Programs & Examples On #Scripting interface

What exactly is nullptr?

Well, other languages have reserved words that are instances of types. Python, for instance:

>>> None = 5
  File "<stdin>", line 1
SyntaxError: assignment to None
>>> type(None)
<type 'NoneType'>

This is actually a fairly close comparison because None is typically used for something that hasn't been intialized, but at the same time comparisons such as None == 0 are false.

On the other hand, in plain C, NULL == 0 would return true IIRC because NULL is just a macro returning 0, which is always an invalid address (AFAIK).

How to fill color in a cell in VBA?

You need to use cell.Text = "#N/A" instead of cell.Value = "#N/A". The error in the cell is actually just text stored in the cell.

Writing a string to a cell in excel

replace Range("A1") = "Asdf" with Range("A1").value = "Asdf"

Assign variable value inside if-statement

Yes, it's possible to do. Consider the code below:

public class Test  
    public static void main (String[] args)       
        int v = 0;          
        if ((v=dostuff())!=0)            
    public static int dostuff()       
        return 1; 

I hope this will satisfy your question.

How to prevent auto-closing of console after the execution of batch file

I know I'm late but my preferred way is:

GOTO programend

In this way the user cannot exit using enter.

Fade In on Scroll Down, Fade Out on Scroll Up - based on element position in window

The reason your attempt wasn't working, is because the two animations (fade-in and fade-out) were working against each other.

Right before an object became visible, it was still invisible and so the animation for fading-out would run. Then, the fraction of a second later when that same object had become visible, the fade-in animation would try to run, but the fade-out was still running. So they would work against each other and you would see nothing.

Eventually the object would become visible (most of the time), but it would take a while. And if you would scroll down by using the arrow-button at the button of the scrollbar, the animation would sort of work, because you would scroll using bigger increments, creating less scroll-events.

Enough explanation, the solution (JS, CSS, HTML):

$(window).on("load",function() {_x000D_
  $(window).scroll(function() {_x000D_
    var windowBottom = $(this).scrollTop() + $(this).innerHeight();_x000D_
    $(".fade").each(function() {_x000D_
      /* Check the location of each desired element */_x000D_
      var objectBottom = $(this).offset().top + $(this).outerHeight();_x000D_
      /* If the element is completely within bounds of the window, fade it in */_x000D_
      if (objectBottom < windowBottom) { //object comes into view (scrolling down)_x000D_
        if ($(this).css("opacity")==0) {$(this).fadeTo(500,1);}_x000D_
      } else { //object goes out of view (scrolling up)_x000D_
        if ($(this).css("opacity")==1) {$(this).fadeTo(500,0);}_x000D_
  }).scroll(); //invoke scroll-handler on page-load_x000D_
.fade {_x000D_
  margin: 50px;_x000D_
  padding: 50px;_x000D_
  background-color: lightgreen;_x000D_
  opacity: 1;_x000D_
<script src=""></script>_x000D_
  <div class="fade">Fade In 01</div>_x000D_
  <div class="fade">Fade In 02</div>_x000D_
  <div class="fade">Fade In 03</div>_x000D_
  <div class="fade">Fade In 04</div>_x000D_
  <div class="fade">Fade In 05</div>_x000D_
  <div class="fade">Fade In 06</div>_x000D_
  <div class="fade">Fade In 07</div>_x000D_
  <div class="fade">Fade In 08</div>_x000D_
  <div class="fade">Fade In 09</div>_x000D_
  <div class="fade">Fade In 10</div>_x000D_
_x000D_ (fiddle:

  • I wrapped the fade-codeline in an if-clause: if ($(this).css("opacity")==0) {...}. This makes sure the object is only faded in when the opacity is 0. Same goes for fading out. And this prevents the fade-in and fade-out from working against each other, because now there's ever only one of the two running at one time on an object.
  • I changed .animate() to .fadeTo(). It's jQuery's specialized function for opacity, a lot shorter to write and probably lighter than animate.
  • I changed .position() to .offset(). This always calculates relative to the body, whereas position is relative to the parent. For your case I believe offset is the way to go.
  • I changed $(window).height() to $(window).innerHeight(). The latter is more reliable in my experience.
  • Directly after the scroll-handler, I invoke that handler once on page-load with $(window).scroll();. Now you can give all desired objects on the page the .fade class, and objects that should be invisible at page-load, will be faded out immediately.
  • I removed #container from both HTML and CSS, because (at least for this answer) it isn't necessary. (I thought maybe you needed the height:2000px because you used .position() instead of .offset(), otherwise I don't know. Feel free of course to leave it in your code.)


If you want opacity values other than 0 and 1, use the following code:

$(window).on("load",function() {_x000D_
  function fade(pageLoad) {_x000D_
    var windowBottom = $(window).scrollTop() + $(window).innerHeight();_x000D_
    var min = 0.3;_x000D_
    var max = 0.7;_x000D_
    var threshold = 0.01;_x000D_
    $(".fade").each(function() {_x000D_
      /* Check the location of each desired element */_x000D_
      var objectBottom = $(this).offset().top + $(this).outerHeight();_x000D_
      /* If the element is completely within bounds of the window, fade it in */_x000D_
      if (objectBottom < windowBottom) { //object comes into view (scrolling down)_x000D_
        if ($(this).css("opacity")<=min+threshold || pageLoad) {$(this).fadeTo(500,max);}_x000D_
      } else { //object goes out of view (scrolling up)_x000D_
        if ($(this).css("opacity")>=max-threshold || pageLoad) {$(this).fadeTo(500,min);}_x000D_
  } fade(true); //fade elements on page-load_x000D_
  $(window).scroll(function(){fade(false);}); //fade elements on scroll_x000D_
.fade {_x000D_
  margin: 50px;_x000D_
  padding: 50px;_x000D_
  background-color: lightgreen;_x000D_
  opacity: 1;_x000D_
<script src=""></script>_x000D_
  <div class="fade">Fade In 01</div>_x000D_
  <div class="fade">Fade In 02</div>_x000D_
  <div class="fade">Fade In 03</div>_x000D_
  <div class="fade">Fade In 04</div>_x000D_
  <div class="fade">Fade In 05</div>_x000D_
  <div class="fade">Fade In 06</div>_x000D_
  <div class="fade">Fade In 07</div>_x000D_
  <div class="fade">Fade In 08</div>_x000D_
  <div class="fade">Fade In 09</div>_x000D_
  <div class="fade">Fade In 10</div>_x000D_
_x000D_ (fiddle:

  • I added a threshold to the if-clause, see explanation below.
  • I created variables for the threshold and for min/max at the start of the function. In the rest of the function these variables are referenced. This way, if you ever want to change the values again, you only have to do it in one place.
  • I also added || pageLoad to the if-clause. This was necessary to make sure all objects are faded to the correct opacity on page-load. pageLoad is a boolean that is send along as an argument when fade() is invoked.
    I had to put the fade-code inside the extra function fade() {...}, in order to be able to send along the pageLoad boolean when the scroll-handler is invoked.
    I did't see any other way to do this, if anyone else does, please leave a comment.

The reason the code in your fiddle didn't work, is because the actual opacity values are always a little off from the value you set it to. So if you set the opacity to 0.3, the actual value (in this case) is 0.300000011920929. That's just one of those little bugs you have to learn along the way by trail and error. That's why this if-clause won't work: if ($(this).css("opacity") == 0.3) {...}.

I added a threshold, to take that difference into account: == 0.3 becomes <= 0.31.
(I've set the threshold to 0.01, this can be changed of course, just as long as the actual opacity will fall between the set value and this threshold.)

The operators are now changed from == to <= and >=.


If you want to fade the elements based on their visible percentage, use the following code:

$(window).on("load",function() {_x000D_
  function fade(pageLoad) {_x000D_
    var windowTop=$(window).scrollTop(), windowBottom=windowTop+$(window).innerHeight();_x000D_
    var min=0.3, max=0.7, threshold=0.01;_x000D_
    $(".fade").each(function() {_x000D_
      /* Check the location of each desired element */_x000D_
      var objectHeight=$(this).outerHeight(), objectTop=$(this).offset().top, objectBottom=$(this).offset().top+objectHeight;_x000D_
      /* Fade element in/out based on its visible percentage */_x000D_
      if (objectTop < windowTop) {_x000D_
        if (objectBottom > windowTop) {$(this).fadeTo(0,min+((max-min)*((objectBottom-windowTop)/objectHeight)));}_x000D_
        else if ($(this).css("opacity")>=min+threshold || pageLoad) {$(this).fadeTo(0,min);}_x000D_
      } else if (objectBottom > windowBottom) {_x000D_
        if (objectTop < windowBottom) {$(this).fadeTo(0,min+((max-min)*((windowBottom-objectTop)/objectHeight)));}_x000D_
        else if ($(this).css("opacity")>=min+threshold || pageLoad) {$(this).fadeTo(0,min);}_x000D_
      } else if ($(this).css("opacity")<=max-threshold || pageLoad) {$(this).fadeTo(0,max);}_x000D_
  } fade(true); //fade elements on page-load_x000D_
  $(window).scroll(function(){fade(false);}); //fade elements on scroll_x000D_
.fade {_x000D_
  margin: 50px;_x000D_
  padding: 50px;_x000D_
  background-color: lightgreen;_x000D_
  opacity: 1;_x000D_
<script src=""></script>_x000D_
  <div class="fade">Fade In 01</div>_x000D_
  <div class="fade">Fade In 02</div>_x000D_
  <div class="fade">Fade In 03</div>_x000D_
  <div class="fade">Fade In 04</div>_x000D_
  <div class="fade">Fade In 05</div>_x000D_
  <div class="fade">Fade In 06</div>_x000D_
  <div class="fade">Fade In 07</div>_x000D_
  <div class="fade">Fade In 08</div>_x000D_
  <div class="fade">Fade In 09</div>_x000D_
  <div class="fade">Fade In 10</div>_x000D_
_x000D_ (fiddle:

Append a Lists Contents to another List C#

With Linq

var newList = GlobalStrings.Append(localStrings)

Clone Object without reference javascript

You could define a clone function.

I use this one :

function goclone(source) {
    if ( === '[object Array]') {
        var clone = [];
        for (var i=0; i<source.length; i++) {
            clone[i] = goclone(source[i]);
        return clone;
    } else if (typeof(source)=="object") {
        var clone = {};
        for (var prop in source) {
            if (source.hasOwnProperty(prop)) {
                clone[prop] = goclone(source[prop]);
        return clone;
    } else {
        return source;

var B = goclone(A);

It doesn't copy the prototype, functions, and so on. But you should adapt it (and maybe simplify it) for you own need.

How to input a string from user into environment variable from batch file

A rather roundabout way, just for completeness:

 for /f "delims=" %i in ('type CON') do set inp=%i

Of course that requires ^Z as a terminator, and so the Johannes answer is better in all practical ways.

