[python] Unable to allocate array with shape and data type

I'm facing an issue with allocating huge arrays in numpy on Ubuntu 18 while not facing the same issue on MacOS.

I am trying to allocate memory for a numpy array with shape (156816, 36, 53806) with

np.zeros((156816, 36, 53806), dtype='uint8')

and while I'm getting an error on Ubuntu OS

>>> import numpy as np
>>> np.zeros((156816, 36, 53806), dtype='uint8')
Traceback (most recent call last):
  File "<stdin>", line 1, in <module>
numpy.core._exceptions.MemoryError: Unable to allocate array with shape (156816, 36, 53806) and data type uint8

I'm not getting it on MacOS:

>>> import numpy as np 
>>> np.zeros((156816, 36, 53806), dtype='uint8')
array([[[0, 0, 0, ..., 0, 0, 0],
        [0, 0, 0, ..., 0, 0, 0],
        [0, 0, 0, ..., 0, 0, 0],
        ...,
        [0, 0, 0, ..., 0, 0, 0],
        [0, 0, 0, ..., 0, 0, 0],
        [0, 0, 0, ..., 0, 0, 0]],

       [[0, 0, 0, ..., 0, 0, 0],
        [0, 0, 0, ..., 0, 0, 0],
        [0, 0, 0, ..., 0, 0, 0],
        ...,
        [0, 0, 0, ..., 0, 0, 0],
        [0, 0, 0, ..., 0, 0, 0],
        [0, 0, 0, ..., 0, 0, 0]],

       [[0, 0, 0, ..., 0, 0, 0],
        [0, 0, 0, ..., 0, 0, 0],
        [0, 0, 0, ..., 0, 0, 0],
        ...,
        [0, 0, 0, ..., 0, 0, 0],
        [0, 0, 0, ..., 0, 0, 0],
        [0, 0, 0, ..., 0, 0, 0]],

       ...,

       [[0, 0, 0, ..., 0, 0, 0],
        [0, 0, 0, ..., 0, 0, 0],
        [0, 0, 0, ..., 0, 0, 0],
        ...,
        [0, 0, 0, ..., 0, 0, 0],
        [0, 0, 0, ..., 0, 0, 0],
        [0, 0, 0, ..., 0, 0, 0]],

       [[0, 0, 0, ..., 0, 0, 0],
        [0, 0, 0, ..., 0, 0, 0],
        [0, 0, 0, ..., 0, 0, 0],
        ...,
        [0, 0, 0, ..., 0, 0, 0],
        [0, 0, 0, ..., 0, 0, 0],
        [0, 0, 0, ..., 0, 0, 0]],

       [[0, 0, 0, ..., 0, 0, 0],
        [0, 0, 0, ..., 0, 0, 0],
        [0, 0, 0, ..., 0, 0, 0],
        ...,
        [0, 0, 0, ..., 0, 0, 0],
        [0, 0, 0, ..., 0, 0, 0],
        [0, 0, 0, ..., 0, 0, 0]]], dtype=uint8)

I've read somewhere that np.zeros shouldn't be really allocating the whole memory needed for the array, but only for the non-zero elements. Even though the Ubuntu machine has 64gb of memory, while my MacBook Pro has only 16gb.

versions:

Ubuntu
os -> ubuntu mate 18
python -> 3.6.8
numpy -> 1.17.0

mac
os -> 10.14.6
python -> 3.6.4
numpy -> 1.17.0

PS: also failed on Google Colab

This question is related to python numpy data-science

The answer is


I came across this problem on Windows too. The solution for me was to switch from a 32-bit to a 64-bit version of Python. Indeed, a 32-bit software, like a 32-bit CPU, can adress a maximum of 4 GB of RAM (2^32). So if you have more than 4 GB of RAM, a 32-bit version cannot take advantage of it.

With a 64-bit version of Python (the one labeled x86-64 in the download page), the issue disappeared.

You can check which version you have by entering the interpreter. I, with a 64-bit version, now have: Python 3.7.5rc1 (tags/v3.7.5rc1:4082f600a5, Oct 1 2019, 20:28:14) [MSC v.1916 64 bit (AMD64)], where [MSC v.1916 64 bit (AMD64)] means "64-bit Python".

Note : as of the time of this writing (May 2020), matplotlib is not available on python39, so I recommand installing python37, 64 bits.

