.value + '" is invalid!';

More details

  • defaultText is displayed initially
  • emptyText is displayed when the input is empty (was cleared)
  • invalidText is displayed when the input is marked as invalid by the browser (for example when it's not a valid email address)

You can either assign a string or a function to each of the three properties.
If you assign a function, it can accept a reference to the input element (DOM node) and it must return a string which is then displayed as the error message.


Tested in:

  • Chrome Canary 47.0.2
  • IE 11
  • Microsoft Edge (using the up-to-date version as of 28/08/2015)
  • Firefox 40.0.3
  • Opera 31.0

Old answer

You can see the old revision here:

Why does using from __future__ import print_function breaks Python2-style print?

First of all, from __future__ import print_function needs to be the first line of code in your script (aside from some exceptions mentioned below). Second of all, as other answers have said, you have to use print as a function now. That's the whole point of from __future__ import print_function; to bring the print function from Python 3 into Python 2.6+.

from __future__ import print_function

import sys, os, time

for x in range(0,10):
    print(x, sep=' ', end='')  # No need for sep here, but okay :)

__future__ statements need to be near the top of the file because they change fundamental things about the language, and so the compiler needs to know about them from the beginning. From the documentation:

A future statement is recognized and treated specially at compile time: Changes to the semantics of core constructs are often implemented by generating different code. It may even be the case that a new feature introduces new incompatible syntax (such as a new reserved word), in which case the compiler may need to parse the module differently. Such decisions cannot be pushed off until runtime.

The documentation also mentions that the only things that can precede a __future__ statement are the module docstring, comments, blank lines, and other future statements.

Delete element in a slice

In golang's wiki it show some tricks for slice, including delete an element from slice.

Link: enter link description here

For example a is the slice which you want to delete the number i element.

a = append(a[:i], a[i+1:]...)


a = a[:i+copy(a[i:], a[i+1:])]

In c, in bool, true == 1 and false == 0?

More accurately anything that is not 0 is true.

So 1 is true, but so is 2, 3 ... etc.

TypeScript and array reduce function

It's actually the JavaScript array reduce function rather than being something specific to TypeScript.

As described in the docs: Apply a function against an accumulator and each value of the array (from left-to-right) as to reduce it to a single value.

Here's an example which sums up the values of an array:

let total = [0, 1, 2, 3].reduce((accumulator, currentValue) => accumulator + currentValue);_x000D_

The snippet should produce 6.

mongodb, replicates and error: { "$err" : "not master and slaveOk=false", "code" : 13435 }

WARNING: slaveOk() is deprecated and may be removed in the next major release. Please use secondaryOk() instead. rs.secondaryOk()


If you are doing this in a DB upgrade statement, perhaps the simplest way is to just catch the exception thrown if you are attempting to add a field that may already exist.

try {
   db.execSQL("ALTER TABLE " + TABLE_NAME + " ADD COLUMN foo TEXT default null");
} catch (SQLiteException ex) {
   Log.w(TAG, "Altering " + TABLE_NAME + ": " + ex.getMessage());

Checking session if empty or not

You need to check that Session["emp_num"] is not null before trying to convert it to a string otherwise you will get a null reference exception.

I'd go with your first example - but you could make it slightly more "elegant".

There are a couple of ways, but the ones that springs to mind are:

if (Session["emp_num"] is string)


if (!string.IsNullOrEmpty(Session["emp_num"] as string))

This will return null if the variable doesn't exist or isn't a string.

Is there a C# case insensitive equals operator?

I am so used to typing at the end of these comparison methods: , StringComparison.

So I made an extension.

namespace System
{   public static class StringExtension
        public static bool Equals(this string thisString, string compareString,
             StringComparison stringComparison)
            return string.Equals(thisString, compareString, stringComparison);

Just note that you will need to check for null on thisString prior to calling the ext.

How to tell if browser/tab is active

In addition to Richard Simões answer you can also use the Page Visibility API.

if (!document.hidden) {
    // do what you need

This specification defines a means for site developers to programmatically determine the current visibility state of the page in order to develop power and CPU efficient web applications.

Learn more (2019 update)

Still getting warning : Configuration 'compile' is obsolete and has been replaced with 'implementation'

I have one same Warning caused to

The solution is to upgrade classpath to classpath '' in file in build.gradle Project:

enter image description here

buildscript {
    repositories {
    dependencies {
        classpath ''

        // NOTE: Do not place your application dependencies here; they belong
        // in the individual module build.gradle files
        classpath ''

allprojects {
    repositories {

task clean(type: Delete) {
    delete rootProject.buildDir

In Android Studio verion 3.1 dependencies complie word is replaced to implementation

dependencies with Warning in android studio 3.1

dependencies {
            compile fileTree(dir: 'libs', include: ['*.jar'])
            compile ''
            compile ''
            testImplementation 'junit:junit:4.12'
            androidTestImplementation ''
            androidTestImplementation ''

dependencies OK in android studio 3.1

    dependencies {
            implementation fileTree(dir: 'libs', include: ['*.jar'])
            implementation ''
            implementation ''
            testImplementation 'junit:junit:4.12'
            androidTestImplementation ''
            androidTestImplementation ''


Gradel generate by Android Studio 3.1 for new project.

Gradel generate by Android Studio 3.1 for new project.


For details

Remove the last chars of the Java String variable

Another way:

if (s.size > 5) s.reverse.substring(5).reverse

BTW, this is Scala code. May need brackets to work in Java.

Python: find position of element in array

Without actually seeing your data it is difficult to say how to find location of max and min in your particular case, but in general, you can search for the locations as follows. This is just a simple example below:

In [9]: a=np.array([5,1,2,3,10,4])

In [10]: np.where(a == a.min())
Out[10]: (array([1]),)

In [11]: np.where(a == a.max())
Out[11]: (array([4]),)

Alternatively, you can also do as follows:

In [19]: a=np.array([5,1,2,3,10,4])

In [20]: a.argmin()
Out[20]: 1

In [21]: a.argmax()
Out[21]: 4

using BETWEEN in WHERE condition

Sounds correct but some issues maybe creates executing this query: I would suggest:

$this->db->where( "$accommodation BETWEEN $minvalue AND $maxvalue", NULL, FALSE );

Android Recyclerview vs ListView with Viewholder

Reuses cells while scrolling up/down - this is possible with implementing View Holder in the listView adapter, but it was an optional thing, while in the RecycleView it's the default way of writing adapter.