Scatter plots in Pandas/Pyplot: How to plot by category

It's rather hacky, but you could use one1 as a Float64Index to do everything in one go:

df.set_index('one').sort_index().groupby('key1')['two'].plot(style='--o', legend=True)

enter image description here

Note that as of 0.20.3, sorting the index is necessary, and the legend is a bit wonky.

Codeigniter $this->input->post() empty while $_POST is working correctly

You are missing the parent constructor. When your controller is loaded you must Call the parent CI_Controller class constructor in your controller constructor

Font Awesome icon inside text input element

I found the easiest way using bootstrap 4.

<div class="input-group mb-3">
    <div class="input-group-prepend">
    <span class="input-group-text"><i class="fa fa-user"></i></span></div>
    <input type="text"/>

What is the default scope of a method in Java?

Anything defined as package private can be accessed by the class itself, other classes within the same package, but not outside of the package, and not by sub-classes.

See this page for a handy table of access level modifiers...

Why does Git say my master branch is "already up to date" even though it is not?

Just a friendly reminder if you have files locally that aren't in github and yet your git status says

Your branch is up to date with 'origin/master'. nothing to commit, working tree clean

It can happen if the files are in .gitignore

Try running

cat .gitignore 

and seeing if these files show up there. That would explain why git doesn't want to move them to the remote.

What are major differences between C# and Java?

The following is a great in depth reference by Dare Obasanjo on the differences between C# and Java. I always find myself referring to this article when switching between the two.

Adding and reading from a Config file

  1. Right click on the project file -> Add -> New Item -> Application Configuration File. This will add an app.config (or web.config) file to your project.

  2. The ConfigurationManager class would be a good start. You can use it to read different configuration values from the configuration file.

I suggest you start reading the MSDN document about Configuration Files.

What is the difference between ExecuteScalar, ExecuteReader and ExecuteNonQuery?


This ExecuteNonQuery method will be used only for insert, update and delete, Create, and SET statements. ExecuteNonQuery method will return number of rows effected with INSERT, DELETE or UPDATE operations.


It’s very fast to retrieve single values from database. Execute Scalar will return single row single column value i.e. single value, on execution of SQL Query or Stored procedure using command object. ExecuteReader

Execute Reader will be used to return the set of rows, on execution of SQL Query or Stored procedure using command object. This one is forward only retrieval of records and it is used to read the table values from first to last.

Change window location Jquery

I'm assuming you're using jquery to make the AJAX call so you can do this pretty easily by putting the redirect in the success like so:

       url: 'ajax_location.html',
       success: function(data) {
          //this is the redirect

bash: shortest way to get n-th column of output

I found myself in the same situation and ended up adding these aliases to my .profile file:

alias c1="awk '{print \$1}'"
alias c2="awk '{print \$2}'"
alias c3="awk '{print \$3}'"
alias c4="awk '{print \$4}'"
alias c5="awk '{print \$5}'"
alias c6="awk '{print \$6}'"
alias c7="awk '{print \$7}'"
alias c8="awk '{print \$8}'"
alias c9="awk '{print \$9}'"

Which allows me to write things like this:

svn st | c2 | xargs rm

Git Symlinks in Windows

It ought to be implemented in msysgit, but there are two downsides:

  • Symbolic links are only available in Windows Vista and later (should not be an issue in 2011, and yet it is...), since older versions only support directory junctions.
  • (the big one) Microsoft considers symbolic links a security risk and so only administrators can create them by default. You'll need to elevate privileges of the git process or use fstool to change this behavior on every machine you work on.

I did a quick search and there is work being actively done on this, see issue 224.

Cookies vs. sessions

I will select Session, first of all session is more secure then cookies, cookies is client site data and session is server site data. Cookies is used to identify a user, because it is small pieces of code that is embedded my server with user computer browser. On the other hand Session help you to secure you identity because web server don’t know who you are because HTTP address changes the state to 765487cf34ert8ded…..or something else numbers with the help of GET and POST methods. Session stores data of user in unique ID session that even user ID can’t match with each other. Session stores single user information in all pages of one application. Cookies expire is set with the help of setcookies() whereas session expire is not set it is expire when user turn off browsers.

C# - insert values from file into two arrays

string[] lines = File.ReadAllLines("sample.txt"); List<string> list1 = new List<string>(); List<string> list2 = new List<string>();  foreach (var line in lines) {     string[] values = line.Split(new char[] { ' ' }, StringSplitOptions.RemoveEmptyEntries);     list1.Add(values[0]);     list2.Add(values[1]);  } 

Py_Initialize fails - unable to load the file system codec

In my cases, for windows, if you have multiple python versions installed, if PYTHONPATH is pointing to one version the other ones didn't work. I found that if you just remove PYTHONPATH, they all work fine

Call js-function using JQuery timer

jQuery 1.4 also includes a .delay( duration, [ queueName ] ) method if you only need it to trigger once and have already started using that version.

$('#foo').slideUp(300).delay(800).fadeIn(400); mistake you were looking for an event to continue triggering. I'll leave this here, someone may find it helpful.

VBA - Range.Row.Count

Probably a better solution is work upwards from the bottom:


c# Best Method to create a log file

You can use library and use a database appender to collect all your log info together.

Correct way to create rounded corners in Twitter Bootstrap

If you're using Bootstrap Sass, here's another way that avoids having to add extra classes to your element markup:

@import "bootstrap/mixins/_border-radius";
@import "bootstrap/_variables";

.your-class {
  $r: $border-radius-base; // or $border-radius-large, $border-radius-small, ...
  @include border-top-radius($r);
  @include border-bottom-radius($r);

Select data between a date/time range

MySQL date format is this : Y-M-D. You are using Y/M/D. That's is wrong. modify your query.

If you insert the date like Y/M/D, It will be insert null value in the database.

If you are using PHP and date you are getting from the form is like this Y/M/D, you can replace this with using the statement .

out_date=date('Y-m-d', strtotime(str_replace('/', '-', $data["input_date"])))

Java naming convention for static final variables

The language doesn't care. What's important is to follow the established styles and conventions of the project you're working on, such that other maintainers (or you five months from now) have the best possible chance of not being confused.

I think an all-uppercase name for a mutable object would certainly confuse me, even if the reference to that object happened to be stored in a static final variable.

C# DLL config file

It is not trivial to create a .NET configuration file for a .DLL, and for good reason. The .NET configuration mechanism has a lot of features built into it to facilitate easy upgrading/updating of the app, and to protect installed apps from trampling each others configuration files.

There is a big difference between how a DLL is used and how an application is used. You are unlikely to have multiple copies of an application installed on the same machine for the same user. But you may very well have 100 different apps or libraries all making use of some .NET DLL.

Whereas there is rarely a need to track settings separately for different copies of an app within one user profile, it's very unlikely that you would want all of the different usages of a DLL to share configuration with each other. For this reason, when you retrieve a Configuration object using the "normal" method, the object you get back is tied to the configuration of the App Domain you are executing in, rather than the particular assembly.

The App Domain is bound to the root assembly which loaded the assembly which your code is actually in. In most cases this will be the assembly of your main .EXE, which is what loaded up the .DLL. It is possible to spin up other app domains within an application, but you must explicitly provide information on what the root assembly of that app domain is.

Because of all this, the procedure for creating a library-specific config file is not so convenient. It is the same process you would use for creating an arbitrary portable config file not tied to any particular assembly, but for which you want to make use of .NET's XML schema, config section and config element mechanisms, etc. This entails creating an ExeConfigurationFileMap object, loading in the data to identify where the config file will be stored, and then calling ConfigurationManager.OpenMappedExeConfiguration to open it up into a new Configuration instance. This will cut you off from the version protection offered by the automatic path generation mechanism.

Statistically speaking, you're probably using this library in an in-house setting, and it's unlikely you'll have multiple apps making use of it within any one machine/user. But if not, there is something you should keep in mind. If you use a single global config file for your DLL, regardless of the app that is referencing it, you need to worry about access conflicts. If two apps referencing your library happen to be running at the same time, each with their own Configuration object open, then when one saves changes, it will cause an exception next time you try to retrieve or save data in the other app.

The safest and simplest way of getting around this is to require that the assembly which is loading your DLL also provide some information about itself, or to detect it by examining the App Domain of the referencing assembly. Use this to create some sort of folder structure for keeping separate user config files for each app referencing your DLL.

If you are certain you want to have global settings for your DLL no matter where it is referenced, you'll need to determine your location for it rather than .NET figuring out an appropriate one automatically. You'll also need to be aggressive about managing access to the file. You'll need to cache as much as possible, keeping the Configuration instance around ONLY as long as it takes to load or to save, opening immediately before and disposing immediately after. And finally, you'll need a lock mechanism to protect the file while it's being edited by one of the apps that use the library.

OpenSSL Verify return code: 20 (unable to get local issuer certificate)

Solution: You must explicitly add the parameter -CAfile your-ca-file.pem.

Note: I tried also param -CApath mentioned in another answers, but is does not works for me.

Explanation: Error unable to get local issuer certificate means, that the openssl does not know your root CA cert.

Note: If you have web server with more domains, do not forget to add also -servername parameter. This parameter will "Set TLS extension servername in ClientHello". Without this parameter, the response will always contain the default SSL cert (not certificate, that match to your domain).

ASP.NET Background image

Just a heads up, while some of the answers posted here are correct (in a sense) one thing that you may need to do is go back to the root folder to delve down into the folder holding the image you want to set as the background. In other words, this code is correct in accomplishing your goal:

body {

But you may also need to add a little more to the code, like this:

body {

The difference, as you can see, is that you may need to add “../” in front of the “images/background.png” call. This same rule also applies in HTML5 web pages. So if you are trying the first sample code listed here and you are still not getting the background image, try adding the “../” in front of “images”. Hope this helps .

Changing iframe src with Javascript

You can solve it by making the iframe in javascript

  document.write(" <iframe  id='frame' name='frame' src='" + srcstring + "' width='600'  height='315'   allowfullscreen></iframe>");

How to display a pdf in a modal window?

You can have an iframe inside the modal markup and give the src attribute of it as the link to your pdf. On click of the link you can show this modal markup.

Convert Unicode to ASCII without errors in Python

Looks like you are using python 2.x. Python 2.x defaults to ascii and it doesn’t know about Unicode. Hence the exception.

Just paste the below line after shebang, it will work

# -*- coding: utf-8 -*-

Can HTTP POST be limitless?

EDIT (2019) This answer is now pretty redundant but there is another answer with more relevant information.

It rather depends on the web server and web browser:

Internet explorer All versions 2GB-1
Mozilla Firefox All versions 2GB-1
IIS 1-5 2GB-1
IIS 6 4GB-1

Although IIS only support 200KB by default, the metabase needs amending to increase this.

