[android] How to implement onBackPressed() in Fragments?

Is there a way in which we can implement onBackPressed() in Android Fragment similar to the way in which we implement in Android Activity?

As the Fragment lifecycle do not have onBackPressed(). Is there any other alternative method to over ride onBackPressed() in Android 3.0 fragments?

This question is related to android android-fragments onbackpressed

The answer is


If you use EventBus, it is probably a far more simpler solution :

In your Fragment :

@Override
public void onAttach(Activity activity) {
    super.onAttach(activity);
    EventBus.getDefault().register(this);
}

@Override
public void onDetach() {
    super.onDetach();
    EventBus.getDefault().unregister(this);
}


// This method will be called when a MessageEvent is posted
public void onEvent(BackPressedMessage type){
    getSupportFragmentManager().popBackStack();
}

and in your Activity class you can define :

@Override
public void onStart() {
    super.onStart();
    EventBus.getDefault().register(this);
}

@Override
public void onStop() {
    EventBus.getDefault().unregister(this);
    super.onStop();
}

// This method will be called when a MessageEvent is posted
public void onEvent(BackPressedMessage type){
    super.onBackPressed();
}

@Override
public void onBackPressed() {
    EventBus.getDefault().post(new BackPressedMessage(true));
}

BackPressedMessage.java is just a POJO object

This is super clean and there is no interface/implementation hassle.


Here is my solution for that issue:

in Activity A:

@Override
protected void onActivityResult(int requestCode, int resultCode, Intent data) 
{
    super.onActivityResult(requestCode, resultCode, data);

    if(requestCode == REQUEST_CODE)
    {
        if(resultCode == Activity.RESULT_OK)
        {
            tvTitle.setText(data.getExtras().getString("title", ""));
        }
    }
}

in Activity B:

@Override
public void onBackPressed() 
{
    setResult(Activity.RESULT_OK, getIntent());

    super.onBackPressed();
}

activity b holds the fragment.

in fragment:

private void setText(String text)
    {
        Intent intent = new Intent();
        intent.putExtra("title", text);
        getActivity().setIntent(intent);
    }

in that way the Intent Object "data" in activity A will get the string from the fragment


You can use onBackPressedDispatcher of parent activity like this:

val backpress = requireActivity().onBackPressedDispatcher.addCallback(viewLifecycleOwner, true) {
            // here dispatcher works for any action when back pressed
}

you can also enable/disable backpress button from fragment any time like this:

backpress.isEnabled = true/false

public interface IonBackPressInFrag {
    void backPressed();
}

public class FragmentMainActivity extends AppCompatActivity {
    public IonBackPressInFrag backPressInFrag;

    @Override
    protected void onCreate(Bundle savedInstanceState) {

        @Override
        public void onBackPressed () {
            backPressInFrag.backPressed();
        }
    }
}

public class FragDetailSearch extends Fragment implements IonBackPressInFrag {
 if(getActivity() !=null){
        ((FragmentMainActivity) getActivity()).backPressInFrag = this;
    }

    @Override
    public void backPressed() {
        Toast.makeText(getContext(), "backkkkkk", Toast.LENGTH_LONG).show();
    }
}

Best solution,

import android.support.v4.app.Fragment;
import android.support.v4.app.FragmentManager;
import android.support.v7.app.AppCompatActivity;

public class BaseActivity extends AppCompatActivity {
    @Override
    public void onBackPressed() {

        FragmentManager fm = getSupportFragmentManager();
        for (Fragment frag : fm.getFragments()) {
            if (frag == null) {
                super.onBackPressed();
                finish();
                return;
            }
            if (frag.isVisible()) {
                FragmentManager childFm = frag.getChildFragmentManager();
                if (childFm.getFragments() == null) {
                    super.onBackPressed();
                    finish();
                    return;
                }
                if (childFm.getBackStackEntryCount() > 0) {
                    childFm.popBackStack();
                    return;
                }
                else {

                    fm.popBackStack();
                    if (fm.getFragments().size() <= 1) {
                        finish();
                    }
                    return;
                }

            }
        }
    }
}

public class MyActivity extends Activity {

    protected OnBackPressedListener onBackPressedListener;

    public interface OnBackPressedListener {
        void doBack();
    }

    public void setOnBackPressedListener(OnBackPressedListener onBackPressedListener) {
        this.onBackPressedListener = onBackPressedListener;
    }

    @Override
    public void onBackPressed() {
        if (onBackPressedListener != null)
            onBackPressedListener.doBack();
        else
            super.onBackPressed();
    } 

    @Override
    protected void onDestroy() {
        onBackPressedListener = null;
        super.onDestroy();
    }
}

in your fragment add the following, dont forget to implement mainactivity's interface.

public class MyFragment extends Framgent implements MyActivity.OnBackPressedListener {
    @Override
    public void onViewCreated(View view, Bundle savedInstanceState) {
        super.onViewCreated(view, savedInstanceState);
         ((MyActivity) getActivity()).setOnBackPressedListener(this);
    }

@Override
public void doBack() {
    //BackPressed in activity will call this;
}

}

You should add interface to your project like below;

public interface OnBackPressed {

     void onBackPressed();
}

And then, you should implement this interface on your fragment;

public class SampleFragment extends Fragment implements OnBackPressed {

    @Override
    public void onBackPressed() {
        //on Back Pressed
    }

}

And you can trigger this onBackPressed event under your activities onBackPressed event like below;

public class MainActivity extends AppCompatActivity {
       @Override
        public void onBackPressed() {
                Fragment currentFragment = getSupportFragmentManager().getFragments().get(getSupportFragmentManager().getBackStackEntryCount() - 1);
                if (currentFragment instanceof OnBackPressed) {  
                    ((OnBackPressed) currentFragment).onBackPressed();
                }
                super.onBackPressed();
        }
}

Fragment: Make a BaseFragment placing a method:

 public boolean onBackPressed();

Activity:

@Override
public void onBackPressed() {
    List<Fragment> fragments = getSupportFragmentManager().getFragments();
    if (fragments != null) {
        for (Fragment fragment : fragments) {
            if (!fragment.isVisible()) continue;

            if (fragment instanceof BaseFragment && ((BaseFragment) fragment).onBackPressed()) {
                return;
            }
        }
    }

    super.onBackPressed();
}

Your activity will run over the attached and visible fragments and call onBackPressed() on each one of them and abort if one of them returns 'true' (meaning that it has been handled, so no further actions).