Decouples list from its container - so you can put list items easily at run time in the different containers (linearLayout, gridLayout) with setting LayoutManager.


mRecyclerView = (RecyclerView) findViewById(;
mRecyclerView.setLayoutManager(new LinearLayoutManager(this));
mRecyclerView.setLayoutManager(new GridLayoutManager(this, 2));
mRecyclerView.setLayoutManager(new GridLayoutManager(this, 3));
  • Animates common list actions.

  • Animations are decoupled and delegated to ItemAnimator.

There is more about RecyclerView, but I think these points are the main ones.


i) LinearLayoutManager - which supports both vertical and horizontal lists,

ii) StaggeredLayoutManager - which supports Pinterest like staggered lists,

iii) GridLayoutManager - which supports displaying grids as seen in Gallery apps.

And the best thing is that we can do all these dynamically as we want.

Border color on default input style

If I understand your question correctly this should solve it:

HTML - create a simple input field.

<input type="text" id="giraffe" />

CSS - clear out the native outline so you can set your own and it doesn't look weird with a bluey red outline.

input:focus {
    outline: none;
.error-input-border {
    border: 1px solid #FF0000;

JS - on typing in the field set red border class declared in the CSS

document.getElementById('giraffe').oninput = function() { this.classList.add('error-input-border'); }

This has a lot of information on the latest standards too:

Creating SVG elements dynamically with javascript inside HTML

To facilitate svg editing you can use an intermediate function:

function getNode(n, v) {
  n = document.createElementNS("", n);
  for (var p in v)
    n.setAttributeNS(null, p, v[p]);
  return n

Now you can write:

svg.appendChild( getNode('rect', { width:200, height:20, fill:'#ff0000' }) );

Example (with an improved getNode function allowing camelcase for property with dash, eg strokeWidth > stroke-width):

function getNode(n, v) {_x000D_
  n = document.createElementNS("", n);_x000D_
  for (var p in v)_x000D_
    n.setAttributeNS(null, p.replace(/[A-Z]/g, function(m, p, o, s) { return "-" + m.toLowerCase(); }), v[p]);_x000D_
  return n_x000D_
var svg = getNode("svg");_x000D_
var r = getNode('rect', { x: 10, y: 10, width: 100, height: 20, fill:'#ff00ff' });_x000D_
var r = getNode('rect', { x: 20, y: 40, width: 100, height: 40, rx: 8, ry: 8, fill: 'pink', stroke:'purple', strokeWidth:7 });_x000D_

SELECT max(x) is returning null; how can I make it return 0?

You can also use COALESCE ( expression [ ,...n ] ) - returns first non-null like:

FROM tbl

client denied by server configuration

This has happened to me several times migrating from Apache 2.2.

What I have found is that there is an Order,Deny that I missed with VIM's Search feature somehow that is the default main Vhost, line 379. Hope this helps someone. I commented out the Order Deny,Allow and Deny from All and it worked!

Can I pass column name as input parameter in SQL stored Procedure

You can do this in a couple of ways.

One, is to build up the query yourself and execute it.

SET @sql = 'SELECT ' + @columnName + ' FROM yourTable'
sp_executesql @sql

If you opt for that method, be very certain to santise your input. Even if you know your application will only give 'real' column names, what if some-one finds a crack in your security and is able to execute the SP directly? Then they can execute just about anything they like. With dynamic SQL, always, always, validate the parameters.

Alternatively, you can write a CASE statement...

  CASE @columnName
    WHEN 'Col1' THEN Col1
    WHEN 'Col2' THEN Col2
                ELSE NULL
  END as selectedColumn

This is a bit more long winded, but a whole lot more secure.

Getting "file not found" in Bridging Header when importing Objective-C frameworks into Swift project

August 2019

In my case I wanted to use a Swift protocol in an Objective-C header file that comes from the same target and for this I needed to use a forward declaration of the Swift protocol to reference it in the Objective-C interface. The same should be valid for using a Swift class in an Objective-C header file. To use forward declaration see the following example from the docs at Include Swift Classes in Objective-C Headers Using Forward Declarations:

// MyObjcClass.h
@class MySwiftClass; // class forward declaration
@protocol MySwiftProtocol; // protocol forward declaration

@interface MyObjcClass : NSObject
- (MySwiftClass *)returnSwiftClassInstance;
- (id <MySwiftProtocol>)returnInstanceAdoptingSwiftProtocol;
// ...

Display MessageBox in ASP

If you want to do it from code behind, try this:

System.Web.UI.ScriptManager.RegisterClientScriptBlock(this, this.GetType(), "AlertBox", "alert('Message');", true);

javascript password generator

This is the quickest and easiest way I know of:


The idea is to cast a random number (in the range 0..1) to a base36 string (lowercase a-z plus 0-9) and remove the leading zero and decimal point.

Please note that all passwords that is pseudo-generated have some form of vulnerability. However, I would say it is good enough for all normal use-cases. Furthermore, the theoretical length if this password is not guaranteed. It is 16 characters maximum and 0 characters minimum. When run in a loop 1 million times its average length is 15.67 characters with a minimum length of 5. However if you join two of these passwords together, you will get a maximum length of 32 characters, with an average length of 31.33 chars and a minimum length of 20.

Math.random().toString(36).slice(2) + Math.random().toString(36).slice(2)

Personally I use this as a chrome bookmarklet in my browser bookmarks bar to speedily generate passwords:

        prompt('Here is your shiny new password:', 
            Math.random().toString(36).slice(2) + 

How do you move a file?

May also be called, "rename" by tortoise, but svn move, is the command in the barebones svn client.

Prevent row names to be written to file when using write.csv

write.csv(t, "t.csv", row.names=FALSE)

From ?write.csv:

row.names: either a logical value indicating whether the row names of
          ‘x’ are to be written along with ‘x’, or a character vector
          of row names to be written.

Set the table column width constant regardless of the amount of text in its cells?

Just add <div> tag inside <td> or <th> define width inside <div>. This will help you. Nothing else works.


<td><div style="width: 50px" >...............</div></td>

How to change the playing speed of videos in HTML5?

According to this site, this is supported in the playbackRate and defaultPlaybackRate attributes, accessible via the DOM. Example:

/* play video twice as fast */
document.querySelector('video').defaultPlaybackRate = 2.0;

/* now play three times as fast just for the heck of it */
document.querySelector('video').playbackRate = 3.0;

The above works on Chrome 43+, Firefox 20+, IE 9+, Edge 12+.

Calculate difference between two datetimes in MySQL

USE TIMESTAMPDIFF MySQL function. For example, you can use:

SELECT TIMESTAMPDIFF(SECOND, '2012-06-06 13:13:55', '2012-06-06 15:20:18')

In your case, the third parameter of TIMSTAMPDIFF function would be the current login time (NOW()). Second parameter would be the last login time, which is already in the database.