The POST method itself does not have any limit on the size of data.

Show/hide image with JavaScript

This is working code:

  <body bgcolor=cyan>
    <img src ="backgr1.JPG" id="my" width="310" height="392" style="position: absolute; top:92px; left:375px; visibility:hidden"/>
    <script type="text/javascript">
      function tend() {
      function tn() {
    <input type="button" onclick="tend()" value="back">
    <input type="button" onclick="tn()" value="close">

Matplotlib: Specify format of floats for tick labels

The answer above is probably the correct way to do it, but didn't work for me.

The hacky way that solved it for me was the following:

ax = <whatever your plot is> 
# get the current labels 
labels = [item.get_text() for item in ax.get_xticklabels()]
# Beat them into submission and set them back again
ax.set_xticklabels([str(round(float(label), 2)) for label in labels])
# Show the plot, and go home to family

What is the list of supported languages/locales on Android?

Following jrub post on May 4 '2015, I'm adding updated locale list. Executed on a Nexus 6P with Android 7.0 Nougat and English US locale.

af_ [Afrikaans]
af_NA [Afrikaans (Namibia)]
af_ZA [Afrikaans (South Africa)]
agq_ [Aghem]
agq_CM [Aghem (Cameroon)]
ak_ [Akan]
ak_GH [Akan (Ghana)]
am_ [Amharic]
am_ET [Amharic (Ethiopia)]
ar_ [Arabic]
ar_001 [Arabic (World)]
ar_AE [Arabic (United Arab Emirates)]
ar_BH [Arabic (Bahrain)]
ar_DJ [Arabic (Djibouti)]
ar_DZ [Arabic (Algeria)]
ar_EG [Arabic (Egypt)]
ar_EH [Arabic (Western Sahara)]
ar_ER [Arabic (Eritrea)]
ar_IL [Arabic (Israel)]
ar_IQ [Arabic (Iraq)]
ar_JO [Arabic (Jordan)]
ar_KM [Arabic (Comoros)]
ar_KW [Arabic (Kuwait)]
ar_LB [Arabic (Lebanon)]
ar_LY [Arabic (Libya)]
ar_MA [Arabic (Morocco)]
ar_MR [Arabic (Mauritania)]
ar_OM [Arabic (Oman)]
ar_PS [Arabic (Palestine)]
ar_QA [Arabic (Qatar)]
ar_SA [Arabic (Saudi Arabia)]
ar_SD [Arabic (Sudan)]
ar_SO [Arabic (Somalia)]
ar_SS [Arabic (South Sudan)]
ar_SY [Arabic (Syria)]
ar_TD [Arabic (Chad)]
ar_TN [Arabic (Tunisia)]
ar_YE [Arabic (Yemen)]
as_ [Assamese]
as_IN [Assamese (India)]
asa_ [Asu]
asa_TZ [Asu (Tanzania)]
az_ [Azerbaijani (Cyrillic)]
az_ [Azerbaijani (Latin)]
az_ [Azerbaijani]
az_AZ [Azerbaijani (Cyrillic,Azerbaijan)]
az_AZ [Azerbaijani (Latin,Azerbaijan)]
bas_ [Basaa]
bas_CM [Basaa (Cameroon)]
be_ [Belarusian]
be_BY [Belarusian (Belarus)]
bem_ [Bemba]
bem_ZM [Bemba (Zambia)]
bez_ [Bena]
bez_TZ [Bena (Tanzania)]
bg_ [Bulgarian]
bg_BG [Bulgarian (Bulgaria)]
bm_ [Bambara]
bm_ML [Bambara (Mali)]
bn_ [Bengali]
bn_BD [Bengali (Bangladesh)]
bn_IN [Bengali (India)]
bo_ [Tibetan]
bo_CN [Tibetan (China)]
bo_IN [Tibetan (India)]
br_ [Breton]
br_FR [Breton (France)]
brx_ [Bodo]
brx_IN [Bodo (India)]
bs_ [Bosnian (Cyrillic)]
bs_ [Bosnian (Latin)]
bs_ [Bosnian]
bs_BA [Bosnian (Cyrillic,Bosnia & Herzegovina)]
bs_BA [Bosnian (Latin,Bosnia & Herzegovina)]
ca_ [Catalan]
ca_AD [Catalan (Andorra)]
ca_ES [Catalan (Spain)]
ca_FR [Catalan (France)]
ca_IT [Catalan (Italy)]
ce_ [Chechen]
ce_RU [Chechen (Russia)]
cgg_ [Chiga]
cgg_UG [Chiga (Uganda)]
chr_ [Cherokee]
chr_US [Cherokee (United States)]
cs_ [Czech]
cs_CZ [Czech (Czech Republic)]
cy_ [Welsh]
cy_GB [Welsh (United Kingdom)]
da_ [Danish]
da_DK [Danish (Denmark)]
da_GL [Danish (Greenland)]
dav_ [Taita]
dav_KE [Taita (Kenya)]
de_ [German]
de_AT [German (Austria)]
de_BE [German (Belgium)]
de_CH [German (Switzerland)]
de_DE [German (Germany)]
de_LI [German (Liechtenstein)]
de_LU [German (Luxembourg)]
dje_ [Zarma]
dje_NE [Zarma (Niger)]
dsb_ [Lower Sorbian]
dsb_DE [Lower Sorbian (Germany)]
dua_ [Duala]
dua_CM [Duala (Cameroon)]
dyo_ [Jola-Fonyi]
dyo_SN [Jola-Fonyi (Senegal)]
dz_ [Dzongkha]
dz_BT [Dzongkha (Bhutan)]
ebu_ [Embu]
ebu_KE [Embu (Kenya)]
ee_ [Ewe]
ee_GH [Ewe (Ghana)]
ee_TG [Ewe (Togo)]
el_ [Greek]
el_CY [Greek (Cyprus)]
el_GR [Greek (Greece)]
en_ [English]
en_001 [English (World)]
en_150 [English (Europe)]
en_AG [English (Antigua & Barbuda)]
en_AI [English (Anguilla)]
en_AS [English (American Samoa)]
en_AT [English (Austria)]
en_AU [English (Australia)]
en_BB [English (Barbados)]
en_BE [English (Belgium)]
en_BI [English (Burundi)]
en_BM [English (Bermuda)]
en_BS [English (Bahamas)]
en_BW [English (Botswana)]
en_BZ [English (Belize)]
en_CA [English (Canada)]
en_CC [English (Cocos (Keeling) Islands)]
en_CH [English (Switzerland)]
en_CK [English (Cook Islands)]
en_CM [English (Cameroon)]
en_CX [English (Christmas Island)]
en_CY [English (Cyprus)]
en_DE [English (Germany)]
en_DG [English (Diego Garcia)]
en_DK [English (Denmark)]
en_DM [English (Dominica)]
en_ER [English (Eritrea)]
en_FI [English (Finland)]
en_FJ [English (Fiji)]
en_FK [English (Falkland Islands (Islas Malvinas))]
en_FM [English (Micronesia)]
en_GB [English (United Kingdom)]
en_GD [English (Grenada)]
en_GG [English (Guernsey)]
en_GH [English (Ghana)]
en_GI [English (Gibraltar)]
en_GM [English (Gambia)]
en_GU [English (Guam)]
en_GY [English (Guyana)]
en_HK [English (Hong Kong)]
en_IE [English (Ireland)]
en_IL [English (Israel)]
en_IM [English (Isle of Man)]
en_IN [English (India)]
en_IO [English (British Indian Ocean Territory)]
en_JE [English (Jersey)]
en_JM [English (Jamaica)]
en_KE [English (Kenya)]
en_KI [English (Kiribati)]
en_KN [English (St. Kitts & Nevis)]
en_KY [English (Cayman Islands)]
en_LC [English (St. Lucia)]
en_LR [English (Liberia)]
en_LS [English (Lesotho)]
en_MG [English (Madagascar)]
en_MH [English (Marshall Islands)]
en_MO [English (Macau)]
en_MP [English (Northern Mariana Islands)]
en_MS [English (Montserrat)]
en_MT [English (Malta)]
en_MU [English (Mauritius)]
en_MW [English (Malawi)]
en_MY [English (Malaysia)]
en_NA [English (Namibia)]
en_NF [English (Norfolk Island)]
en_NG [English (Nigeria)]
en_NL [English (Netherlands)]
en_NR [English (Nauru)]
en_NU [English (Niue)]
en_NZ [English (New Zealand)]
en_PG [English (Papua New Guinea)]
en_PH [English (Philippines)]
en_PK [English (Pakistan)]
en_PN [English (Pitcairn Islands)]
en_PR [English (Puerto Rico)]
en_PW [English (Palau)]
en_RW [English (Rwanda)]
en_SB [English (Solomon Islands)]
en_SC [English (Seychelles)]
en_SD [English (Sudan)]
en_SE [English (Sweden)]
en_SG [English (Singapore)]
en_SH [English (St. Helena)]
en_SI [English (Slovenia)]
en_SL [English (Sierra Leone)]
en_SS [English (South Sudan)]
en_SX [English (Sint Maarten)]
en_SZ [English (Swaziland)]
en_TC [English (Turks & Caicos Islands)]
en_TK [English (Tokelau)]
en_TO [English (Tonga)]
en_TT [English (Trinidad & Tobago)]
en_TV [English (Tuvalu)]
en_TZ [English (Tanzania)]
en_UG [English (Uganda)]
en_UM [English (U.S. Outlying Islands)]
en_US [English (United States)]
en_US [English (United States,Computer)]
en_VC [English (St. Vincent & Grenadines)]
en_VG [English (British Virgin Islands)]
en_VI [English (U.S. Virgin Islands)]
en_VU [English (Vanuatu)]
en_WS [English (Samoa)]
en_ZA [English (South Africa)]
en_ZM [English (Zambia)]
en_ZW [English (Zimbabwe)]
eo_ [Esperanto]
es_ [Spanish]
es_419 [Spanish (Latin America)]
es_AR [Spanish (Argentina)]
es_BO [Spanish (Bolivia)]
es_CL [Spanish (Chile)]
es_CO [Spanish (Colombia)]
es_CR [Spanish (Costa Rica)]
es_CU [Spanish (Cuba)]
es_DO [Spanish (Dominican Republic)]
es_EA [Spanish (Ceuta & Melilla)]
es_EC [Spanish (Ecuador)]
es_ES [Spanish (Spain)]
es_GQ [Spanish (Equatorial Guinea)]
es_GT [Spanish (Guatemala)]
es_HN [Spanish (Honduras)]
es_IC [Spanish (Canary Islands)]
es_MX [Spanish (Mexico)]
es_NI [Spanish (Nicaragua)]
es_PA [Spanish (Panama)]
es_PE [Spanish (Peru)]
es_PH [Spanish (Philippines)]
es_PR [Spanish (Puerto Rico)]
es_PY [Spanish (Paraguay)]
es_SV [Spanish (El Salvador)]
es_US [Spanish (United States)]
es_UY [Spanish (Uruguay)]
es_VE [Spanish (Venezuela)]
et_ [Estonian]
et_EE [Estonian (Estonia)]
eu_ [Basque]
eu_ES [Basque (Spain)]
ewo_ [Ewondo]
ewo_CM [Ewondo (Cameroon)]
fa_ [Persian]
fa_AF [Persian (Afghanistan)]
fa_IR [Persian (Iran)]
ff_ [Fulah]
ff_CM [Fulah (Cameroon)]
ff_GN [Fulah (Guinea)]
ff_MR [Fulah (Mauritania)]
ff_SN [Fulah (Senegal)]
fi_ [Finnish]
fi_FI [Finnish (Finland)]
fil_ [Filipino]
fil_PH [Filipino (Philippines)]
fo_ [Faroese]
fo_DK [Faroese (Denmark)]
fo_FO [Faroese (Faroe Islands)]
fr_ [French]
fr_BE [French (Belgium)]
fr_BF [French (Burkina Faso)]
fr_BI [French (Burundi)]
fr_BJ [French (Benin)]
fr_BL [French (St. Barthélemy)]
fr_CA [French (Canada)]
fr_CD [French (Congo (DRC))]
fr_CF [French (Central African Republic)]
fr_CG [French (Congo (Republic))]
fr_CH [French (Switzerland)]
fr_CI [French (Côte d’Ivoire)]
fr_CM [French (Cameroon)]
fr_DJ [French (Djibouti)]
fr_DZ [French (Algeria)]
fr_FR [French (France)]
fr_GA [French (Gabon)]
fr_GF [French (French Guiana)]
fr_GN [French (Guinea)]
fr_GP [French (Guadeloupe)]
fr_GQ [French (Equatorial Guinea)]
fr_HT [French (Haiti)]
fr_KM [French (Comoros)]
fr_LU [French (Luxembourg)]
fr_MA [French (Morocco)]
fr_MC [French (Monaco)]
fr_MF [French (St. Martin)]
fr_MG [French (Madagascar)]
fr_ML [French (Mali)]
fr_MQ [French (Martinique)]
fr_MR [French (Mauritania)]
fr_MU [French (Mauritius)]
fr_NC [French (New Caledonia)]
fr_NE [French (Niger)]