Ok guys I finally found out a good solution.

In your onCreate() in your activity housing your fragments add a backstack change listener like so:

    fragmentManager.addOnBackStackChangedListener(new FragmentManager.OnBackStackChangedListener() {
        @Override
        public void onBackStackChanged() {
            List<Fragment> f = fragmentManager.getFragments();
            //List<Fragment> f only returns one value
            Fragment frag = f.get(0);
            currentFragment = frag.getClass().getSimpleName();
        }
    });

(Also adding my fragmenManager is declared in the activities O Now every time you change fragment the current fragment String will become the name of the current fragment. Then in the activities onBackPressed() you can control the actions of your back button as so:

    @Override
    public void onBackPressed() {

    switch (currentFragment) {
        case "FragmentOne":
            // your code here
            return;
        case "FragmentTwo":
            // your code here
            return;
        default:
            fragmentManager.popBackStack();
            // default action for any other fragment (return to previous)
    }

}

I can confirm that this method works for me.


None of that is easy to implement nor will it function in an optimal way.

Fragments have a method call onDetach that will do the job.

@Override
    public void onDetach() {
        super.onDetach();
        PUT YOUR CODE HERE
    }

THIS WILL DO THE JOB.


Simply do it in onKeyUp() :

@Override
public boolean onKeyUp(int keyCode, KeyEvent event) {

    if (keyCode == KeyEvent.KEYCODE_BACK) {
        // do something
        return true;  // return true if back handled, false otherwise
    }

    return super.onKeyUp(keyCode, event);
}

In my opinion the best solution is:

JAVA SOLUTION

Create simple interface :

public interface IOnBackPressed {
    /**
     * If you return true the back press will not be taken into account, otherwise the activity will act naturally
     * @return true if your processing has priority if not false
     */
    boolean onBackPressed();
}

And in your Activity

public class MyActivity extends Activity {
    @Override public void onBackPressed() {
    Fragment fragment = getSupportFragmentManager().findFragmentById(R.id.main_container);
       if (!(fragment instanceof IOnBackPressed) || !((IOnBackPressed) fragment).onBackPressed()) {
          super.onBackPressed();
       }
    } ...
}

Finally in your Fragment:

public class MyFragment extends Fragment implements IOnBackPressed{
   @Override
   public boolean onBackPressed() {
       if (myCondition) {
            //action not popBackStack
            return true; 
        } else {
            return false;
        }
    }
}

KOTLIN SOLUTION

1 - Create Interface

interface IOnBackPressed {
    fun onBackPressed(): Boolean
}

2 - Prepare your Activity

class MyActivity : AppCompatActivity() {
    override fun onBackPressed() {
        val fragment =
            this.supportFragmentManager.findFragmentById(R.id.main_container)
        (fragment as? IOnBackPressed)?.onBackPressed()?.not()?.let {
            super.onBackPressed()
        }
    }
}

3 - Implement in your target Fragment

class MyFragment : Fragment(), IOnBackPressed {
    override fun onBackPressed(): Boolean {
        return if (myCondition) {
            //action not popBackStack
            true
        } else {
            false
        }
    }
}

Try this one, if you really want to enable onBackPressed() in Fragment. After wasting an hour of time, I made this solution which exactly fits over the needs, from my prior experiences.

You just need to focus on the value of private int STATUS_FRAGMENT=0; which suffices the need of addToBackStack() in fragments.

import android.view.MenuItem;
import android.view.View;

import androidx.annotation.NonNull;
import androidx.appcompat.app.AppCompatActivity;
import androidx.fragment.app.Fragment;

import com.example.growfast.NavigationItemsFolder.CoreFragments.Cart;
import com.example.growfast.NavigationItemsFolder.CoreFragments.HelpDesk;
import com.example.growfast.NavigationItemsFolder.CoreFragments.Home;
import com.example.growfast.NavigationItemsFolder.CoreFragments.ProfileDetails;
import com.example.growfast.R;
import com.google.android.material.bottomnavigation.BottomNavigationView;

public class BusinessManagement extends AppCompatActivity {

    public BottomNavigationView bottomNavigationView;
    private int STATUS_FRAGMENT=0;

    @Override
    protected void onCreate(Bundle savedInstanceState) {
        super.onCreate(savedInstanceState);
        setContentView(R.layout.activity_base_layout);
        setBottomNavigationMenu();

    }

    private void setBottomNavigationMenu() {
        bottomNavigationView = findViewById(R.id.navigation);
        bottomNavigationView.setVisibility(View.VISIBLE);

        bottomNavigationView.setOnNavigationItemSelectedListener(new BottomNavigationView.OnNavigationItemSelectedListener() {

            Fragment fragment = null;