Windows 8.1 gets Error 720 on connect VPN

I had the same problem. Most posted solutions would not work. I ran sfc /scannow and it reported that some errors could not be fixed. To address that problem I ran the command

Dism /Online /Cleanup-Image /RestoreHealth

Ironically, I later found the WAN errors had gone away, the 720 VPN error went away and my VPN worked.

Hard to believe that the WAN errors were corrected by this rather esoteric command, but it's worth a try.

How do I install a Python package with a .whl file?

I would be suggesting you the exact way how to install .whl file. Initially I faced many issues but then I solved it, Here is my trick to install .whl files.

Follow The Steps properly in order to get a module imported

  1. Make sure your .whl file is kept in the python 2.7/3.6/3.7/.. folder. Initially when you download the .whl file the file is kept in downloaded folder, my suggestion is to change the folder. It makes it easier to install the file.
  2. Open command prompt and open the folder where you have kept the file by entering

cd c:\python 3.7

3.Now, enter the command written below

>py -3.7(version name) -m pip install (file name).whl
  1. Click enter and make sure you enter the version you are currently using with correct file name.

  2. Once you press enter, wait for few minutes and the file will be installed and you will be able to import the particular module.

  3. In order to check if the module is installed successfully, import the module in idle and check it.

Thank you:)

With block equivalent in C#?

There is another an interesting implementation of with-pattern

public static T With<T>(this T o, params object[] pattern) => o;
public static T To<T>(this T o, out T x) => x = o;

You may browse more details by the link and research online code samples.

Variations of usage

static Point Sample0() => new Point().To(out var p).With(
    p.X = 123,
    p.Y = 321,
    p.Name = "abc"

public static Point GetPoint() => new Point { Name = "Point Name" };
static string NameProperty { get; set; }
static string NameField;

static void Sample1()
    string nameLocal;
    GetPoint().To(out var p).With(
        p.X = 123,
        p.Y = 321,
        p.Name.To(out var name), /* right side assignment to the new variable */
        p.Name.To(out nameLocal), /* right side assignment to the declared var */
        NameField = p.Name, /* left side assignment to the declared variable */
        NameProperty = p.Name /* left side assignment to the property */


static void Sample2() /* non-null propogation sample */
    ((Point)null).To(out var p)?.With(
        p.X = 123,
        p.Y = 321,
        p.Name.To(out var name)

    Console.WriteLine("No exception");

static void Sample3() /* recursion */
    GetPerson().To(out var p).With(
        p.Name.To(out var name),
        p.Subperson.To(out var p0).With(
            p0.Name.To(out var subpersonName0)
        p.GetSubperson().To(out var p1).With( /* method return */
            p1.Name.To(out var subpersonName1)


If you work with structs [value types] the similar extension method will be useful too

public static TR Let<T, TR>(this T o, TR y) => y;

May be applied after With method because by default will be returned the unmodified copy of struct

struct Point
    public double X;
    public double Y;
    public string Name;

static Point Sample0() => new Point().To(out var p).With(
    p.X = 123,
    p.Y = 321,
    p.Name = "abc"

Enjoy if you like!

how to destroy bootstrap modal window completely?

I have to destroy the modal right after it is closed through a button click, and so I came up with the following.

$("#closeModal").click(function() {
    $("#modal").modal('hide').on('', function () {

Note that this works with Bootstrap 3.

How to search for a file in the CentOS command line

CentOS is Linux, so as in just about all other Unix/Linux systems, you have the find command. To search for files within the current directory:

find -name "filename"

You can also have wildcards inside the quotes, and not just a strict filename. You can also explicitly specify a directory to start searching from as the first argument to find:

find / -name "filename"

will look for "filename" or all the files that match the regex expression in between the quotes, starting from the root directory. You can also use single quotes instead of double quotes, but in most cases you don't need either one, so the above commands will work without any quotes as well. Also, for example, if you're searching for java files and you know they are somewhere in your /home/username, do:

find /home/username -name *.java

There are many more options to the find command and you should do a:

man find

to learn more about it.

One more thing: if you start searching from / and are not root or are not sudo running the command, you might get warnings that you don't have permission to read certain directories. To ignore/remove those, do:

find / -name 'filename' 2>/dev/null

That just redirects the stderr to /dev/null.

Background Image for Select (dropdown) does not work in Chrome

    -webkit-appearance: none;

If you need to you can also add an image that contains the arrow as part of the background.

How do I catch a numpy warning like it's an exception (not just for testing)?

To add a little to @Bakuriu's answer:

If you already know where the warning is likely to occur then it's often cleaner to use the numpy.errstate context manager, rather than numpy.seterr which treats all subsequent warnings of the same type the same regardless of where they occur within your code:

import numpy as np

a = np.r_[1.]
with np.errstate(divide='raise'):
        a / 0   # this gets caught and handled as an exception
    except FloatingPointError:
        print('oh no!')
a / 0           # this prints a RuntimeWarning as usual


In my original example I had a = np.r_[0], but apparently there was a change in numpy's behaviour such that division-by-zero is handled differently in cases where the numerator is all-zeros. For example, in numpy 1.16.4:

all_zeros = np.array([0., 0.])
not_all_zeros = np.array([1., 0.])

with np.errstate(divide='raise'):
    not_all_zeros / 0.  # Raises FloatingPointError

with np.errstate(divide='raise'):
    all_zeros / 0.  # No exception raised

with np.errstate(invalid='raise'):
    all_zeros / 0.  # Raises FloatingPointError

The corresponding warning messages are also different: 1. / 0. is logged as RuntimeWarning: divide by zero encountered in true_divide, whereas 0. / 0. is logged as RuntimeWarning: invalid value encountered in true_divide. I'm not sure why exactly this change was made, but I suspect it has to do with the fact that the result of 0. / 0. is not representable as a number (numpy returns a NaN in this case) whereas 1. / 0. and -1. / 0. return +Inf and -Inf respectively, per the IEE 754 standard.

If you want to catch both types of error you can always pass np.errstate(divide='raise', invalid='raise'), or all='raise' if you want to raise an exception on any kind of floating point error.