Sources :


I had this same problem on Window's and came across this solution. So if someone comes across this problem in Windows the solution for me was to increase the pagefile size, as it was a Memory overcommitment problem for me too.

Windows 8

  1. On the Keyboard Press the WindowsKey + X then click System in the popup menu
  2. Tap or click Advanced system settings. You might be asked for an admin password or to confirm your choice
  3. On the Advanced tab, under Performance, tap or click Settings.
  4. Tap or click the Advanced tab, and then, under Virtual memory, tap or click Change
  5. Clear the Automatically manage paging file size for all drives check box.
  6. Under Drive [Volume Label], tap or click the drive that contains the paging file you want to change
  7. Tap or click Custom size, enter a new size in megabytes in the initial size (MB) or Maximum size (MB) box, tap or click Set, and then tap or click OK
  8. Reboot your system

Windows 10

  1. Press the Windows key
  2. Type SystemPropertiesAdvanced
  3. Click Run as administrator
  4. Under Performance, click Settings
  5. Select the Advanced tab
  6. Select Change...
  7. Uncheck Automatically managing paging file size for all drives
  8. Then select Custom size and fill in the appropriate size
  9. Press Set then press OK then exit from the Virtual Memory, Performance Options, and System Properties Dialog
  10. Reboot your system

Note: I did not have the enough memory on my system for the ~282GB in this example but for my particular case this worked.

EDIT

From here the suggested recommendations for page file size:

There is a formula for calculating the correct pagefile size. Initial size is one and a half (1.5) x the amount of total system memory. Maximum size is three (3) x the initial size. So let's say you have 4 GB (1 GB = 1,024 MB x 4 = 4,096 MB) of memory. The initial size would be 1.5 x 4,096 = 6,144 MB and the maximum size would be 3 x 6,144 = 18,432 MB.

Some things to keep in mind from here:

However, this does not take into consideration other important factors and system settings that may be unique to your computer. Again, let Windows choose what to use instead of relying on some arbitrary formula that worked on a different computer.

Also:

Increasing page file size may help prevent instabilities and crashing in Windows. However, a hard drive read/write times are much slower than what they would be if the data were in your computer memory. Having a larger page file is going to add extra work for your hard drive, causing everything else to run slower. Page file size should only be increased when encountering out-of-memory errors, and only as a temporary fix. A better solution is to adding more memory to the computer.


Sometimes, this error pops up because of the kernel has reached its limit. Try to restart the kernel redo the necessary steps.


In my case, adding a dtype attribute changed dtype of the array to a smaller type(from float64 to uint8), decreasing array size enough to not throw MemoryError in Windows(64 bit).

from

mask = np.zeros(edges.shape)

to

mask = np.zeros(edges.shape,dtype='uint8')

change the data type to another one which uses less memory works. For me, I change the data type to numpy.uint8:

data['label'] = data['label'].astype(np.uint8)

Examples related to python

programming a servo thru a barometer Is there a way to view two blocks of code from the same file simultaneously in Sublime Text? python variable NameError Why my regexp for hyphenated words doesn't work? Comparing a variable with a string python not working when redirecting from bash script is it possible to add colors to python output? Get Public URL for File - Google Cloud Storage - App Engine (Python) Real time face detection OpenCV, Python xlrd.biffh.XLRDError: Excel xlsx file; not supported Could not load dynamic library 'cudart64_101.dll' on tensorflow CPU-only installation

Examples related to numpy

Unable to allocate array with shape and data type How to fix 'Object arrays cannot be loaded when allow_pickle=False' for imdb.load_data() function? Numpy, multiply array with scalar TypeError: only integer scalar arrays can be converted to a scalar index with 1D numpy indices array Could not install packages due to a "Environment error :[error 13]: permission denied : 'usr/local/bin/f2py'" Pytorch tensor to numpy array Numpy Resize/Rescale Image what does numpy ndarray shape do? How to round a numpy array? numpy array TypeError: only integer scalar arrays can be converted to a scalar index

Examples related to data-science

Unable to allocate array with shape and data type 'Conda' is not recognized as internal or external command ValueError: Wrong number of items passed - Meaning and suggestions? How to load a model from an HDF5 file in Keras? Where do I call the BatchNormalization function in Keras?