            @Override
            public boolean onNavigationItemSelected(@NonNull MenuItem item) {

                switch (item.getItemId()) {

                    case R.id.action_home:
                        fragment = new Home();
                        break;

                    case R.id.action_profile:
                        fragment = new ProfileDetails();
                        break;
                    case R.id.action_cart:
                        fragment = new Cart();
                        break;
                    case R.id.action_favourites_menu:
                        fragment = new HelpDesk();
                        break;

                }
                return loadFromFragment(fragment);

            }
        });
        bottomNavigationView.setSelectedItemId(R.id.action_home);
    }

    private boolean loadFromFragment(Fragment fragment) {
        if (fragment != null) {
            getSupportFragmentManager().beginTransaction().replace(R.id.my_container, fragment)
                    .commit();
            STATUS_FRAGMENT=1;
            return true;
        }
        return false;
    }

    @Override
    public void onBackPressed() {
        if (STATUS_FRAGMENT==1) {
            bottomNavigationView.setSelectedItemId(R.id.action_home);
            STATUS_FRAGMENT=0;
            bottomNavigationView.setVisibility(View.VISIBLE);
        }
        else{
            super.onBackPressed();
        }
    }


}```

If you wanted that sort of functionality you would need to override it in your activity, and then add a YourBackPressed interface to all your fragments, which you call on the relevant fragment whenever the back button is pressed.

Edit: I'd like to append my previous answer.

If I were to do this today, I'd use a broadcast, or possibly a ordered broadcast if I expected other panels to update in unison to the master/main content panel.

LocalBroadcastManager in the Support Library can help with this, and you just send the broadcast in onBackPressed and subscribe in your fragments that care. I think that Messaging is a more decoupled implementation and would scale better, so it would be my official implementation recommendation now. Just use the Intent's action as a filter for your message. send your newly created ACTION_BACK_PRESSED, send it from your activity and listen for it in the relevant fragments.


According to @HaMMeRed answer here is pseudocode how should it works. Lets say that your main activity is called BaseActivity which has child fragments (like in SlidingMenu lib example). Here are the steps:

First we need create interface and class which implements its interface to have generic method

  1. Create class interface OnBackPressedListener

    public interface OnBackPressedListener {
        public void doBack();
    }
    
  2. Create class which implements skills of OnBackPressedListener

    public class BaseBackPressedListener implements OnBackPressedListener {
        private final FragmentActivity activity;
    
        public BaseBackPressedListener(FragmentActivity activity) {
            this.activity = activity;
        }
    
        @Override
        public void doBack() {
            activity.getSupportFragmentManager().popBackStack(null, FragmentManager.POP_BACK_STACK_INCLUSIVE);
        }
    }
    
  3. Since now, we will work on our code BaseActivity and its fragments

  4. Create private listener on top of your class BaseActivity

    protected OnBackPressedListener onBackPressedListener;
    
  5. create method to set listener in BaseActivity

    public void setOnBackPressedListener(OnBackPressedListener onBackPressedListener) {
        this.onBackPressedListener = onBackPressedListener;
    }
    
  6. in override onBackPressed implement something like that

    @Override
    public void onBackPressed() {
        if (onBackPressedListener != null)
            onBackPressedListener.doBack();
        else
            super.onBackPressed();
    
  7. in your fragment in onCreateView you should add our listener

    @Override
    public View onCreateView(LayoutInflater inflater, ViewGroup container, Bundle savedInstanceState) {
        activity = getActivity();
    
        ((BaseActivity)activity).setOnBackPressedListener(new BaseBackPressedListener(activity));
    
        View view = ... ;
    //stuff with view
    
        return view;
    }
    

Voila, now when you click back in fragment you should catch your custom on back method.


onBackPressed() cause Fragment to be detach from Activity.

According to @Sterling Diaz answer I think he is right. BUT some situation will be wrong. (ex. Rotate Screen)

So, I think we could detect whether isRemoving() to achieve goals.

You can write it at onDetach() or onDestroyView(). It is work.

@Override
public void onDetach() {
    super.onDetach();
    if(isRemoving()){
        // onBackPressed()
    }
}

@Override
public void onDestroyView() {
    super.onDestroyView();
    if(isRemoving()){
        // onBackPressed()
    }
}

Providing custom back navigation by handling onBackPressed is now more easy with callbacks inside the fragment.

class MyFragment : Fragment() {
    override fun onCreate(savedInstanceState: Bundle?) {
        super.onCreate(savedInstanceState)
        val onBackPressedCallback = object : OnBackPressedCallback(true) {
            override fun handleOnBackPressed() {
                if (true == conditionForCustomAction) {
                    myCustomActionHere()
                } else  NavHostFragment.findNavController(this@MyFragment).navigateUp();    
        }
    }
    requireActivity().onBackPressedDispatcher.addCallback(
        this, onBackPressedCallback
    )
    ...
}

If you want the default back action based on some condition, you can use:

 NavHostFragment.findNavController(this@MyFragment).navigateUp();

   @Override
   public boolean onKeyDown(int keyCode, KeyEvent event)
    {
       if ((keyCode == KeyEvent.KEYCODE_BACK))
  {
           finish();
    }
       return super.onKeyDown(keyCode, event);
    }

Just Comment Any Key down related method now addToBackStack will work . thanks


Well I done it like this, and it work for me

Simple interface

FragmentOnBackClickInterface.java

public interface FragmentOnBackClickInterface {
    void onClick();
}

Example implementation

MyFragment.java

public class MyFragment extends Fragment implements FragmentOnBackClickInterface {