Twitter Bootstrap add active class to li

There is a hitch with the accepted answer in some rare cases for bootstrap 4: In order to use the solution for relative paths like:

<ul class="navbar-nav nav-t">
   <li class="nav-item"><a href="index.php" class="nav-link">Home</a></li>
   <li class="nav-item"><a href="about.php" class="nav-link">About</a></li>
   <li class="nav-item"><a href="blog.php" class="nav-link">Blog</a></li>
   <li class="nav-item"><a href="info.php" class="nav-link">Info</a></li>

Then you will find out that the code for:

 if (activePage == currentPage) {

active page returns the whole url and current location returns the current href DOM Element value which is filename.php. To solve this just tweak the code a little by adding a method to correct this:

//... other js/jquery code
var activeMenuItemChanges=function () {
    function stripTrailingSlash(str) {
            return str.substr(0, str.length -1);
        return str;
    // for cases where we do not use full url but relative file names in the href of ul>li>a tags:
    function getRelativeFileName(str){
        let page=str.substr(str.lastIndexOf('/')+1);
        if(page.length > 0){
            return page;
        return 'index'|'index.php';

    let url=window.location.pathname;

    let activeLocation=stripTrailingSlash(url);

    let activeFileName=getRelativeFileName(activeLocation);

    $('.nav-item a').each(function() {
        let currentLocation=stripTrailingSlash($(this).attr('href'));

//... other js/jquery code

Prevent Caching in ASP.NET MVC for specific actions using an attribute

In the controller action append to the header the following lines

    public ActionResult Create(string PositionID)
        Response.AppendHeader("Cache-Control", "no-cache, no-store, must-revalidate"); // HTTP 1.1.
        Response.AppendHeader("Pragma", "no-cache"); // HTTP 1.0.
        Response.AppendHeader("Expires", "0"); // Proxies.

How can I test a PDF document if it is PDF/A compliant?

A list of PDF/A validators is on the web site here:


A free online PDF/A validator is available here:

A report on the accuracy of many of these PDF/A validators is available from PDFLib:

Se as well:

What is the best open source help ticket system?

I like eTicket Support, is very simple to use and install.

Exchange Powershell - How to invoke Exchange 2010 module from inside script?

You can do this:

add-pssnapin Microsoft.Exchange.Management.PowerShell.E2010

and most of it will work (although MS support will tell you that doing this is not supported because it bypasses RBAC).

I've seen issues with some cmdlets (specifically enable/disable UMmailbox) not working with just the snapin loaded.

In Exchange 2010, they basically don't support using Powershell outside of the the implicit remoting environment of an actual EMS shell.

Kafka consumer list

You can also use kafkactl for this:

# get all consumer groups (output as yaml)
kafkactl get consumer-groups -o yaml

# get only consumer groups assigned to a single topic (output as table)
kafkactl get consumer-groups --topic topic-a

Sample output (e.g. as yaml):

name: my-group
protocoltype: consumer
 - topic-a
 - topic-b
 - topic-c

Disclaimer: I am contributor to this project

PDO support for multiple queries (PDO_MYSQL, PDO_MYSQLND)

As I know, PDO_MYSQLND replaced PDO_MYSQL in PHP 5.3. Confusing part is that name is still PDO_MYSQL. So now ND is default driver for MySQL+PDO.

Overall, to execute multiple queries at once you need:

  • PHP 5.3+
  • mysqlnd
  • Emulated prepared statements. Make sure PDO::ATTR_EMULATE_PREPARES is set to 1 (default). Alternatively you can avoid using prepared statements and use $pdo->exec directly.

Using exec

$db = new PDO("mysql:host=localhost;dbname=test", 'root', '');

// works regardless of statements emulation
$db->setAttribute(PDO::ATTR_EMULATE_PREPARES, 0);

$sql = "
INSERT INTO car(name, type) VALUES ('car1', 'coupe'); 
INSERT INTO car(name, type) VALUES ('car2', 'coupe');


Using statements

$db = new PDO("mysql:host=localhost;dbname=test", 'root', '');

// works not with the following set to 0. You can comment this line as 1 is default
$db->setAttribute(PDO::ATTR_EMULATE_PREPARES, 1);

$sql = "
INSERT INTO car(name, type) VALUES ('car1', 'coupe'); 
INSERT INTO car(name, type) VALUES ('car2', 'coupe');

$stmt = $db->prepare($sql);

A note:

When using emulated prepared statements, make sure you have set proper encoding (that reflects actual data encoding) in DSN (available since 5.3.6). Otherwise there can be a slight possibility for SQL injection if some odd encoding is used.

Could not load file or assembly 'Microsoft.ReportViewer.WebForms'

I had the same error for a different package. My problem was that a dependent project was referencing a different version. I changed them to be the same version and all was good.

Check if an element contains a class in JavaScript?

Here's a case-insensitive trivial solution:

function hasClass(element, classNameToTestFor) {
    var classNames = element.className.split(' ');
    for (var i = 0; i < classNames.length; i++) {
        if (classNames[i].toLowerCase() == classNameToTestFor.toLowerCase()) {
            return true;
    return false;

SQL Server Insert Example

I hope this will help you

Create table :

create table users (id int,first_name varchar(10),last_name varchar(10));

Insert values into the table :

insert into users (id,first_name,last_name) values(1,'Abhishek','Anand');

How do I use a C# Class Library in a project?

There are necessary steps that are missing in the above answers to work for all levels of devs:

  1. compile your class library project
  2. the dll file will be available in the bin folder
  3. in another project, right click ProjectName and select "Add" => "Existing Item"
  4. Browser to the bin folder of the class library project and select the dll file (3 & 4 steps are important if you plan to ship your app to other machines)
  5. as others mentioned, add reference to the dll file you "just" added to your project
  6. as @Adam mentioned, just call the library name from anywhere in your program, you do not need a using statement

Convert a SQL Server datetime to a shorter date format

Just add date keyword. E.g. select date(orderdate),count(1) from orders where orderdate > '2014-10-01' group by date(orderdate);

orderdate is in date time. This query will show the orders for that date rather than datetime.

Date keyword applied on a datetime column will change it to short date.

How do I create an empty array/matrix in NumPy?

You can apply it to build any kind of array, like zeros:

a = range(5)
a = [i*0 for i in a]
print a 
[0, 0, 0, 0, 0]

How to bind Events on Ajax loaded Content?

For ASP.NET try this:

<script type="text/javascript">
    Sys.Application.add_load(function() { ... });

This appears to work on page load and on update panel load

Please find the full discussion here.

How do I drop a foreign key constraint only if it exists in sql server?

ALTER TABLE [dbo].[TableName]
    DROP CONSTRAINT FK_TableName_TableName2

How Does Modulus Divison Work

Modulus division gives you the remainder of a division, rather than the quotient.

NPM Install Error:Unexpected end of JSON input while parsing near '...nt-webpack-plugin":"0'


npm cache clean --force

then try again to create your app (here when creating a react app) or install what you were about to install.

create-react-app myproject

(creating react app)[same npm problem that can occur in different operation]

npm install -g @angular/cli@latest

(installing angular cli (or installing anything else))

It will work.