fr_PF [French (French Polynesia)]
fr_PM [French (St. Pierre & Miquelon)]
fr_RE [French (Réunion)]
fr_RW [French (Rwanda)]
fr_SC [French (Seychelles)]
fr_SN [French (Senegal)]
fr_SY [French (Syria)]
fr_TD [French (Chad)]
fr_TG [French (Togo)]
fr_TN [French (Tunisia)]
fr_VU [French (Vanuatu)]
fr_WF [French (Wallis & Futuna)]
fr_YT [French (Mayotte)]
fur_ [Friulian]
fur_IT [Friulian (Italy)]
fy_ [Western Frisian]
fy_NL [Western Frisian (Netherlands)]
ga_ [Irish]
ga_IE [Irish (Ireland)]
gd_ [Scottish Gaelic]
gd_GB [Scottish Gaelic (United Kingdom)]
gl_ [Galician]
gl_ES [Galician (Spain)]
gsw_ [Swiss German]
gsw_CH [Swiss German (Switzerland)]
gsw_FR [Swiss German (France)]
gsw_LI [Swiss German (Liechtenstein)]
gu_ [Gujarati]
gu_IN [Gujarati (India)]
guz_ [Gusii]
guz_KE [Gusii (Kenya)]
gv_ [Manx]
gv_IM [Manx (Isle of Man)]
ha_ [Hausa]
ha_GH [Hausa (Ghana)]
ha_NE [Hausa (Niger)]
ha_NG [Hausa (Nigeria)]
haw_ [Hawaiian]
haw_US [Hawaiian (United States)]
hi_ [Hindi]
hi_IN [Hindi (India)]
hr_ [Croatian]
hr_BA [Croatian (Bosnia & Herzegovina)]
hr_HR [Croatian (Croatia)]
hsb_ [Upper Sorbian]
hsb_DE [Upper Sorbian (Germany)]
hu_ [Hungarian]
hu_HU [Hungarian (Hungary)]
hy_ [Armenian]
hy_AM [Armenian (Armenia)]
ig_ [Igbo]
ig_NG [Igbo (Nigeria)]
ii_ [Sichuan Yi]
ii_CN [Sichuan Yi (China)]
in_ [Indonesian]
in_ID [Indonesian (Indonesia)]
is_ [Icelandic]
is_IS [Icelandic (Iceland)]
it_ [Italian]
it_CH [Italian (Switzerland)]
it_IT [Italian (Italy)]
it_SM [Italian (San Marino)]
iw_ [Hebrew]
iw_IL [Hebrew (Israel)]
ja_ [Japanese]
ja_JP [Japanese (Japan)]
jgo_ [Ngomba]
jgo_CM [Ngomba (Cameroon)]
ji_ [Yiddish]
ji_001 [Yiddish (World)]
jmc_ [Machame]
jmc_TZ [Machame (Tanzania)]
ka_ [Georgian]
ka_GE [Georgian (Georgia)]
kab_ [Kabyle]
kab_DZ [Kabyle (Algeria)]
kam_ [Kamba]
kam_KE [Kamba (Kenya)]
kde_ [Makonde]
kde_TZ [Makonde (Tanzania)]
kea_ [Kabuverdianu]
kea_CV [Kabuverdianu (Cape Verde)]
khq_ [Koyra Chiini]
khq_ML [Koyra Chiini (Mali)]
ki_ [Kikuyu]
ki_KE [Kikuyu (Kenya)]
kk_ [Kazakh]
kk_KZ [Kazakh (Kazakhstan)]
kkj_ [Kako]
kkj_CM [Kako (Cameroon)]
kl_ [Kalaallisut]
kl_GL [Kalaallisut (Greenland)]
kln_ [Kalenjin]
kln_KE [Kalenjin (Kenya)]
km_ [Khmer]
km_KH [Khmer (Cambodia)]
kn_ [Kannada]
kn_IN [Kannada (India)]
ko_ [Korean]
ko_KP [Korean (North Korea)]
ko_KR [Korean (South Korea)]
kok_ [Konkani]
kok_IN [Konkani (India)]
ks_ [Kashmiri]
ks_IN [Kashmiri (India)]
ksb_ [Shambala]
ksb_TZ [Shambala (Tanzania)]
ksf_ [Bafia]
ksf_CM [Bafia (Cameroon)]
ksh_ [Colognian]
ksh_DE [Colognian (Germany)]
kw_ [Cornish]
kw_GB [Cornish (United Kingdom)]
ky_ [Kyrgyz]
ky_KG [Kyrgyz (Kyrgyzstan)]
lag_ [Langi]
lag_TZ [Langi (Tanzania)]
lb_ [Luxembourgish]
lb_LU [Luxembourgish (Luxembourg)]
lg_ [Ganda]
lg_UG [Ganda (Uganda)]
lkt_ [Lakota]
lkt_US [Lakota (United States)]
ln_ [Lingala]
ln_AO [Lingala (Angola)]
ln_CD [Lingala (Congo (DRC))]
ln_CF [Lingala (Central African Republic)]
ln_CG [Lingala (Congo (Republic))]
lo_ [Lao]
lo_LA [Lao (Laos)]
lrc_ [Northern Luri]
lrc_IQ [Northern Luri (Iraq)]
lrc_IR [Northern Luri (Iran)]
lt_ [Lithuanian]
lt_LT [Lithuanian (Lithuania)]
lu_ [Luba-Katanga]
lu_CD [Luba-Katanga (Congo (DRC))]
luo_ [Luo]
luo_KE [Luo (Kenya)]
luy_ [Luyia]
luy_KE [Luyia (Kenya)]
lv_ [Latvian]
lv_LV [Latvian (Latvia)]
mas_ [Masai]
mas_KE [Masai (Kenya)]
mas_TZ [Masai (Tanzania)]
mer_ [Meru]
mer_KE [Meru (Kenya)]
mfe_ [Morisyen]
mfe_MU [Morisyen (Mauritius)]
mg_ [Malagasy]
mg_MG [Malagasy (Madagascar)]
mgh_ [Makhuwa-Meetto]
mgh_MZ [Makhuwa-Meetto (Mozambique)]
mgo_ [Meta']
mgo_CM [Meta' (Cameroon)]
mk_ [Macedonian]
mk_MK [Macedonian (Macedonia (FYROM))]
ml_ [Malayalam]
ml_IN [Malayalam (India)]
mn_ [Mongolian]
mn_MN [Mongolian (Mongolia)]
mr_ [Marathi]
mr_IN [Marathi (India)]
ms_ [Malay]
ms_BN [Malay (Brunei)]
ms_MY [Malay (Malaysia)]
ms_SG [Malay (Singapore)]
mt_ [Maltese]
mt_MT [Maltese (Malta)]
mua_ [Mundang]
mua_CM [Mundang (Cameroon)]
my_ [Burmese]
my_MM [Burmese (Myanmar (Burma))]
mzn_ [Mazanderani]
mzn_IR [Mazanderani (Iran)]
naq_ [Nama]
naq_NA [Nama (Namibia)]
nb_ [Norwegian Bokmål]
nb_NO [Norwegian Bokmål (Norway)]
nb_SJ [Norwegian Bokmål (Svalbard & Jan Mayen)]
nd_ [North Ndebele]
nd_ZW [North Ndebele (Zimbabwe)]
ne_ [Nepali]
ne_IN [Nepali (India)]
ne_NP [Nepali (Nepal)]
nl_ [Dutch]
nl_AW [Dutch (Aruba)]
nl_BE [Dutch (Belgium)]
nl_BQ [Dutch (Caribbean Netherlands)]
nl_CW [Dutch (Curaçao)]
nl_NL [Dutch (Netherlands)]
nl_SR [Dutch (Suriname)]
nl_SX [Dutch (Sint Maarten)]
nmg_ [Kwasio]
nmg_CM [Kwasio (Cameroon)]
nn_ [Norwegian Nynorsk]
nn_NO [Norwegian Nynorsk (Norway)]
nnh_ [Ngiemboon]
nnh_CM [Ngiemboon (Cameroon)]
nus_ [Nuer]
nus_SS [Nuer (South Sudan)]
nyn_ [Nyankole]
nyn_UG [Nyankole (Uganda)]
om_ [Oromo]
om_ET [Oromo (Ethiopia)]
om_KE [Oromo (Kenya)]
or_ [Oriya]
or_IN [Oriya (India)]
os_ [Ossetic]
os_GE [Ossetic (Georgia)]
os_RU [Ossetic (Russia)]
pa_ [Punjabi (Arabic)]
pa_ [Punjabi (Gurmukhi)]
pa_ [Punjabi]
pa_IN [Punjabi (Gurmukhi,India)]
pa_PK [Punjabi (Arabic,Pakistan)]
pl_ [Polish]
pl_PL [Polish (Poland)]
ps_ [Pashto]
ps_AF [Pashto (Afghanistan)]
pt_ [Portuguese]
pt_AO [Portuguese (Angola)]
pt_BR [Portuguese (Brazil)]
pt_CV [Portuguese (Cape Verde)]
pt_GW [Portuguese (Guinea-Bissau)]
pt_MO [Portuguese (Macau)]
pt_MZ [Portuguese (Mozambique)]
pt_PT [Portuguese (Portugal)]
pt_ST [Portuguese (São Tomé & Príncipe)]
pt_TL [Portuguese (Timor-Leste)]
qu_ [Quechua]
qu_BO [Quechua (Bolivia)]
qu_EC [Quechua (Ecuador)]
qu_PE [Quechua (Peru)]
rm_ [Romansh]
rm_CH [Romansh (Switzerland)]
rn_ [Rundi]
rn_BI [Rundi (Burundi)]
ro_ [Romanian]
ro_MD [Romanian (Moldova)]
ro_RO [Romanian (Romania)]
rof_ [Rombo]
rof_TZ [Rombo (Tanzania)]
ru_ [Russian]
ru_BY [Russian (Belarus)]
ru_KG [Russian (Kyrgyzstan)]
ru_KZ [Russian (Kazakhstan)]
ru_MD [Russian (Moldova)]
ru_RU [Russian (Russia)]
ru_UA [Russian (Ukraine)]
rw_ [Kinyarwanda]
rw_RW [Kinyarwanda (Rwanda)]
rwk_ [Rwa]
rwk_TZ [Rwa (Tanzania)]
sah_ [Sakha]
sah_RU [Sakha (Russia)]
saq_ [Samburu]
saq_KE [Samburu (Kenya)]
sbp_ [Sangu]
sbp_TZ [Sangu (Tanzania)]
se_ [Northern Sami]
se_FI [Northern Sami (Finland)]
se_NO [Northern Sami (Norway)]
se_SE [Northern Sami (Sweden)]
seh_ [Sena]
seh_MZ [Sena (Mozambique)]
ses_ [Koyraboro Senni]
ses_ML [Koyraboro Senni (Mali)]
sg_ [Sango]
sg_CF [Sango (Central African Republic)]
shi_ [Tachelhit (Latin)]
shi_ [Tachelhit (Tifinagh)]
shi_ [Tachelhit]
shi_MA [Tachelhit (Latin,Morocco)]
shi_MA [Tachelhit (Tifinagh,Morocco)]
si_ [Sinhala]
si_LK [Sinhala (Sri Lanka)]
sk_ [Slovak]
sk_SK [Slovak (Slovakia)]
sl_ [Slovenian]
sl_SI [Slovenian (Slovenia)]
smn_ [Inari Sami]
smn_FI [Inari Sami (Finland)]
sn_ [Shona]
sn_ZW [Shona (Zimbabwe)]
so_ [Somali]
so_DJ [Somali (Djibouti)]
so_ET [Somali (Ethiopia)]
so_KE [Somali (Kenya)]
so_SO [Somali (Somalia)]
sq_ [Albanian]
sq_AL [Albanian (Albania)]
sq_MK [Albanian (Macedonia (FYROM))]
sq_XK [Albanian (Kosovo)]
sr_ [Serbian (Cyrillic)]
sr_ [Serbian (Latin)]
sr_ [Serbian]
sr_BA [Serbian (Cyrillic,Bosnia & Herzegovina)]
sr_BA [Serbian (Latin,Bosnia & Herzegovina)]
sr_ME [Serbian (Cyrillic,Montenegro)]
sr_ME [Serbian (Latin,Montenegro)]
sr_RS [Serbian (Cyrillic,Serbia)]
sr_RS [Serbian (Latin,Serbia)]
sr_XK [Serbian (Cyrillic,Kosovo)]
sr_XK [Serbian (Latin,Kosovo)]
sv_ [Swedish]
sv_AX [Swedish (Åland Islands)]
sv_FI [Swedish (Finland)]
sv_SE [Swedish (Sweden)]
sw_ [Swahili]
sw_CD [Swahili (Congo (DRC))]
sw_KE [Swahili (Kenya)]
sw_TZ [Swahili (Tanzania)]
sw_UG [Swahili (Uganda)]
ta_ [Tamil]
ta_IN [Tamil (India)]
ta_LK [Tamil (Sri Lanka)]
ta_MY [Tamil (Malaysia)]
ta_SG [Tamil (Singapore)]
te_ [Telugu]
te_IN [Telugu (India)]
teo_ [Teso]
teo_KE [Teso (Kenya)]
teo_UG [Teso (Uganda)]
th_ [Thai]
th_TH [Thai (Thailand)]
ti_ [Tigrinya]
ti_ER [Tigrinya (Eritrea)]
ti_ET [Tigrinya (Ethiopia)]
to_ [Tongan]
to_TO [Tongan (Tonga)]
tr_ [Turkish]
tr_CY [Turkish (Cyprus)]
tr_TR [Turkish (Turkey)]
twq_ [Tasawaq]
twq_NE [Tasawaq (Niger)]
tzm_ [Central Atlas Tamazight]
tzm_MA [Central Atlas Tamazight (Morocco)]
ug_ [Uyghur]
ug_CN [Uyghur (China)]
uk_ [Ukrainian]
uk_UA [Ukrainian (Ukraine)]
ur_ [Urdu]
ur_IN [Urdu (India)]
ur_PK [Urdu (Pakistan)]
uz_ [Uzbek (Arabic)]
uz_ [Uzbek (Cyrillic)]
uz_ [Uzbek (Latin)]
uz_ [Uzbek]
uz_AF [Uzbek (Arabic,Afghanistan)]
uz_UZ [Uzbek (Cyrillic,Uzbekistan)]
uz_UZ [Uzbek (Latin,Uzbekistan)]
vai_ [Vai (Latin)]
vai_ [Vai (Vai)]
vai_ [Vai]
vai_LR [Vai (Latin,Liberia)]
vai_LR [Vai (Vai,Liberia)]
vi_ [Vietnamese]
vi_VN [Vietnamese (Vietnam)]
vun_ [Vunjo]
vun_TZ [Vunjo (Tanzania)]
wae_ [Walser]
wae_CH [Walser (Switzerland)]
xog_ [Soga]
xog_UG [Soga (Uganda)]
yav_ [Yangben]
yav_CM [Yangben (Cameroon)]
yo_ [Yoruba]
yo_BJ [Yoruba (Benin)]
yo_NG [Yoruba (Nigeria)]
zgh_ [Standard Moroccan Tamazight]
zgh_MA [Standard Moroccan Tamazight (Morocco)]
zh_ [Chinese (Simplified Han)]
zh_ [Chinese (Traditional Han)]
zh_ [Chinese]
zh_CN [Chinese (Simplified Han,China)]
zh_HK [Chinese (Simplified Han,Hong Kong)]
zh_HK [Chinese (Traditional Han,Hong Kong)]
zh_MO [Chinese (Simplified Han,Macau)]
zh_MO [Chinese (Traditional Han,Macau)]
zh_SG [Chinese (Simplified Han,Singapore)]
zh_TW [Chinese (Traditional Han,Taiwan)]
zu_ [Zulu]
zu_ZA [Zulu (South Africa)]