// other stuff

public void onClick() {
       // what you want to call onBackPressed?
}

then just override onBackPressed in activity

    @Override
public void onBackPressed() {
    int count = getSupportFragmentManager().getBackStackEntryCount();
    List<Fragment> frags = getSupportFragmentManager().getFragments();
    Fragment lastFrag = getLastNotNull(frags);
    //nothing else in back stack || nothing in back stack is instance of our interface
    if (count == 0 || !(lastFrag instanceof FragmentOnBackClickInterface)) {
        super.onBackPressed();
    } else {
        ((FragmentOnBackClickInterface) lastFrag).onClick();
    }
}

private Fragment getLastNotNull(List<Fragment> list){
    for (int i= list.size()-1;i>=0;i--){
        Fragment frag = list.get(i);
        if (frag != null){
            return frag;
        }
    }
    return null;
}

This worked for me: https://stackoverflow.com/a/27145007/3934111

@Override
public void onResume() {
    super.onResume();

    if(getView() == null){
        return;
    }

    getView().setFocusableInTouchMode(true);
    getView().requestFocus();
    getView().setOnKeyListener(new View.OnKeyListener() {
        @Override
        public boolean onKey(View v, int keyCode, KeyEvent event) {

            if (event.getAction() == KeyEvent.ACTION_UP && keyCode == KeyEvent.KEYCODE_BACK){
                // handle back button's click listener
                return true;
            }
            return false;
        }
    });
}

I had the same problem and I created a new listener for it and used in my fragments.

1 - Your activity should have a listener interface and a list of listeners in it

2 - You should implement methods for adding and removing the listeners

3 - You should override the onBackPressed method to check that any of the listeners use the back press or not

public class MainActivity ... {

    /**
     * Back press listener list. Used for notifying fragments when onBackPressed called
     */
    private Stack<BackPressListener> backPressListeners = new Stack<BackPressListener>();


    ...

    /**
     * Adding new listener to back press listener stack
     * @param backPressListener
     */
    public void addBackPressListener(BackPressListener backPressListener) {
        backPressListeners.add(backPressListener);
    }

    /**
     * Removing the listener from back press listener stack
     * @param backPressListener
     */
    public void removeBackPressListener(BackPressListener backPressListener) {
        backPressListeners.remove(backPressListener);
    }


    // Overriding onBackPressed to check that is there any listener using this back press
    @Override
    public void onBackPressed() {

        // checks if is there any back press listeners use this press
        for(BackPressListener backPressListener : backPressListeners) {
            if(backPressListener.onBackPressed()) return;
        }

        // if not returns in the loop, calls super onBackPressed
        super.onBackPressed();
    }

}

4 - Your fragment must implement the interface for back press

5 - You need to add the fragment as a listener for back press

6 - You should return true from onBackPressed if the fragment uses this back press

7 - IMPORTANT - You must remove the fragment from the list onDestroy

public class MyFragment extends Fragment implements MainActivity.BackPressListener {


    ...

    @Override
    public void onAttach(Activity activity) {
        super.onCreate(savedInstanceState);

        // adding the fragment to listener list
        ((MainActivity) activity).addBackPressListener(this);
    }

    ...

    @Override
    public void onDestroy() {
        super.onDestroy();

        // removing the fragment from the listener list
        ((MainActivity) getActivity()).removeBackPressListener(this);
    }

    ...

    @Override
    public boolean onBackPressed() {

        // you should check that if this fragment is the currently used fragment or not
        // if this fragment is not used at the moment you should return false
        if(!isThisFragmentVisibleAtTheMoment) return false;

        if (isThisFragmentUsingBackPress) {
            // do what you need to do
            return true;
        }
        return false;
    }
}

There is a Stack used instead of the ArrayList to be able to start from the latest fragment. There may be a problem also while adding fragments to the back stack. So you need to check that the fragment is visible or not while using back press. Otherwise one of the fragments will use the event and latest fragment will not be closed on back press.

I hope this solves the problem for everyone.


How about using onDestroyView()?

@Override
public void onDestroyView() {
    super.onDestroyView();
}

I solved in this way override onBackPressed in the Activity. All the FragmentTransaction are addToBackStack before commit:

@Override
public void onBackPressed() {

    int count = getSupportFragmentManager().getBackStackEntryCount();

    if (count == 0) {
        super.onBackPressed();
        //additional code
    } else {
        getSupportFragmentManager().popBackStack();
    }

}

This line of code will do the trick from within any fragment, it will pop the current fragment on the backstack.

getActivity().getSupportFragmentManager().popBackStack();

Just follow these steps:

Always while adding a fragment,

fragmentTransaction.add(R.id.fragment_container, detail_fragment, "Fragment_tag").addToBackStack(null).commit();

Then in the main activity, override onBackPressed()

if (getSupportFragmentManager().getBackStackEntryCount() > 0) {
    getSupportFragmentManager().popBackStack();
} else {
    finish();
}

To handle the back button in your app,

Fragment f = getActivity().getSupportFragmentManager().findFragmentByTag("Fragment_tag");
if (f instanceof FragmentName) {
    if (f != null) 
        getActivity().getSupportFragmentManager().beginTransaction().remove(f).commit()               
}

That's it!