That's a problem related to npm, it's about the cache that get corrupt. Even though in newer versions of npm they implemented self healing, which normally guarantee no corruption, but it seem it's not that efficient. enter image description here Forcing clean cache resolve the problem.

The error happen when parsing one of the cache files, which have a json format. The cache is found at ~/.npm/_cacache (in linux) and %AppData%/npm-cache (windows). For my current npm version and when i checked, there was three directories.
enter image description here

if you check the first or the second, the structure is as follow enter image description here

And each cache file have a json format (and that what get parsed) enter image description here

Here a good link from the doc:

[Update] Also if it happen that this didn't solve it, you may check this answer here it show how you can change the npm registry, that can be helpful. Check and see.

Convert number to month name in PHP

this is trivially easy, why are so many people making such bad suggestions? @Bora was the closest, but this is the most robust

 * returns the month in words for a given month number
date("F", strtotime(date("Y")."-".$month."-01"));

this is the way to do it

Create XML in Javascript

Only works in IE


        var xml = '<?xml version="1.0"?><foo><bar>bar</bar></foo>'; 

        var xmlDoc=new ActiveXObject("Microsoft.XMLDOM");



Then push xmlDoc.xml to your java code.

The project type is not supported by this installation

Had the same issue with "The project type is not supported by this installation" for web projects in VS 2010 Premium.

devenv /ResetSkipPkgs

and GUIDs magic did not help.

Same projects were working fine on a neighbor box with VS 2010 Premium.

As it turned out the only difference was that my VS installation was missing the following installed products (can be found in VS About dialog):

  • Microsoft Office Developer Tools
  • Microsoft Visual Studio 2010 SharePoint Developer Tools

Add/Remove programs -> VS 2010 -> Customize -> Check the above products - and the problem was solved.

In Java, how to append a string more efficiently?

Use StringBuilder class. It is more efficient at what you are trying to do.

creating custom tableview cells in swift

Custom Table View Cell Example

Tested with Xcode 9 (edit also tested on 11 / 12 Beta 2) and Swift 4 (edit: also tested on 5.2)

The asker of the original question has solved their problem. I am adding this answer as a mini self contained example project for others who are trying to do the same thing.

The finished project should look like this:

enter image description here

Create a new project

It can be just a Single View Application.

Add the code

Add a new Swift file to your project. Name it MyCustomCell.swift. This class will hold the outlets for the views that you add to your cell in the storyboard.

import UIKit
class MyCustomCell: UITableViewCell {
    @IBOutlet weak var myView: UIView!
    @IBOutlet weak var myCellLabel: UILabel!

We will connect these outlets later.

Open ViewController.swift and make sure you have the following content:

import UIKit
class ViewController: UIViewController, UITableViewDelegate, UITableViewDataSource {
    // These strings will be the data for the table view cells
    let animals: [String] = ["Horse", "Cow", "Camel", "Sheep", "Goat"]
    // These are the colors of the square views in our table view cells.
    // In a real project you might use UIImages.
    let colors = [, UIColor.yellow, UIColor.magenta,, UIColor.brown]
    // Don't forget to enter this in IB also
    let cellReuseIdentifier = "cell"
    @IBOutlet var tableView: UITableView!
    override func viewDidLoad() {
        tableView.delegate = self
        tableView.dataSource = self
    // number of rows in table view
    func tableView(_ tableView: UITableView, numberOfRowsInSection section: Int) -> Int {
        return self.animals.count
    // create a cell for each table view row
    func tableView(_ tableView: UITableView, cellForRowAt indexPath: IndexPath) -> UITableViewCell {
        let cell:MyCustomCell = self.tableView.dequeueReusableCell(withIdentifier: cellReuseIdentifier) as! MyCustomCell
        cell.myView.backgroundColor = self.colors[indexPath.row]
        cell.myCellLabel.text = self.animals[indexPath.row]
        return cell
    // method to run when table view cell is tapped
    func tableView(_ tableView: UITableView, didSelectRowAt indexPath: IndexPath) {
        print("You tapped cell number \(indexPath.row).")

Setup the storyboard

Add a Table View to your view controller and use auto layout to pin it to the four sides of the View Controller. Then drag a Table View Cell onto the Table View. And then drag a View and a Label onto the Prototype cell. (You may need to select the Table View Cell and manually set the Row Height to something taller in the Size inspector so that you have more room to work with.) Use auto layout to fix the View and the Label how you want them arranged within the content view of the Table View Cell. For example, I made my View be 100x100.

enter image description here

Other IB settings

Custom class name and Identifier

Select the Table View Cell and set the custom class to be MyCustomCell (the name of the class in the Swift file we added). Also set the Identifier to be cell (the same string that we used for the cellReuseIdentifier in the code above.

enter image description here

Hook Up the Outlets

  • Control drag from the Table View in the storyboard to the tableView variable in the ViewController code.
  • Do the same for the View and the Label in your Prototype cell to the myView and myCellLabel variables in the MyCustomCell class.


That's it. You should be able to run your project now.


  • The colored views that I used here could be replaced with anything. An obvious example would be a UIImageView.
  • If you are just trying to get a TableView to work, see this even more basic example.
  • If you need a Table View with variable cell heights, see this example.

What is the error "Every derived table must have its own alias" in MySQL?

Every derived table (AKA sub-query) must indeed have an alias. I.e. each query in brackets must be given an alias (AS whatever), which can the be used to refer to it in the rest of the outer query.

    SELECT ID, msisdn FROM (
        SELECT * FROM TT2
    ) AS T
) AS T

In your case, of course, the entire query could be replaced with:


What is the difference between Multiple R-squared and Adjusted R-squared in a single-variate least squares regression?

Note that, in addition to number of predictive variables, the Adjusted R-squared formula above also adjusts for sample size. A small sample will give a deceptively large R-squared.

Ping Yin & Xitao Fan, J. of Experimental Education 69(2): 203-224, "Estimating R-squared shrinkage in multiple regression", compares different methods for adjusting r-squared and concludes that the commonly-used ones quoted above are not good. They recommend the Olkin & Pratt formula.

However, I've seen some indication that population size has a much larger effect than any of these formulas indicate. I am not convinced that any of these formulas are good enough to allow you to compare regressions done with very different sample sizes (e.g., 2,000 vs. 200,000 samples; the standard formulas would make almost no sample-size-based adjustment). I would do some cross-validation to check the r-squared on each sample.

Skipping Iterations in Python

I think you're looking for continue

How to list all methods for an object in Ruby?

