hibernate could not get next sequence value


i have gwt application connect to postgres DB at the backend, and a java class 'Judgement' mapping the table 'judgements' in DB, when i tried to persistent a judgement into db, it threw the following errors:

Caused by: org.hibernate.exception.SQLGrammarException: could not get next sequence value
Caused by: org.postgresql.util.PSQLException: ERROR: relation "hibernate_sequence" does not exist

my Judgement class looks like this

@Table(name = "JUDGEMENTS")
public class Judgement implements Serializable, Cloneable {

    private static final long serialVersionUID = -7049957706738879274L;

    @GeneratedValue(strategy = GenerationType.AUTO)
    @Column(name = "JUD_ID")
    private Long _judId;

and my table judgements is:

   Column    |            Type             |                        Modifiers                        
 jud_id      | bigint                      | not null default nextval('judgements_id_seq'::regclass)
 rating      | character varying(255)      | 
 last_update | timestamp without time zone | 
 user_id     | character varying(255)      | 
 id          | integer                     | 
    "judgements_pkey" PRIMARY KEY, btree (jud_id)
Foreign-key constraints:
    "judgements_id_fkey" FOREIGN KEY (id) REFERENCES recommendations(id)
    "judgements_user_id_fkey" FOREIGN KEY (user_id) REFERENCES users(user_id)

and i have a SEQUENCE name 'judgements_id_seq' in DB

can anyone tell me what's wrong??? thanks.

This question is tagged with hibernate postgresql

~ Asked on 2012-05-16 23:28:49

The Best Answer is


Hibernate's PostgreSQL dialect isn't very bright. It doesn't know about your per-SERIAL sequences, and is assuming there's a global database-wide sequence called "hibernate_sequence" that it can use.

(UPDATE: It appears that newer Hibernate versions may use the default per-table sequences when GenerationType.IDENTITY is specified. Test your version and use this instead of the below if it works for you.)

You need to change your mappings to explicitly specify each sequence. It's annoying, repetitive, and pointless.

@Table(name = "JUDGEMENTS")
public class Judgement implements Serializable, Cloneable {

    private static final long serialVersionUID = -7049957706738879274L;

    @GeneratedValue(strategy = GenerationType.SEQUENCE, generator="judgements_id_seq")
    @SequenceGenerator(name="judgements_id_seq", sequenceName="judgements_id_seq", allocationSize=1)
    @Column(name = "JUD_ID")
    private Long _judId;

The allocationSize=1 is quite important. If you omit it, Hibernate will blindly assume that the sequence is defined with INCREMENT 50 so when it gets a value from a sequence it can use that value and the 49 values below it as unique generated keys. If your database sequences increment by 1 - the default - then this will result in unique violations as Hibernate tries to re-use existing keys.

Note that getting one key at a time will result in an additional round trip per insert. As far as I can tell Hibernate isn't capable of using INSERT ... RETURNING to efficiently return generated keys, nor can it apparently use the JDBC generated keys interface. If you tell it to use a sequence, it'll call nextval to get the value then insert that explicitly, resulting in two round trips. To reduce the cost of that, you can set a greater increment on key sequences with lots of inserts , remembering to set it on the mapping and the underlying database sequence. That'll cause Hibernate to call nextval less frequently and cache blocks of keys to hand out as it goes.

I'm sure you can see from the above that I don't agree with the Hibernate design choices made here, at least from the perspective of using it with PostgreSQL. They should be using getGeneratedKeys or using INSERT ... RETURNING with DEFAULT for the key, letting the database take care of this without Hibernate having to trouble its self over the names of the sequences or explicit access to them.

BTW, if you're using Hibernate with Pg you'll possibly also want an oplock trigger for Pg to allow Hibernate's optimistic locking to interact safely with normal database locking. Without it or something like it your Hibernate updates will tend to clobber changes made via other regular SQL clients. Ask me how I know.

~ Answered on 2012-05-17 01:00:47


I seem to recall having to use @GeneratedValue(strategy = GenerationType.IDENTITY) to get Hibernate to use 'serial' columns on PostgreSQL.

~ Answered on 2012-05-17 00:05:13

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