To implement like this Fragment_1 -> Fragment_2 -> Fragment_3

    Button btn = (Button) rootView.findViewById(R.id.your_button_id);
    btn.setOnClickListener(new View.OnClickListener() {
        @Override
        public void onClick(View view) {

            Fragment_2 nextFrag= new Fragment_2();
            getActivity().getSupportFragmentManager().beginTransaction()
                    .replace(R.id.content_frame, nextFrag,getTag())
                    .addToBackStack(null)
                    .commit();

        }
    });

Fragment_3 -> Fragment_2 -> Fragment_1

Step_1: Create a publically accessible String in Base Activity

Step_2: Whenever a new Fragment is activated, Change the value of the String in Base Activity

Step_3: Then add onBackPressed() method And pass the String value to another Method in Which The fagments can be replaced

In the Base Activity

public static String currentFragment=null;

@Override
public void onBackPressed() 
{
        displayPreviousFragment(currentFragment);
}

public void displayPreviousFragment(String currentFragment)
{
    //creating fragment object
    Fragment fragment = null;

    //initializing the fragment object which is selected
    switch (currentFragment)
    {
        case "Fragment_2"    :   fragment = new Fargment_1();     break;
        case "Fragment_3"    :   fragment = new Fragment_2();     break;
    }

    //replacing the fragment
    if (fragment != null) {
        FragmentTransaction ft = getSupportFragmentManager().beginTransaction();
        ft.replace(R.id.frame_to_replace_fragment, fragment);
        ft.commit();
    }
}

In Fragment_2 inside OnCreateView method

BaseActivity.currentFragment="Fragment_2";

In Fragment_3 inside OnCreateView method

BaseActivity.currentFragment="Fragment_3";

I have used another approach as follows:

  • An Otto event bus to communicate between the Activity and its Fragments
  • A Stack in the Activity containing custom back actions wrapped in a Runnable that the calling fragment defines
  • When onBackPressed is called in the controlling Activity, it pops the most recent custom back action and executes its Runnable. If there's nothing on the Stack, the default super.onBackPressed() is called

The full approach with sample code is included here as an answer to this other SO question.


Google has released a new API to deal with onBackPressed in Fragment:

activity?.onBackPressedDispatcher?.addCallback(viewLifecycleOwner, object : OnBackPressedCallback(true) {
            override fun handleOnBackPressed() {

            }
        })

The solution is simple:

1) If you have a base fragment class that all fragments extend, then add this code to it's class, otherwise create such a base fragment class

 /* 
 * called when on back pressed to the current fragment that is returned
 */
 public void onBackPressed()
 {
    // add code in super class when override
 }

2) In your Activity class, override onBackPressed as follows:

private BaseFragment _currentFragment;

@Override
public void onBackPressed()
{
      super.onBackPressed();
     _currentFragment.onBackPressed();
}

3) In Your Fragment class, add your desired code:

 @Override
 public void onBackPressed()
 {
    setUpTitle();
 }

I know it's too late but I had the same problem last week. None of the answers helped me. I then was playing around with the code and this worked, since I already added the fragments.

In your Activity, set an OnPageChangeListener for the ViewPager so that you will know when the user is in the second activity. If he is in the second activity, make a boolean true as follows:

    mSectionsPagerAdapter = new SectionsPagerAdapter(getSupportFragmentManager());
    // Set up the ViewPager with the sections adapter.
    mViewPager = (ViewPager) findViewById(R.id.pager);
    mViewPager.setAdapter(mSectionsPagerAdapter);
    mViewPager.setCurrentItem(0);
    mViewPager.addOnPageChangeListener(new OnPageChangeListener() {

        @Override
        public void onPageSelected(int position) {
            // TODO Auto-generated method stub
                mSectionsPagerAdapter.instantiateItem(mViewPager, position);
                if(position == 1)
                    inAnalytics = true;
                else if(position == 0)
                    inAnalytics = false;
        }

        @Override
        public void onPageScrolled(int position, float arg1, int arg2) {
            // TODO Auto-generated method stub
        }

        @Override
        public void onPageScrollStateChanged(int arg0) {
            // TODO Auto-generated method stub

        }
    });

Now check for the boolean whenever back button is pressed and set the current item to your first Fragment:

@Override
public void onBackPressed() {
    if(inAnalytics)
        mViewPager.setCurrentItem(0, true);
    else 
        super.onBackPressed();
}

since this question and some of the answers are over five years old, let me share my solution. This is a follow-up and modernization to the answer from @oyenigun

UPDATE: At the bottom of this article, I added an alternative implementation using an abstract Fragment extension that won't involve the Activity at all, which would be useful for anyone with a more complex fragment hierarchy involving nested fragments that require different back behavior.

I needed to implement this because some of the fragments I use have smaller views that I would like to dismiss with the back button, such as small information views that pop up, etc, but this is good for anyone who needs to override the behavior of the back button inside fragments.

First, define an Interface

public interface Backable {
    boolean onBackPressed();
}

This interface, which I call Backable (I'm a stickler for naming conventions), has a single method onBackPressed() that must return a boolean value. We need to enforce a boolean value because we will need to know if the back button press has "absorbed" the back event. Returning true means that it has, and no further action is needed, otherwise, false says that the default back action still must take place. This interface should be it's own file (preferably in a separate package named interfaces). Remember, separating your classes into packages is good practice.

Second, find the top fragment

I created a method that returns the last Fragment object in the back stack. I use tags... if you use ID's, make the necessary changes. I have this static method in a utility class that deals with navigation states, etc... but of course, put it where it best suits you. For edification, I've put mine in a class called NavUtils.

public static Fragment getCurrentFragment(Activity activity) {
    FragmentManager fragmentManager = activity.getFragmentManager();
    if (fragmentManager.getBackStackEntryCount() > 0) {
        String lastFragmentName = fragmentManager.getBackStackEntryAt(
                fragmentManager.getBackStackEntryCount() - 1).getName();
        return fragmentManager.findFragmentByTag(lastFragmentName);
    }
    return null;
}

Make sure the back stack count is greater than 0, otherwise an ArrayOutOfBoundsException could be thrown at runtime. If it isn't greater than 0, return null. We'll check for a null value later...