To expound upon @clyfe's answer. You can get a list of your instance methods using the following code (assuming that you have an Object Class named "Parser"): -

How do I restart a service on a remote machine in Windows?

I would suggest you to have a look at RSHD

You do not need to bother for a client, Windows has it by default.

Android customized button; changing text color

Changing text color of button

Because this method is now deprecated


I use the following:

button.setTextColor(ContextCompat.getColor(mContext, R.color.your_color));

Append to the end of a file in C

Following the documentation of fopen:

``a'' Open for writing. The file is created if it does not exist. The stream is positioned at the end of the file. Subsequent writes to the file will always end up at the then cur- rent end of file, irrespective of any intervening fseek(3) or similar.

So if you pFile2=fopen("myfile2.txt", "a"); the stream is positioned at the end to append automatically. just do:

FILE *pFile;
FILE *pFile2;
char buffer[256];

pFile=fopen("myfile.txt", "r");
pFile2=fopen("myfile2.txt", "a");
if(pFile==NULL) {
    perror("Error opening file.");
else {
    while(fgets(buffer, sizeof(buffer), pFile)) {
        fprintf(pFile2, "%s", buffer);

View the change history of a file using Git versioning

If you are using eclipse with the git plugin, it has an excellent comparison view with history. Right click the file and select "compare with"=> "history"

Which programming language for cloud computing?

As for what programming languages, any browser-based or server-based language is likely to be used. Javascript, PHP, ASP, AJAX, Perl, Java, SQL.

Let's say you need to implement a new programming language and BCL designed specifically for operating in the cloud (it won't be used on client machines ever). It should be optimized for cloud computing; easy to learn, fast, efficient, powerful, modern.

The biggest way i’ve seen cloud hosting products help out developers is the ability to launch and increase the size of a server, without having any kind of delay. Developers are able to create the application in a completely customized environment, and then expand it into a production machine with a significant hassle. If things don’t work as wanted, they can then destroy that machine with relative ease.

Most of the Cloud Computing Providers used JAVA and C-Sharp, to make cloud server.

java IO Exception: Stream Closed

Don't call write.close() in writeToFile().

How to use AND in IF Statement

If you are simply looking for the occurrence of "Miami" or "Florida" inside a string (since you put * at both ends), it's probably better to use the InStr function instead of Like. Not only are the results more predictable, but I believe you'll get better performance.

Also, VBA is not short-circuited so when you use the AND keyword, it will test both sides of the AND, regardless if the first test failed or not. In VBA, it is more optimal to use 2 if-statements in these cases, that way you aren't checking for "Florida" if you don't find "Miami".

The other advice I have is that a for-each loop is faster than a for-loop. Using .offset, you can achieve the same thing, but with better effeciency. Of course there are even better ways (like variant arrays), but those will add a layer of complexity not needed in this example.

Here is some sample code:

Sub test()

Application.ScreenUpdating = False
Dim lastRow As Long
Dim cell As Range
lastRow = Range("A" & Rows.Count).End(xlUp).Row

For Each cell In Range("A1:A" & lastRow)
    If InStr(1, cell.Value, "Miami") <> 0 Then
        If InStr(1, cell.Offset(, 3).Value, "Florida") <> 0 Then
            cell.Offset(, 2).Value = "BA"
        End If
    End If

Application.ScreenUpdating = True
End Sub

I hope you find some of this helpful, and keep at it with VBA! ^^

Why I am Getting Error 'Channel is unrecoverably broken and will be disposed!'

I got similar error (my app crashes) after I renamed something in strings.xml and forgot to modify other files (a preference xml resource file and java code).

IDE (android studio) didn't showed any errors. But, after I repaired my xml files and java code, app ran okay. So, maybe there are some small mistakes in your xml files or constants.

How to clear/remove observable bindings in Knockout.js?

You could try using the with binding that knockout offers: The idea is to use apply bindings once, and whenever your data changes, just update your model.

Lets say you have a top level view model storeViewModel, your cart represented by cartViewModel, and a list of items in that cart - say cartItemsViewModel.

You would bind the top level model - the storeViewModel to the whole page. Then, you could separate the parts of your page that are responsible for cart or cart items.

Lets assume that the cartItemsViewModel has the following structure:

var actualCartItemsModel = { CartItems: [
  { ItemName: "FirstItem", Price: 12 }, 
  { ItemName: "SecondItem", Price: 10 }
] }

The cartItemsViewModel can be empty at the beginning.

The steps would look like this:

  1. Define bindings in html. Separate the cartItemsViewModel binding.

        <div data-bind="with: cartItemsViewModel">
          <div data-bind="foreach: CartItems">
            <span data-bind="text: ItemName"></span>
            <span data-bind="text: Price"></span>
  2. The store model comes from your server (or is created in any other way).

    var storeViewModel = ko.mapping.fromJS(modelFromServer)

  3. Define empty models on your top level view model. Then a structure of that model can be updated with actual data.

        storeViewModel.cartItemsViewModel = ko.observable();
        storeViewModel.cartViewModel = ko.observable();
  4. Bind the top level view model.


  5. When the cartItemsViewModel object is available then assign it to the previously defined placeholder.


If you would like to clear the cart items: storeViewModel.cartItemsViewModel(null);

Knockout will take care of html - i.e. it will appear when model is not empty and the contents of div (the one with the "with binding") will disappear.

Material UI and Grid system

I looked around for an answer to this and the best way I found was to use Flex and inline styling on different components.

For example, to make two paper components divide my full screen in 2 vertical components (in ration of 1:4), the following code works fine.

const styles = {
    display: 'flex',
    flexDirection: 'row wrap',
    padding: 20,
    width: '100%'
    flex: 1,
    height: '100%',
    margin: 10,
    textAlign: 'center',
    padding: 10
    height: 600,
    flex: 4,
    margin: 10,
    textAlign: 'center',

class ExampleComponent extends React.Component {
  render() {
    return (
        <div style={styles.div}>
          <Paper zDepth={3} style={styles.paperLeft}>
            <h4>First Vertical component</h4>
          <Paper zDepth={3} style={styles.paperRight}>
              <h4>Second Vertical component</h4>

Now, with some more calculations, you can easily divide your components on a page.

Further Reading on flex

C# DataTable.Select() - How do I format the filter criteria to include null?

try this:

var result = from r in myDataTable.AsEnumerable()  
            where r.Field<string>("Name") != "n/a" &&  
                  r.Field<string>("Name") != "" select r;  
DataTable dtResult = result.CopyToDataTable();  

Getting or changing CSS class property with Javascript using DOM style

As mentioned by Quynh Nguyen, you don't need the '.' in the className. However - document.getElementsByClassName('col1') will return an array of objects.