Dropping a connected user from an Oracle 10g database schema

To find the sessions, as a DBA use

select sid,serial# from v$session where username = '<your_schema>'

If you want to be sure only to get the sessions that use SQL Developer, you can add and program = 'SQL Developer'. If you only want to kill sessions belonging to a specific developer, you can add a restriction on os_user

Then kill them with

alter system kill session '<sid>,<serial#>'

(e.g. alter system kill session '39,1232')

A query that produces ready-built kill-statements could be

select 'alter system kill session ''' || sid || ',' || serial# || ''';' from v$session where username = '<your_schema>'

This will return one kill statement per session for that user - something like:

alter system kill session '375,64855';

alter system kill session '346,53146';

Capture screenshot of active window?

KvanTTT's code worked great. I extended it a bit to allow a little more flexibility on save format, as well as the ability to save by hWnd, .NET Control/Form. You can get a bitmap or save to file, with a few options.

using System;
using System.Drawing;
using System.Drawing.Imaging;
using System.IO;
using System.Runtime.InteropServices;
using System.Windows.Forms;

namespace MosaiqPerformanceMonitor {
     public enum CaptureMode {
          Screen, Window

     public static class ScreenCapturer {
          private static extern IntPtr GetForegroundWindow();

          private static extern IntPtr GetWindowRect(IntPtr hWnd, ref Rect rect);

          private struct Rect {
                public int Left;
                public int Top;
                public int Right;
                public int Bottom;

          [DllImport("user32.dll", CharSet = CharSet.Auto, ExactSpelling = true)]
          public static extern IntPtr GetDesktopWindow();

          /// <summary> Capture Active Window, Desktop, Window or Control by hWnd or .NET Contro/Form and save it to a specified file.  </summary>
          /// <param name="filename">Filename.
          /// <para>* If extension is omitted, it's calculated from the type of file</para>
          /// <para>* If path is omitted, defaults to %TEMP%</para>
          /// <para>* Use %NOW% to put a timestamp in the filename</para></param>
          /// <param name="mode">Optional. The default value is CaptureMode.Window.</param>
          /// <param name="format">Optional file save mode.  Default is PNG</param>
          public static void CaptureAndSave(string filename, CaptureMode mode = CaptureMode.Window, ImageFormat format = null) {
                ImageSave(filename, format, Capture(mode));

          /// <summary> Capture a specific window (or control) and save it to a specified file.  </summary>
          /// <param name="filename">Filename.
          /// <para>* If extension is omitted, it's calculated from the type of file</para>
          /// <para>* If path is omitted, defaults to %TEMP%</para>
          /// <para>* Use %NOW% to put a timestamp in the filename</para></param>
          /// <param name="handle">hWnd (handle) of the window to capture</param>
          /// <param name="format">Optional file save mode.  Default is PNG</param>
          public static void CaptureAndSave(string filename, IntPtr handle, ImageFormat format = null) {
                ImageSave(filename, format, Capture(handle));