Third, Implement in a Fragment

Implement the Backable interface in whichever fragment where you need to override the back button behavior. Add the implementation method.

public class SomeFragment extends Fragment implements 
        FragmentManager.OnBackStackChangedListener, Backable {

...

    @Override
    public boolean onBackPressed() {

        // Logic here...
        if (backButtonShouldNotGoBack) {
            whateverMethodYouNeed();
            return true;
        }
        return false;
    }

}

In the onBackPressed() override, put whatever logic you need. If you want the back button to not pop the back stack (the default behavior), return true, that your back event has been absorbed. Otherwise, return false.

Lastly, in your Activity...

Override the onBackPressed() method and add this logic to it:

@Override
public void onBackPressed() {

    // Get the current fragment using the method from the second step above...
    Fragment currentFragment = NavUtils.getCurrentFragment(this);

    // Determine whether or not this fragment implements Backable
    // Do a null check just to be safe
    if (currentFragment != null && currentFragment instanceof Backable) {

        if (((Backable) currentFragment).onBackPressed()) {
            // If the onBackPressed override in your fragment 
            // did absorb the back event (returned true), return
            return;
        } else {
            // Otherwise, call the super method for the default behavior
            super.onBackPressed();
        }
    }

    // Any other logic needed...
    // call super method to be sure the back button does its thing...
    super.onBackPressed();
}

We get the current fragment in the back stack, then we do a null check and determine if it implements our Backable interface. If it does, determine if the event was absorbed. If so, we're done with onBackPressed() and can return. Otherwise, treat it as a normal back press and call the super method.

Second Option to not involve the Activity

At times, you don't want the Activity to handle this at all, and you need to handle it directly within the fragment. But who says you can't have Fragments with a back press API? Just extend your fragment to a new class.

Create an abstract class that extends Fragment and implements the View.OnKeyListner interface...

import android.app.Fragment;
import android.os.Bundle;
import android.view.KeyEvent;
import android.view.View;

public abstract class BackableFragment extends Fragment implements View.OnKeyListener {

    @Override
    public void onViewCreated(View view, Bundle savedInstanceState) {
        super.onViewCreated(view, savedInstanceState);
        view.setFocusableInTouchMode(true);
        view.requestFocus();
        view.setOnKeyListener(this);
    }

    @Override
    public boolean onKey(View v, int keyCode, KeyEvent event) {
        if (event.getAction() == KeyEvent.ACTION_UP) {
            if (keyCode == KeyEvent.KEYCODE_BACK) {
                onBackButtonPressed();
                return true;
            }
        }

        return false;
    }

    public abstract void onBackButtonPressed();
}

As you can see, any fragment that extends BackableFragment will automatically capture back clicks using the View.OnKeyListener interface. Just call the abstract onBackButtonPressed() method from within the implemented onKey() method using the standard logic to discern a back button press. If you need to register key clicks other than the back button, just be sure to call the super method when overriding onKey() in your fragment, otherwise you'll override the behavior in the abstraction.

Simple to use, just extend and implement:

public class FragmentChannels extends BackableFragment {

    ...

    @Override
    public void onBackButtonPressed() {
        if (doTheThingRequiringBackButtonOverride) {
            // do the thing
        } else {
            getActivity().onBackPressed();
        }
    }

    ...
}

Since the onBackButtonPressed() method in the super class is abstract, once you extend you must implement onBackButtonPressed(). It returns void because it just needs to perform an action within the fragment class, and does not need to relay the absorption of the press back to the Activity. Make sure you do call the Activity onBackPressed() method if whatever you're doing with the back button doesn't require handling, otherwise, the back button will be disabled... and you don't want that!

Caveats As you can see, this sets the key listener to the root view of the fragment, and we'll need to focus it. If there are edit texts involved (or any other focus-stealing views) in your fragment that extends this class, (or other inner fragments or views that have the same), you'll need to handle that separately. There's a good article on extending an EditText to lose focus on a back press.

I hope someone finds this useful. Happy coding.


You can register fragment in activity to handle back press:

interface BackPressRegistrar {
    fun registerHandler(handler: BackPressHandler)
    fun unregisterHandler(handler: BackPressHandler)
}

interface BackPressHandler {
    fun onBackPressed(): Boolean
}

usage:

In Fragment:

private val backPressHandler = object : BackPressHandler {
    override fun onBackPressed(): Boolean {
        showClosingWarning()
        return false
    }
}

override fun onResume() {
    super.onResume()
    (activity as? BackPressRegistrar)?.registerHandler(backPressHandler)
}

override fun onStop() {
    (activity as? BackPressRegistrar)?.unregisterHandler(backPressHandler)
    super.onStop()
}

In Activity:

class MainActivity : AppCompatActivity(), BackPressRegistrar {


    private var registeredHandler: BackPressHandler? = null
    override fun registerHandler(handler: BackPressHandler) { registeredHandler = handler }
    override fun unregisterHandler(handler: BackPressHandler) { registeredHandler = null }

    override fun onBackPressed() {
        if (registeredHandler?.onBackPressed() != false) super.onBackPressed()
    }
}

According to the AndroidX release notes, androidx.activity 1.0.0-alpha01 is released and introduces ComponentActivity, a new base class of the existing FragmentActivity and AppCompatActivity. And this release brings us a new feature:

You can now register an OnBackPressedCallback via addOnBackPressedCallback to receive onBackPressed() callbacks without needing to override the method in your activity.


This is just a small code that will do the trick:

 getActivity().onBackPressed();

Hope it helps someone :)


New and better approach: Following piece of code in a Fragment will help you to capture the back-press event.

