Should I return EXIT_SUCCESS or 0 from main()?

138

It's a simple question, but I keep seeing conflicting answers: should the main routine of a C++ program return 0 or EXIT_SUCCESS?

#include <cstdlib>
int main(){return EXIT_SUCCESS;}

or

int main(){return 0;}

Are they the exact same thing? Should EXIT_SUCCESS only be used with exit()?

I thought EXIT_SUCCESS would be a better option because other software may want to deem zero as failure, but I also heard that if you return 0, the compiler is capable of changing it to a different value anyway.

This question is tagged with c++ c return-value main

~ Asked on 2012-01-15 06:09:05

The Best Answer is


166

EXIT_FAILURE, either in a return statement in main or as an argument to exit(), is the only portable way to indicate failure in a C or C++ program. exit(1) can actually signal successful termination on VMS, for example.

If you're going to be using EXIT_FAILURE when your program fails, then you might as well use EXIT_SUCCESS when it succeeds, just for the sake of symmetry.

On the other hand, if the program never signals failure, you can use either 0 or EXIT_SUCCESS. Both are guaranteed by the standard to signal successful completion. (It's barely possible that EXIT_SUCCESS could have a value other than 0, but it's equal to 0 on every implementation I've ever heard of.)

Using 0 has the minor advantage that you don't need #include <stdlib.h> in C, or #include <cstdlib> in C++ (if you're using a return statement rather than calling exit()) -- but for a program of any significant size you're going to be including stdlib directly or indirectly anyway.

For that matter, in C starting with the 1999 standard, and in all versions of C++, reaching the end of main() does an implicit return 0; anyway, so you might not need to use either 0 or EXIT_SUCCESS explicitly. (But at least in C, I consider an explicit return 0; to be better style.)

(Somebody asked about OpenVMS. I haven't used it in a long time, but as I recall odd status values generally denote success while even values denote failure. The C implementation maps 0 to 1, so that return 0; indicates successful termination. Other values are passed unchanged, so return 1; also indicates successful termination. EXIT_FAILURE would have a non-zero even value.)

~ Answered on 2012-01-15 07:13:38


27

It does not matter. Both are the same.

C++ Standard Quotes:

If the value of status is zero or EXIT_SUCCESS, an implementation-defined form of the status successful termination is returned.

~ Answered on 2012-01-15 06:19:18


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