          /// <summary> Capture a specific window (or control) and save it to a specified file.  </summary>
          /// <param name="filename">Filename.
          /// <para>* If extension is omitted, it's calculated from the type of file</para>
          /// <para>* If path is omitted, defaults to %TEMP%</para>
          /// <para>* Use %NOW% to put a timestamp in the filename</para></param>
          /// <param name="c">Object to capture</param>
          /// <param name="format">Optional file save mode.  Default is PNG</param>
          public static void CaptureAndSave(string filename, Control c, ImageFormat format = null) {
                ImageSave(filename, format, Capture(c));
          /// <summary> Capture the active window (default) or the desktop and return it as a bitmap </summary>
          /// <param name="mode">Optional. The default value is CaptureMode.Window.</param>
          public static Bitmap Capture(CaptureMode mode = CaptureMode.Window) {
                return Capture(mode == CaptureMode.Screen ? GetDesktopWindow() : GetForegroundWindow());

          /// <summary> Capture a .NET Control, Form, UserControl, etc. </summary>
          /// <param name="c">Object to capture</param>
          /// <returns> Bitmap of control's area </returns>
          public static Bitmap Capture(Control c) {
                return Capture(c.Handle);

          /// <summary> Capture a specific window and return it as a bitmap </summary>
          /// <param name="handle">hWnd (handle) of the window to capture</param>
          public static Bitmap Capture(IntPtr handle) {
                Rectangle bounds;
                var rect = new Rect();
                GetWindowRect(handle, ref rect);
                bounds = new Rectangle(rect.Left, rect.Top, rect.Right - rect.Left, rect.Bottom - rect.Top);
                CursorPosition = new Point(Cursor.Position.X - rect.Left, Cursor.Position.Y - rect.Top);

                var result = new Bitmap(bounds.Width, bounds.Height);
                using (var g = Graphics.FromImage(result))
                     g.CopyFromScreen(new Point(bounds.Left, bounds.Top), Point.Empty, bounds.Size);

                return result;

          /// <summary> Position of the cursor relative to the start of the capture </summary>
          public static Point CursorPosition;

          /// <summary> Save an image to a specific file </summary>
          /// <param name="filename">Filename.
          /// <para>* If extension is omitted, it's calculated from the type of file</para>
          /// <para>* If path is omitted, defaults to %TEMP%</para>
          /// <para>* Use %NOW% to put a timestamp in the filename</para></param>
          /// <param name="format">Optional file save mode.  Default is PNG</param>
          /// <param name="image">Image to save.  Usually a BitMap, but can be any
          /// Image.</param>
          static void ImageSave(string filename, ImageFormat format, Image image) {
                format = format ?? ImageFormat.Png;
                if (!filename.Contains("."))
                     filename = filename.Trim() + "." + format.ToString().ToLower();

                if (!filename.Contains(@"\"))
                     filename = Path.Combine(Environment.GetEnvironmentVariable("TEMP") ?? @"C:\Temp", filename);

                filename = filename.Replace("%NOW%", DateTime.Now.ToString("[email protected]"));
                image.Save(filename, format);

How to find out when a particular table was created in Oracle?


Parse time of format hh:mm:ss

If you want to extract the hours, minutes and seconds, try this:

String inputDate = "12:00:00";
String[] split = inputDate.split(":");
int hours = Integer.valueOf(split[0]);
int minutes = Integer.valueOf(split[1]);
int seconds = Integer.valueOf(split[2]);

How do I put variables inside javascript strings?

I wrote a function which solves the problem precisely.

First argument is the string that wanted to be parameterized. You should put your variables in this string like this format "%s1, %s2, ... %s12".

Other arguments are the parameters respectively for that string.

 * @example parameterizedString("my name is %s1 and surname is %s2", "John", "Doe");
 * @return "my name is John and surname is Doe"
 * @firstArgument {String} like "my name is %s1 and surname is %s2"
 * @otherArguments {String | Number}
 * @returns {String}
const parameterizedString = (...args) => {
  const str = args[0];
  const params = args.filter((arg, index) => index !== 0);
  if (!str) return "";
  return str.replace(/%s[0-9]+/g, matchedStr => {
    const variableIndex = matchedStr.replace("%s", "") - 1;
    return params[variableIndex];


parameterizedString("my name is %s1 and surname is %s2", "John", "Doe");
// returns "my name is John and surname is Doe"

parameterizedString("this%s1 %s2 %s3", " method", "sooo", "goood");
// returns "this method sooo goood"

If variable position changes in that string, this function supports it too without changing the function parameters.

parameterizedString("i have %s2 %s1 and %s4 %s3.", "books", 5, "pencils", "6");
// returns "i have 5 books and 6 pencils."

Length of the String without using length() method

For the semi-best methods have been posted and there's nothing better then String#length...

Redirect System.out to a FileOutputStream, use System.out.print (not println()!) to print the string and get the file size - this is equal to the string length. Don't forget to restore System.out after the measurement.


Https Connection Android

This is a known problem with Android 2.x. I was struggling with this problem for a week until I came across the following question, which not only gives a good background of the problem but also provides a working and effective solution devoid of any security holes.

'No peer certificate' error in Android 2.3 but NOT in 4

Use basic authentication with jQuery and Ajax

How things change in a year. In addition to the header attribute in place of xhr.setRequestHeader, current jQuery (1.7.2+) includes a username and password attribute with the $.ajax call.

  type: "GET",
  url: "index1.php",
  dataType: 'json',
  username: username,
  password: password,
  data: '{ "comment" }',
  success: function (){
    alert('Thanks for your comment!'); 

EDIT from comments and other answers: To be clear - in order to preemptively send authentication without a 401 Unauthorized response, instead of setRequestHeader (pre -1.7) use 'headers':

  type: "GET",
  url: "index1.php",
  dataType: 'json',
  headers: {
    "Authorization": "Basic " + btoa(USERNAME + ":" + PASSWORD)
  data: '{ "comment" }',
  success: function (){
    alert('Thanks for your comment!'); 

How do you check "if not null" with Eloquent?

We can use



Model::whereRaw('sent_at is not null');

Save attachments to a folder and rename them

I actually had solved this not long after posting but failed to post my solution. I honestly don't remember it. But, I had to re-visit the task when I was given a new project that faced the same challenge.

I used the ReceivedTime property of Outlook.MailItem to get the time-stamp, I was able to use this as a unique identifier for each file so they do not override one another.

Public Sub saveAttachtoDisk(itm As Outlook.MailItem)
    Dim objAtt As Outlook.Attachment
    Dim saveFolder As String
        saveFolder = "C:\PathToDirectory\"
    Dim dateFormat As String
        dateFormat = Format(itm.ReceivedTime, "yyyy-mm-dd Hmm ")
    For Each objAtt In itm.Attachments
        objAtt.SaveAsFile saveFolder & "\" & dateFormat & objAtt.DisplayName
End Sub

Thanks a ton for the other solutions, many of them go above an beyond :)

Intellij idea cannot resolve anything in maven

I had the very same problem as author!

To solve my issue I had to add Maven Integration Plugin: File | Settings | Plugins

Like this:

Maven Integration Plugin

After that Intellij downloaded all the dependencies from pom.xml file.

Now if I want to create a project based on maven model, I just choose Open on the first Intellij window and choose the pom.xml file:

enter image description here

LINUX: Link all files from one to another directory

GNU cp has an option to create symlinks instead of copying.

cp -rs /mnt/usr/lib /usr/

Note this is a GNU extension not found in POSIX cp.

Create a tar.xz in one command

Switch -J only works on newer systems. The universal command is:

To make .tar.xz archive

tar cf - directory/ | xz -z - > directory.tar.xz


  1. tar cf - directory reads directory/ and starts putting it to TAR format. The output of this operation is generated on the standard output.

  2. | pipes standard output to the input of another program...

  3. ... which happens to be xz -z -. XZ is configured to compress (-z) the archive from standard input (-).

  4. You redirect the output from xz to the tar.xz file.

How do I match any character across multiple lines in a regular expression?

In java based regular expression you can use [\s\S]

Java: How to set Precision for double value?

To expand on @EJP, the concept of 'precision' when dealing with doubles is extremely fraught. As discussed in you can't even represent 0.1 as a double regardless of the precision, for the same reason you can't represent 1/3 in base 10 with finite precision.

You need to consider the problem you are trying to solve, and consider:

a) Should I be using doubles in the first place; if precision is a relevant concept, then using doubles may well be a mistake.

b) If doubles are appropriate, what do I mean by precision? If you are only talking about display, wrap the logic in a display function and you will only need to deal with it in one place; ie. apply the DRY principle.

Android, ListView IllegalStateException: "The content of the adapter has changed but ListView did not receive a notification"

I had the same issue.

I was adding items to my ArrayList outside the UI thread.

Solution: I have done both, adding the items and called notifyDataSetChanged() in the UI thread.

What is the logic behind the "using" keyword in C++?

In C++11, the using keyword when used for type alias is identical to typedef.

A typedef-name can also be introduced by an alias-declaration. The identifier following the using keyword becomes a typedef-name and the optional attribute-specifier-seq following the identifier appertains to that typedef-name. It has the same semantics as if it were introduced by the typedef specifier. In particular, it does not define a new type and it shall not appear in the type-id.

Bjarne Stroustrup provides a practical example:

typedef void (*PFD)(double);    // C style typedef to make `PFD` a pointer to a function returning void and accepting double
using PF = void (*)(double);    // `using`-based equivalent of the typedef above
using P = [](double)->void; // using plus suffix return type, syntax error
using P = auto(double)->void // Fixed thanks to DyP

Pre-C++11, the using keyword can bring member functions into scope. In C++11, you can now do this for constructors (another Bjarne Stroustrup example):

class Derived : public Base { 
    using Base::f;    // lift Base's f into Derived's scope -- works in C++98
    void f(char);     // provide a new f 
    void f(int);      // prefer this f to Base::f(int) 

    using Base::Base; // lift Base constructors Derived's scope -- C++11 only
    Derived(char);    // provide a new constructor 
    Derived(int);     // prefer this constructor to Base::Base(int) 
    // ...

Ben Voight provides a pretty good reason behind the rationale of not introducing a new keyword or new syntax. The standard wants to avoid breaking old code as much as possible. This is why in proposal documents you will see sections like Impact on the Standard, Design decisions, and how they might affect older code. There are situations when a proposal seems like a really good idea but might not have traction because it would be too difficult to implement, too confusing, or would contradict old code.

Here is an old paper from 2003 n1449. The rationale seems to be related to templates. Warning: there may be typos due to copying over from PDF.