@Override
public void onAttach(@NonNull Context context) {
    super.onAttach(context);

    OnBackPressedCallback callback = new OnBackPressedCallback(true) {
        @Override
        public void handleOnBackPressed() {
            Toast.makeText(mContext, "back pressed", Toast.LENGTH_SHORT).show();
            
            // And when you want to go back based on your condition
            if (yourCondition) {
                this.setEnabled(false);
                requireActivity().onBackPressed();
            }
        }
    };

    requireActivity().getOnBackPressedDispatcher().addCallback(this, callback);
}

Just add addToBackStack while you are transitioning between your fragments like below:

fragmentManager.beginTransaction().replace(R.id.content_frame,fragment).addToBackStack("tag").commit();

if you write addToBackStack(null) , it will handle it by itself but if you give a tag , you should handle it manually.


I just use findFragmentById and cast to the fragment and call a method that handles onBackpressed. This sample shows checking if this is the first step in order process if it is pop up a dialog fragment to confirm exit order.

@Override
    public void onBackPressed() {
        //check if first fragment in wizard is loaded, if true get abandon confirmation before going back
        OrderFragment frag =(OrderFragment)getSupportFragmentManager().findFragmentById(R.id.fragContainer);
        if (frag==null || (frag!=null && frag.getOrderStage()<1)){
            AlertDialogFragment.show(getSupportFragmentManager(), R.string.dialog_cancel_order,R.string.dialog_cancel_order_msg, R.string.dialog_cancel_order_pos,R.string.dialog_order_quiz_neg, DIALOG_ID_CANCEL);
        }else {
            super.onBackPressed();
        }
    }

Its just simple if you have An Activity A and you make 3 fragments like B ,C and D.Now if you are in fragment B or C and onBackPressed you want to move on Fragment D every time .Then you have to just Override the onBackPressed() method in main Activity A and also when you jump to any fragment then pass a TAG or name of that fragment by which you recognized that fragment in main Activity A.

I am giving the example of that one by which you can easily understand that....

if (savedInstanceState == null) {

   getSupportFragmentManager().beginTransaction().add(R.id.container, new C_fragment(),"xyz").commit();

}

or if you are moving from fragment B to fragment C..and on back press you want to come on Fragment D...like below

btn.setOnClickListener(new View.OnClickListener() {

    @Override
    public void onClick(View view) {

        getActivity().getSupportFragmentManager().beginTransaction().add(R.id.container, new C_frament(), "xyz").commit();
        ((ActionBarActivity) getActivity()).getSupportActionBar().setTitle("Fragment C");
    }
});

Now you have to just override the onBackPressed() method in main activity....like below..

@Override
public void onBackPressed() {
    FragmentManager fragmentManager =getSupportFragmentManager();
    if (((C_fragment) getSupportFragmentManager().findFragmentByTag("xyz")) != null && ((C_fragment) getSupportFragmentManager().findFragmentByTag("xyz")).isVisible()) {
        Fragment fragment = new D_Fragment();
        fragmentManager.beginTransaction().replace(R.id.container, fragment).commit();
        getSupportActionBar().setTitle("D fragment ");
    } else {
        super.onBackPressed();
    }
}

In activity life cycle, always android back button deals with FragmentManager transactions when we used FragmentActivity or AppCompatActivity.

To handle the backstack we don't need to handle its backstack count or tag anything but we should keep focus while adding or replacing a fragment. Please find the following snippets to handle the back button cases,

    public void replaceFragment(Fragment fragment) {

        FragmentTransaction transaction = getSupportFragmentManager().beginTransaction();
        if (!(fragment instanceof HomeFragment)) {
            transaction.addToBackStack(null);
        }
        transaction.replace(R.id.activity_menu_fragment_container, fragment).commit();
    }

Here, I won't add back stack for my home fragment because it's home page of my application. If add addToBackStack to HomeFragment then app will wait to remove all the frament in acitivity then we'll get blank screen so I'm keeping the following condition,

if (!(fragment instanceof HomeFragment)) {
            transaction.addToBackStack(null);
}

Now, you can see the previously added fragment on acitvity and app will exit when reaching HomeFragment. you can also look on the following snippets.

@Override
public void onBackPressed() {

    if (mDrawerLayout.isDrawerOpen(Gravity.LEFT)) {
        closeDrawer();
    } else {
        super.onBackPressed();
    }
}

this is my solution:

in MyActivity.java:

public interface OnBackClickListener {
        boolean onBackClick();
    }

    private OnBackClickListener onBackClickListener;

public void setOnBackClickListener(OnBackClickListener onBackClickListener) {
        this.onBackClickListener = onBackClickListener;
    }

@Override
    public void onBackPressed() {
        if (onBackClickListener != null && onBackClickListener.onBackClick()) {
            return;
        }
        super.onBackPressed();
    }

and in Fragment:

((MyActivity) getActivity()).setOnBackClickListener(new MyActivity.OnBackClickListener() {
    @Override
    public boolean onBackClick() {
        if (condition) {
            return false;
        }

        // some codes

        return true;
    }
});

Inside the fragment's onCreate method add the following:

@Override
public void onCreate(Bundle savedInstanceState) {
    super.onCreate(savedInstanceState);

    OnBackPressedCallback callback = new OnBackPressedCallback(true) {
        @Override
        public void handleOnBackPressed() {
            //Handle the back pressed
        }
    };
    requireActivity().getOnBackPressedDispatcher().addCallback(this, callback);
}