This will return an "undefined" value because an array doesn't have a class. You'll still need to loop through the array elements...

function changeBGColor() {
  var cols = document.getElementsByClassName('col1');
  for(i = 0; i < cols.length; i++) {
    cols[i].style.backgroundColor = 'blue';

How to change maven logging level to display only warning and errors?

you can achieve this by using below in the commandline itself

 -e for error_x000D_
-X for debug_x000D_
-q for only error

e.g :

mvn test -X -DsomeProperties='SomeValue' [For Debug level Logs]_x000D_
mvn test -e -DsomeProperties='SomeValue' [For Error level Logs]_x000D_
mvn test -q -DsomeProperties='SomeValue' [For Only Error Logs]

how to "execute" make file

You don't tend to execute the make file itself, rather you execute make, giving it the make file as an argument:

make -f

If your make file is actually one of the standard names (like makefile or Makefile), you don't even need to specify it. It'll be picked up by default (if you have more than one of these standard names in your build directory, you better look up the make man page to see which takes precedence).

"Could not find the main class" error when running jar exported by Eclipse

I ran into the same issues the other day and it took me days to make it work. The error message was "Could not find the main class", but I can run the executable jar exported from Eclipse in other Windows machines without any problem.

The solution was to install both x64 and x86 version of the same version of JRE. The path environment variable was pointed to the x64 version. No idea why, but it worked for me.

Convert varchar to float IF ISNUMERIC

-- TRY THIS --

select name= case when isnumeric(empname)= 1 then 'numeric' else 'notmumeric' end from [Employees]

But conversion is quit impossible

select empname=
when isnumeric(empname)= 1 then empname
else 'notmumeric'
from [Employees]

Code-first vs Model/Database-first

Code-first appears to be the rising star. I had a quick look at Ruby on Rails, and their standard is code-first, with database migrations.

If you are building an MVC3 application, I believe Code first has the following advantages:

  • Easy attribute decoration - You can decorate fields with validation, require, etc.. attributes, it's quite awkward with EF modelling
  • No weird modelling errors - EF modelling often has weird errors, such as when you try to rename an association property, it needs to match the underlying meta-data - very inflexible.
  • Not awkward to merge - When using code version control tools such as mercurial, merging .edmx files is a pain. You're a programmer used to C#, and there you are merging a .edmx. Not so with code-first.
  • Contrast back to Code first and you have complete control without all the hidden complexities and unknowns to deal with.
  • I recommend you use the Package Manager command line tool, don't even use the graphical tools to add a new controller to scaffold views.
  • DB-Migrations - Then you can also Enable-Migrations. This is so powerful. You make changes to your model in code, and then the framework can keep track of schema changes, so you can seamlessly deploy upgrades, with schema versions automatically upgraded (and downgraded if required). (Not sure, but this probably does work with model-first too)


The question also asks for a comparison of code-first to EDMX model/db-first. Code-first can be used for both of these approaches too:

Turning off hibernate logging console output

To get rid of logger output in console try this.

ch.qos.logback.classic.LoggerContext.LoggerContext loggerContext = (LoggerContext) org.slf4j.LoggerFactory.LoggerFactory.getILoggerFactory();


These statements disabled all the console outputs from logger.

gdb fails with "Unable to find Mach task port for process-id" error

The problem is that you are not logged in as a root user (which you don't want). You need to create a certificate for gdb to be allowed access. Follow this tutorial and you should be good to go...

If all else fails, just use: sudo gdb executableFileName

How to change Format of a Cell to Text using VBA

To answer your direct question, it is:

Range("A1").NumberFormat = "@"


Cells(1,1).NumberFormat = "@"

However, I suggest making changing the format to what you actually want displayed. This allows you to retain the data type in the cell and easily use cell formulas to manipulate the data.

How do I get the SQLSRV extension to work with PHP, since MSSQL is deprecated?

Download Microsoft Drivers for PHP for SQL Server. Extract the files and use one of:

File                             Thread Safe         VC Bulid
php_sqlsrv_53_nts_vc6.dll           No                  VC6
php_sqlsrv_53_nts_vc9.dll           No                  VC9
php_sqlsrv_53_ts_vc6.dll            Yes                 VC6
php_sqlsrv_53_ts_vc9.dll            Yes                 VC9

You can see the Thread Safety status in phpinfo().

Add the correct file to your ext directory and the following line to your php.ini:


Use the filename of the file you used.

As Gordon already posted this is the new Extension from Microsoft and uses the sqlsrv_* API instead of mssql_*

On Linux you do not have the requisite drivers and neither the SQLSERV Extension.
Look at Connect to MS SQL Server from PHP on Linux? for a discussion on this.

In short you need to install FreeTDS and YES you need to use mssql_* functions on linux. see update 2

To simplify things in the long run I would recommend creating a wrapper class with requisite functions which use the appropriate API (sqlsrv_* or mssql_*) based on which extension is loaded.

Update 2: You do not need to use mssql_* functions on linux. You can connect to an ms sql server using PDO + ODBC + FreeTDS. On windows, the best performing method to connect is via PDO + ODBC + SQL Native Client since the PDO + SQLSRV driver can be incredibly slow.

Capture Signature using HTML5 and iPad

Another OpenSource signature field is , registered jQuery plugin using Sketch.js .

Fastest way to update 120 Million records

If your int_field is indexed, remove the index before running the update. Then create your index again...

5 hours seem like a lot for 120 million recs.

Where does the @Transactional annotation belong?

Or does it make sense to annotate both "layers"? - doesn't it make sense to annotate both the service layer and the dao layer - if one wants to make sure that DAO method is always called (propagated) from a service layer with propagation "mandatory" in DAO. This would provide some restriction for DAO methods from being called from UI layer (or controllers). Also - when unit testing DAO layer in particular - having DAO annotated will also ensure it is tested for transactional functionality.

get the data of uploaded file in javascript

The example below is based on the html5rocks solution. It uses the browser's FileReader() function. Newer browsers only.


In this example, the user selects an HTML file. It uploaded into the <textarea>.

<form enctype="multipart/form-data">
<input id="upload" type=file   accept="text/html" name="files[]" size=30>

<textarea class="form-control" rows=35 cols=120 id="ms_word_filtered_html"></textarea>

function handleFileSelect(evt) {
    var files =; // FileList object

    // use the 1st file from the list
    f = files[0];

    var reader = new FileReader();

    // Closure to capture the file information.
    reader.onload = (function(theFile) {
        return function(e) {

          jQuery( '#ms_word_filtered_html' ).val( );

      // Read in the image file as a data URL.

  document.getElementById('upload').addEventListener('change', handleFileSelect, false);

Ignore case in Python strings

In response to your clarification...