First let’s consider a toy example:

template <typename T>
class MyAlloc {/*...*/};

template <typename T, class A>
class MyVector {/*...*/};

template <typename T>

struct Vec {
typedef MyVector<T, MyAlloc<T> > type;
Vec<int>::type p; // sample usage

The fundamental problem with this idiom, and the main motivating fact for this proposal, is that the idiom causes the template parameters to appear in non-deducible context. That is, it will not be possible to call the function foo below without explicitly specifying template arguments.

template <typename T> void foo (Vec<T>::type&);

So, the syntax is somewhat ugly. We would rather avoid the nested ::type We’d prefer something like the following:

template <typename T>
using Vec = MyVector<T, MyAlloc<T> >; //defined in section 2 below
Vec<int> p; // sample usage

Note that we specifically avoid the term “typedef template” and introduce the new syntax involving the pair “using” and “=” to help avoid confusion: we are not defining any types here, we are introducing a synonym (i.e. alias) for an abstraction of a type-id (i.e. type expression) involving template parameters. If the template parameters are used in deducible contexts in the type expression then whenever the template alias is used to form a template-id, the values of the corresponding template parameters can be deduced – more on this will follow. In any case, it is now possible to write generic functions which operate on Vec<T> in deducible context, and the syntax is improved as well. For example we could rewrite foo as:

template <typename T> void foo (Vec<T>&);

We underscore here that one of the primary reasons for proposing template aliases was so that argument deduction and the call to foo(p) will succeed.

The follow-up paper n1489 explains why using instead of using typedef:

It has been suggested to (re)use the keyword typedef — as done in the paper [4] — to introduce template aliases:

template<class T> 
    typedef std::vector<T, MyAllocator<T> > Vec;

That notation has the advantage of using a keyword already known to introduce a type alias. However, it also displays several disavantages among which the confusion of using a keyword known to introduce an alias for a type-name in a context where the alias does not designate a type, but a template; Vec is not an alias for a type, and should not be taken for a typedef-name. The name Vec is a name for the family std::vector< [bullet] , MyAllocator< [bullet] > > – where the bullet is a placeholder for a type-name. Consequently we do not propose the “typedef” syntax. On the other hand the sentence

template<class T>
    using Vec = std::vector<T, MyAllocator<T> >;

can be read/interpreted as: from now on, I’ll be using Vec<T> as a synonym for std::vector<T, MyAllocator<T> >. With that reading, the new syntax for aliasing seems reasonably logical.

I think the important distinction is made here, aliases instead of types. Another quote from the same document:

An alias-declaration is a declaration, and not a definition. An alias- declaration introduces a name into a declarative region as an alias for the type designated by the right-hand-side of the declaration. The core of this proposal concerns itself with type name aliases, but the notation can obviously be generalized to provide alternate spellings of namespace-aliasing or naming set of overloaded functions (see ? 2.3 for further discussion). [My note: That section discusses what that syntax can look like and reasons why it isn't part of the proposal.] It may be noted that the grammar production alias-declaration is acceptable anywhere a typedef declaration or a namespace-alias-definition is acceptable.

Summary, for the role of using:

  • template aliases (or template typedefs, the former is preferred namewise)
  • namespace aliases (i.e., namespace PO = boost::program_options and using PO = ... equivalent)
  • the document says A typedef declaration can be viewed as a special case of non-template alias-declaration. It's an aesthetic change, and is considered identical in this case.
  • bringing something into scope (for example, namespace std into the global scope), member functions, inheriting constructors

It cannot be used for:

int i;
using r = i; // compile-error

Instead do:

using r = decltype(i);

Naming a set of overloads.

// bring cos into scope
using std::cos;

// invalid syntax
using std::cos(double);

// not allowed, instead use Bjarne Stroustrup function pointer alias example
using test = std::cos(double);

How to inject Javascript in WebBrowser control?

If all you really want is to run javascript, this would be easiest (VB .Net):

MyWebBrowser.Navigate("javascript:function foo(){alert('hello');}foo();")

I guess that this wouldn't "inject" it but it'll run your function, if that's what you're after. (Just in case you've over-complicated the problem.) And if you can figure out how to inject in javascript, put that into the body of the function "foo" and let the javascript do the injection for you.

How can I change image tintColor in iOS and WatchKit

For an iOS app, in Swift 3, 4 or 5:

theImageView.image = theImageView.image?.withRenderingMode(.alwaysTemplate)
theImageView.tintColor =

For Swift 2:

theImageView.image = theImageView.image?.imageWithRenderingMode(UIImageRenderingMode.AlwaysTemplate)
theImageView.tintColor = UIColor.redColor()

Meanwhile, the modern Objective-C solution is:

theImageView.image = [theImageView.image imageWithRenderingMode:UIImageRenderingModeAlwaysTemplate];
[theImageView setTintColor:[UIColor redColor]];

In WatchKit for Apple Watch apps, you can set the tint color for a template image.

  1. You must add your image to an Asset Catalog in your WatchKit App, and set the image set to be rendered as a Template Image in the Attributes Inspector. Unlike for an iPhone app, you cannot set the template rendering in code in the WatchKit Extension at present.
  2. Set that image to be used in your WKInterfaceImage in interface builder for your app
  3. Create an IBOutlet in your WKInterfaceController for the WKInterfaceImage called 'theImage'...

To then set the tint color in Swift 3 or 4:


Swift 2:


To then set the tint color in Objective-C:

[self.theImage setTintColor:[UIColor redColor]];

If you use a template image and do not apply a tint colour, the Global Tint for your WatchKit app will be applied. If you have not set a Global Tint, theImage will be tinted light blue by default when used as a template image.

How to check if two words are anagrams

 * To change this template, choose Tools | Templates
 * and open the template in the editor.

package Algorithms;

import java.util.ArrayList;
import java.util.Arrays;
import java.util.HashMap;
import javax.swing.JOptionPane;

 * @author Mokhtar
public class Anagrams {

    //Write aprogram to check if two words are anagrams
    public static void main(String[] args) {
        Anagrams an=new Anagrams();
        ArrayList<String> l=new ArrayList<String>();
        String result=JOptionPane.showInputDialog("How many words to test anagrams");
        if(Integer.parseInt(result) >1)
            for(int i=0;i<Integer.parseInt(result);i++)

                String word=JOptionPane.showInputDialog("Enter word #"+i);
            JOptionPane.showMessageDialog(null, "Can not be tested, \nYou can test two words or more");


    private static String sortString( String w )
        char[] ch = w.toCharArray();
        return new String(ch);

    public boolean isanagrams(ArrayList<String> l)
        boolean isanagrams=true; 
        ArrayList<String> anagrams = null;
        HashMap<String, ArrayList<String>> map =  new HashMap<String, ArrayList<String>>();
        for(int i=0;i<l.size();i++)
        String word = l.get(i);
        String sortedWord = sortString(word);
            anagrams = map.get( sortedWord );
        if( anagrams == null ) anagrams = new ArrayList<String>();
        map.put(sortedWord, anagrams);

            for(int h=0;h<l.size();h++)

            return isanagrams;


Associating existing Eclipse project with existing SVN repository

Team->Share project is exactly what you need to do. Select SVN from the list, then click "Next". Subclipse will notice the presence of .svn directories that will ask you to confirm that the information is correct, and associate the project with subclipse.

Call static methods from regular ES6 class methods

Both ways are viable, but they do different things when it comes to inheritance with an overridden static method. Choose the one whose behavior you expect:

class Super {
  static whoami() {
    return "Super";
  lognameA() {
  lognameB() {
class Sub extends Super {
  static whoami() {
    return "Sub";
new Sub().lognameA(); // Super
new Sub().lognameB(); // Sub

Referring to the static property via the class will be actually static and constantly give the same value. Using this.constructor instead will use dynamic dispatch and refer to the class of the current instance, where the static property might have the inherited value but could also be overridden.

This matches the behavior of Python, where you can choose to refer to static properties either via the class name or the instance self.

If you expect static properties not to be overridden (and always refer to the one of the current class), like in Java, use the explicit reference.

how to make div click-able?

Give it an ID like "something", then:

var something = document.getElementById('something'); = 'pointer';
something.onclick = function() {
    // do something...

Changing the background color (as per your updated question):

something.onmouseover = function() { = 'red';
something.onmouseout = function() { = '';

What is the difference between Integrated Security = True and Integrated Security = SSPI?

According to Microsoft they are the same thing.

When false, User ID and Password are specified in the connection. When true, the current Windows account credentials are used for authentication.
Recognized values are true, false, yes, no, and sspi (strongly recommended), which is equivalent to true.

Converting Integers to Roman Numerals - Java

Here's the results of MY homework. It doesn't ensure the input is in the right range and I probably should be using StringBuilder (time I looked it up!) and isn't one single method. But if anyone is reading this far I'd appreciate both positive and negative feedback on it!

import java.util.Scanner;
     *Main() allows user input and tests 1-3999
     *toRoman() breaks the number down into digits and passes them to romanLogic()
     *romanLogic() converts each digit into a the numerals that represent it.
    public class RomanNumerals
        public static void main(String args[]){
            Scanner in = new Scanner(;
            System.out.print("give us an integer < 4000: ");        
            System.out.println("the roman numeral version is: " + toRoman(in.nextInt()));
            for (int i = 1; i<=3999; i++){
                System.out.println(i +" === "+ toRoman(i));
        public static String toRoman(int i){
            String output = "";
            int digits = i%10;
            int tens = (i%100)/10;
            int hundreds = (i%1000)/100;
            int thousands = (i%10000)/1000;
            return (romanLogic(thousands, "M","","")+
        public static String romanLogic(int i, String ones, String fives, String tens){
            String result = "";
            if (i == 0){
                return result;
            } else {
                if ((i>=4)&&(i<=8)){                
                    result += fives;
                if (i==9){
                    result += tens;
                if(i%5 < 4){
                    while(i%5 > 0){
                        result += ones;
                if(i%5 == 4){
                    result = ones + result;
            return result;

How can I discover the "path" of an embedded resource?

I'm guessing that your class is in a different namespace. The canonical way to solve this would be to use the resources class and a strongly typed resource:


Use the IDE's resource manager to add resources.

Sum all values in every column of a data.frame in R


Height Weight 
   199    425 

How to detect a loop in a linked list?

An alternative solution to the Turtle and Rabbit, not quite as nice, as I temporarily change the list:

The idea is to walk the list, and reverse it as you go. Then, when you first reach a node that has already been visited, its next pointer will point "backwards", causing the iteration to proceed towards first again, where it terminates.