@Override
public void onResume() {
    super.onResume();

    getView().setFocusableInTouchMode(true);
    getView().requestFocus();
    getView().setOnKeyListener(new View.OnKeyListener() {
        @Override
        public boolean onKey(View v, int keyCode, KeyEvent event) {
            if (event.getAction() == KeyEvent.ACTION_UP && keyCode == KeyEvent.KEYCODE_BACK) {
                // handle back button
                replaceFragmentToBackStack(getActivity(), WelcomeFragment.newInstance(bundle), tags);

                return true;
            }

            return false;
        }
    });
}

Easy way to handle onBackPressed() in Fragments

Step 1: Create a static boolean in activity.

public static Fragment_one;

Step 2: On MainActivity(Activity that holds fragment) in On Create method, declare

Fragment_one=true;

Step 3: Override onBackPressed() in MainActivity

@Override
public void onBackPressed() {

    if(Fragment_one) {
     //Back key pressed on fragment one

    }else {
      //Back key pressed on fragment two
    }
}

Step 4: On fragment_one onCreateView method declare

MainActivity.Fragment_one=true;

Step 5 On fragment_two onCreateView method declare

MainActivity.Fragment_one=false;

Note: This method can be only applicable to TWO fragments.


In my solution (Kotlin);

I'm using onBackAlternative function as a parameter on BaseActivity.

BaseActivity

abstract class BaseActivity {

    var onBackPressAlternative: (() -> Unit)? = null

    override fun onBackPressed() {
        if (onBackPressAlternative != null) {
            onBackPressAlternative!!()
        } else {
            super.onBackPressed()
        }
    }
}

I have a function for set onBackPressAlternative on BaseFragment.

BaseFragment

abstract class BaseFragment {

     override fun onStart() {
        super.onStart()
        ...
        setOnBackPressed(null) // Add this
     }

      //Method must be declared as open, for overriding in child class
     open fun setOnBackPressed(onBackAlternative: (() -> Unit)?) {
         (activity as BaseActivity<*, *>).onBackPressAlternative = onBackAlternative
     }
}

Then my onBackPressAlternative is ready to use on fragments.

Sub Fragments

override fun setOnBackPressed(onBackAlternative: (() -> Unit)?) {
    (activity as BaseActivity<*, *>).onBackPressAlternative = {
        // TODO Your own custom onback function 
    }
}

If you're using androidx.appcompat:appcompat:1.1.0 or above then you can add an OnBackPressedCallback to your fragment as follows

requireActivity()
    .onBackPressedDispatcher
    .addCallback(this, object : OnBackPressedCallback(true) {
        override fun handleOnBackPressed() {
            Log.d(TAG, "Fragment back pressed invoked")
            // Do custom work here    

            // if you want onBackPressed() to be called as normal afterwards
            if (isEnabled) {
                isEnabled = false
                requireActivity().onBackPressed()
            }
        }
    }
)

See https://developer.android.com/guide/navigation/navigation-custom-back


Using Navigation component you can do it like this:

Java

public class MyFragment extends Fragment {

@Override
public void onCreate(@Nullable Bundle savedInstanceState) {
    super.onCreate(savedInstanceState);

    // This callback will only be called when MyFragment is at least Started.
    OnBackPressedCallback callback = new OnBackPressedCallback(true /* enabled by default */) {
        @Override
        public void handleOnBackPressed() {
            // Handle the back button event
        }
    });
    requireActivity().getOnBackPressedDispatcher().addCallback(this, callback);

    // The callback can be enabled or disabled here or in handleOnBackPressed()
}
...
}

Kotlin

class MyFragment : Fragment() {

override fun onCreate(savedInstanceState: Bundle?) {
    super.onCreate(savedInstanceState)

    // This callback will only be called when MyFragment is at least Started.
    val callback = requireActivity().onBackPressedDispatcher.addCallback(this) {
        // Handle the back button event
    }

    // The callback can be enabled or disabled here or in the lambda
}
...
}

In your mainActivity implement interface for callback

protected mainActivity.OnBackPressedListener onBackPressedListener;

public interface OnBackPressedListener {
    void doBack();
}

public void setOnBackPressedListener(mainActivity.OnBackPressedListener onBackPressedListener) {
    this.onBackPressedListener = onBackPressedListener;
}

@Override
public void onBackPressed() {
    if (onBackPressedListener != null) {
        onBackPressedListener.doBack();
    } else { 
        super.onBackPressed();
    }
}

on fragment implement intefrace OnBackPressedListener which we write in mainActivity like

implements mainActivity.OnBackPressedListener

mainActivity is my base activity write following code in your fragment onCreateView method

((mainActivity) getActivity()).setOnBackPressedListener(this);

and implement OnBackPressedListener interface method doBack

@Override
public void doBack() {
    //call base fragment 
}

now call fragment which you want to call on back pressed using doBack() method


Very short and sweet answer:

getActivity().onBackPressed();

Explanation of whole scenario of my case:

I have FragmentA in MainActivity, I am opening FragmentB from FragmentA (FragmentB is child or nested fragment of FragmentA)

 Fragment duedateFrag = new FragmentB();
 FragmentTransaction ft  = getFragmentManager().beginTransaction();
 ft.replace(R.id.container_body, duedateFrag);
 ft.addToBackStack(null);
 ft.commit();

Now if you want to go to FragmentA from FragmentB you can simply put getActivity().onBackPressed(); in FragmentB.


Do not implement ft.addToBackStack() method so that when you pressed back button your activity will be finished.

proAddAccount = new ProfileAddAccount();
FragmentManager fragmentManager = getSupportFragmentManager();
FragmentTransaction fragmentTransaction = fragmentManager.beginTransaction();
fragmentTransaction.replace(R.id.fragment_container, proAddAccount);
//fragmentTransaction.addToBackStack(null);
fragmentTransaction.commit();