You could use ctypes to execute the c function "strcasecmp". Ctypes is included in Python 2.5. It provides the ability to call out to dll and shared libraries such as libc. Here is a quick example (Python on Linux; see link for Win32 help):

from ctypes import *
libc = CDLL("")  // see link above for Win32 help
libc.strcasecmp("THIS", "this") // returns 0
libc.strcasecmp("THIS", "THAT") // returns 8

may also want to reference strcasecmp documentation

Not really sure this is any faster or slower (have not tested), but it's a way to use a C function to do case insensitive string comparisons.


ActiveState Code - Recipe 194371: Case Insensitive Strings is a recipe for creating a case insensitive string class. It might be a bit over kill for something quick, but could provide you with a common way of handling case insensitive strings if you plan on using them often.

How to add a delay for a 2 or 3 seconds

Use a timer with an interval set to 2–3 seconds.

You have three different options to choose from, depending on which type of application you're writing:

  1. System.Timers.Timer
  2. System.Windows.Forms.Timer
  3. System.Threading.Timer

Don't use Thread.Sleep if your application need to process any inputs on that thread at the same time (WinForms, WPF), as Sleep will completely lock up the thread and prevent it from processing other messages. Assuming a single-threaded application (as most are), your entire application will stop responding, rather than just delaying an operation as you probably intended. Note that it may be fine to use Sleep in pure console application as there are no "events" to handle or on separate thread (also Task.Delay is better option).

In addition to timers and Sleep you can use Task.Delay which is asynchronous version of Sleep that does not block thread from processing events (if used properly - don't turn it into infinite sleep with .Wait()).

 public async void ClickHandler(...)
      // whatever you need to do before delay goes here         

      await Task.Delay(2000);

      // whatever you need to do after delay.

The same await Task.Delay(2000) can be used in a Main method of a console application if you use C# 7.1 (Async main on MSDN blogs).

Note: delaying operation with Sleep has benefit of avoiding race conditions that comes from potentially starting multiple operations with timers/Delay. Unfortunately freezing UI-based application is not acceptable so you need to think about what will happen if you start multiple delays (i.e. if it is triggered by a button click) - consider disabling such button, or canceling the timer/task or making sure delayed operation can be done multiple times safely.

Converting a char to ASCII?

You can use chars as is as single byte integers.

javascript, for loop defines a dynamic variable name

You cannot create different "variable names" but you can create different object properties. There are many ways to do whatever it is you're actually trying to accomplish. In your case I would just do

for (var i = myArray.length - 1; i >= 0; i--) {    console.log(eval(myArray[i])); }; 

More generally you can create object properties dynamically, which is the type of flexibility you're thinking of.

var result = {}; for (var i = myArray.length - 1; i >= 0; i--) {     result[myArray[i]] = eval(myArray[i]);   }; 

I'm being a little handwavey since I don't actually understand language theory, but in pure Javascript (including Node) references (i.e. variable names) are happening at a higher level than at runtime. More like at the call stack; you certainly can't manufacture them in your code like you produce objects or arrays. Browsers do actually let you do this anyway though it's terrible practice, via

window['myVarName'] = 'namingCollisionsAreFun';  

(per comment)

Node.js client for a server

Adding in example for solution given earlier. By using

Client Side:

var io = require('');
var socket = io.connect('http://localhost:3000', {reconnect: true});

// Add a connect listener
socket.on('connect', function (socket) {
socket.emit('CH01', 'me', 'test msg');

Server Side :

var app = require('express')();
var http = require('http').Server(app);
var io = require('')(http);

io.on('connection', function (socket){

  socket.on('CH01', function (from, msg) {
    console.log('MSG', from, ' saying ', msg);


http.listen(3000, function () {
  console.log('listening on *:3000');

Run :

Open 2 console and run node server.js and node client.js

How to configure Fiddler to listen to localhost?

tools => fiddler options => connections there is a textarea with stuff to jump, delete LH from there

Run C++ in command prompt - Windows

  1. Download MinGW form :
  2. use notepad++ to write the C++ source code.
  3. using command line change the directory/folder where the source code is saved(using notepad++)
  4. compile: g++ file_name.cpp -o file_name.exe
  5. run the executable: file_name.exe

Does IMDB provide an API?

IMDB doesn't seem to have a direct API as of August 2016 yet but I saw many people writing scrapers and stuff above. Here is a more standard way to access movie data using box office buzz API. All responses in JSON format and 5000 queries per day on a free plan

List of things provided by the API

  1. Movie Credits
  2. Movie ID
  3. Movie Images
  4. Get movie by IMDB id
  5. Get latest movies list
  6. Get new releases
  7. Get movie release dates
  8. Get the list of translations available for a specific movie
  9. Get videos, trailers, and teasers for a movie
  10. Search for a movie by title
  11. Also supports TV shows, games and videos

How to get the screen width and height in iOS?

CGFloat width = [[UIScreen mainScreen] bounds].size.width; CGFloat height = [[UIScreen mainScreen]bounds ].size.height;

Difference between JE/JNE and JZ/JNZ

From the Intel's manual - Instruction Set Reference, the JE and JZ have the same opcode (74 for rel8 / 0F 84 for rel 16/32) also JNE and JNZ (75 for rel8 / 0F 85 for rel 16/32) share opcodes.

JE and JZ they both check for the ZF (or zero flag), although the manual differs slightly in the descriptions of the first JE rel8 and JZ rel8 ZF usage, but basically they are the same.

Here is an extract from the manual's pages 464, 465 and 467.

 Op Code    | mnemonic  | Description
 74 cb      | JE rel8   | Jump short if equal (ZF=1).
 74 cb      | JZ rel8   | Jump short if zero (ZF ? 1).

 0F 84 cw   | JE rel16  | Jump near if equal (ZF=1). Not supported in 64-bit mode.
 0F 84 cw   | JZ rel16  | Jump near if 0 (ZF=1). Not supported in 64-bit mode.

 0F 84 cd   | JE rel32  | Jump near if equal (ZF=1).
 0F 84 cd   | JZ rel32  | Jump near if 0 (ZF=1).

 75 cb      | JNE rel8  | Jump short if not equal (ZF=0).
 75 cb      | JNZ rel8  | Jump short if not zero (ZF=0).

 0F 85 cd   | JNE rel32 | Jump near if not equal (ZF=0).
 0F 85 cd   | JNZ rel32 | Jump near if not zero (ZF=0).