Node prev = null;
Node cur = first;
while (cur != null) {
    Node next =; = prev;
    prev = cur;
    cur = next;
boolean hasCycle = prev == first && first != null && != null;

// reconstruct the list
cur = prev;
prev = null;
while (cur != null) {
    Node next =; = prev;
    prev = cur;
    cur = next;

return hasCycle;

Test code:

static void assertSameOrder(Node[] nodes) {
    for (int i = 0; i < nodes.length - 1; i++) {
        assert nodes[i].next == nodes[i + 1];

public static void main(String[] args) {
    Node[] nodes = new Node[100];
    for (int i = 0; i < nodes.length; i++) {
        nodes[i] = new Node();
    for (int i = 0; i < nodes.length - 1; i++) {
        nodes[i].next = nodes[i + 1];
    Node first = nodes[0];
    Node max = nodes[nodes.length - 1]; = null;
    assert !hasCycle(first);
    assertSameOrder(nodes); = first;
    assert hasCycle(first);
    assertSameOrder(nodes); = max;
    assert hasCycle(first);
    assertSameOrder(nodes); = nodes[50];
    assert hasCycle(first);

elasticsearch bool query combine must with OR

I recently had to solve this problem too, and after a LOT of trial and error I came up with this (in PHP, but maps directly to the DSL):

'query' => [
    'bool' => [
        'should' => [
            ['prefix' => ['name_first' => $query]],
            ['prefix' => ['name_last' => $query]],
            ['prefix' => ['phone' => $query]],
            ['prefix' => ['email' => $query]],
                'multi_match' => [
                    'query' => $query,
                    'type' => 'cross_fields',
                    'operator' => 'and',
                    'fields' => ['name_first', 'name_last']
        'minimum_should_match' => 1,
        'filter' => [
            ['term' => ['state' => 'active']],
            ['term' => ['company_id' => $companyId]]

Which maps to something like this in SQL:

SELECT * from <index> 
    name_first LIKE '<query>%' OR
    name_last LIKE '<query>%' OR
    phone LIKE  '<query>%' OR
    email LIKE '<query>%'
AND state = 'active'
AND company_id = <query>

The key in all this is the minimum_should_match setting. Without this the filter totally overrides the should.

Hope this helps someone!

Showing Thumbnail for link in WhatsApp || og:image meta-tag doesn't work

If after all these tips, the thumbnail is still not showing, try this:

My problem was that the double quotes from the og attributes were being removed when built for production (npm run build). The Minify module was doing that.

So the solution was to cancel this removal, setting the removeAttributeQuotes attribute to false:

minify: {
    removeAttributeQuotes: false,

In my development environment, I set it on the "" file. Set it at your equivalent file.

Just rebuild and it's now working.

Return current date plus 7 days

$now = date('Y-m-d');
$start_date = strtotime($now);
$end_date = strtotime("+7 day", $start_date);
echo date('Y-m-d', $start_date) . '  + 7 days =  ' . date('Y-m-d', $end_date);

NumPy first and last element from array

Assuming the list has a even number of elements, you could do:

test = [1,23,4,6,7,8]
test_rest = reversed(test[:len(test)/2])

for n in len(test_rest):
    print [test[n], test_test[n]]

Find and replace strings in vim on multiple lines

The :&& command repeats the last substitution with the same flags. You can supply the additional range(s) to it (and concatenate as many as you like):

:6,10s/<search_string>/<replace_string>/g | 14,18&&

If you have many ranges though, I'd rather use a loop:

:for range in split('6,10 14,18')| exe range 's/<search_string>/<replace_string>/g' | endfor

What's the difference between Unicode and UTF-8?

As Rasmus states in his article "The difference between UTF-8 and Unicode?":

If asked the question, "What is the difference between UTF-8 and Unicode?", would you confidently reply with a short and precise answer? In these days of internationalization all developers should be able to do that. I suspect many of us do not understand these concepts as well as we should. If you feel you belong to this group, you should read this ultra short introduction to character sets and encodings.

Actually, comparing UTF-8 and Unicode is like comparing apples and oranges:

UTF-8 is an encoding - Unicode is a character set

A character set is a list of characters with unique numbers (these numbers are sometimes referred to as "code points"). For example, in the Unicode character set, the number for A is 41.

An encoding on the other hand, is an algorithm that translates a list of numbers to binary so it can be stored on disk. For example UTF-8 would translate the number sequence 1, 2, 3, 4 like this:

00000001 00000010 00000011 00000100 

Our data is now translated into binary and can now be saved to disk.

All together now

Say an application reads the following from the disk:

1101000 1100101 1101100 1101100 1101111 

The app knows this data represent a Unicode string encoded with UTF-8 and must show this as text to the user. First step, is to convert the binary data to numbers. The app uses the UTF-8 algorithm to decode the data. In this case, the decoder returns this:

104 101 108 108 111 

Since the app knows this is a Unicode string, it can assume each number represents a character. We use the Unicode character set to translate each number to a corresponding character. The resulting string is "hello".


So when somebody asks you "What is the difference between UTF-8 and Unicode?", you can now confidently answer short and precise:

UTF-8 (Unicode Transformation Format) and Unicode cannot be compared. UTF-8 is an encoding used to translate numbers into binary data. Unicode is a character set used to translate characters into numbers.

AlertDialog styling - how to change style (color) of title, message, etc

It depends how much you want to customize the alert dialog. I have different steps in order to customize the alert dialog. Please visit:

enter image description here enter image description here enter image description here enter image description here

Array length in angularjs returns undefined



Instead of:


And next time "spell-check" your code.

Android: TextView: Remove spacing and padding on top and bottom

Simple method worked:


If it not worked, then try to add this above that code:

// and set padding and margin to 0

If you need multi line, maybe you'll need to calculate exactly the height of padding top and bottom via temp single line TextView (before and after remove padding) , then apply decrease height result with negative padding or some Ghost Layout with translate Y. Lol

Single quotes vs. double quotes in C or C++

In C, single-quotes such as 'a' indicate character constants whereas "a" is an array of characters, always terminated with the \0 character

android asynctask sending callbacks to ui

I felt the below approach is very easy.

I have declared an interface for callback

public interface AsyncResponse {
    void processFinish(Object output);

Then created asynchronous Task for responding all type of parallel requests

 public class MyAsyncTask extends AsyncTask<Object, Object, Object> {

    public AsyncResponse delegate = null;//Call back interface

    public MyAsyncTask(AsyncResponse asyncResponse) {
        delegate = asyncResponse;//Assigning call back interfacethrough constructor

    protected Object doInBackground(Object... params) {

    //My Background tasks are written here

      return {resutl Object}


    protected void onPostExecute(Object result) {


Then Called the asynchronous task when clicking a button in activity Class.

public class MainActivity extends Activity {

    public void onCreate(Bundle savedInstanceState) {

        Button mbtnPress = (Button) findViewById(;

        mbtnPress.setOnClickListener(new View.OnClickListener() {

            public void onClick(View v) {

                MyAsyncTask asyncTask =new MyAsyncTask(new AsyncResponse() {

                    public void processFinish(Object output) {
                        Log.d("Response From Asynchronous task:", (String) output);          
                        mbtnPress.setText((String) output);
                asyncTask.execute(new Object[] { "Youe request to aynchronous task class is giving here.." });



What causes the Broken Pipe Error?

When peer close, you just do not know whether it just stop sending or both sending and receiving.Because TCP allows this, btw, you should know the difference between close and shutdown. If peer both stop sending and receiving, first you send some bytes, it will succeed. But the peer kernel will send you RST. So subsequently you send some bytes, your kernel will send you SIGPIPE signal, if you catch or ignore this signal, when your send returns, you just get Broken pipe error, or if you don't , the default behavior of your program is crashing.

How to find files that match a wildcard string in Java?

You should be able to use the WildcardFileFilter. Just use System.getProperty("user.dir") to get the working directory. Try this:

public static void main(String[] args) {
File[] files = (new File(System.getProperty("user.dir"))).listFiles(new WildcardFileFilter(args));

You should not need to replace * with [.*], assuming wildcard filter uses java.regex.Pattern. I have not tested this, but I do use patterns and file filters constantly.

Python != operation vs "is not"

Consider the following:

class Bad(object):
    def __eq__(self, other):
        return True

c = Bad()
c is None # False, equivalent to id(c) == id(None)
c == None # True, equivalent to c.__eq__(None)

Adding double quote delimiters into csv file

Here's a way to do it without formulas or macros:

  1. Save your CSV as Excel
  2. Select any cells that might have commas
  3. Open to the Format menu and click on Cells
  4. Pick the Custom format
  5. Enter this => \"@\"
  6. Click OK
  7. Save the file as CSV


R Apply() function on specific dataframe columns

As mentioned, you simply want the standard R apply function applied to columns (MARGIN=2):

wifi[,4:9] <- apply(wifi[,4:9], MARGIN=2, FUN=A)

Or, for short:

wifi[,4:9] <- apply(wifi[,4:9], 2, A)

This updates columns 4:9 in-place using the A() function. Now, let's assume that na.rm is an argument to A(), which it probably should be. We can pass na.rm=T to remove NA values from the computation like so:

wifi[,4:9] <- apply(wifi[,4:9], MARGIN=2, FUN=A, na.rm=T)

The same is true for any other arguments you want to pass to your custom function.

Selenium C# WebDriver: Wait until element is present

I see multiple solutions already posted that work great! However, just in case anyone needs something else, I thought I would post two solutions that I personally used in Selenium C# to test if an element is present!

public static class IsPresent
    public static bool isPresent(this IWebDriver driver, By bylocator)

        bool variable = false;
            IWebElement element = driver.FindElement(bylocator);
            variable = element != null;
        catch (NoSuchElementException){

        return variable;

Here is the second:

public static class IsPresent2
    public static bool isPresent2(this IWebDriver driver, By bylocator)
        bool variable = true;
            IWebElement element = driver.FindElement(bylocator);
        catch (NoSuchElementException)
            variable = false;
        return variable;

Create auto-numbering on images/figures in MS Word

I assume you are using the caption feature of Word, that is, captions were not typed in as normal text, but were inserted using Insert > Caption (Word versions before 2007), or References > Insert Caption (in the ribbon of Word 2007 and up). If done correctly, the captions are really 'fields'. You'll know if it is a field if the caption's background turns grey when you put your cursor on them (or is permanently displayed grey).

Captions are fields - Unfortunately fields (like caption fields) are only updated on specific actions, like opening of the document, printing, switching from print view to normal view, etc. The easiest way to force updating of all (caption) fields when you want it is by doing the following:

  1. Select all text in your document (easiest way is to press ctrl-a)
  2. Press F9, this command tells Word to update all fields in the selection.

Captions are normal text - If the caption number is not a field, I am afraid you'll have to edit the text manually.

ReactJS - .JS vs .JSX

There is none when it comes to file extensions. Your bundler/transpiler/whatever takes care of resolving what type of file contents there is.

There are however some other considerations when deciding what to put into a .js or a .jsx file type. Since JSX isn't standard JavaScript one could argue that anything that is not "plain" JavaScript should go into its own extensions ie., .jsx for JSX and .ts for TypeScript for example.

There's a good discussion here available for read

calling a java servlet from javascript

The code here will use AJAX to print text to an HTML5 document dynamically (Ajax code is similar to book Internet & WWW (Deitel)):

Javascript code:

var asyncRequest;    
function start(){
        asyncRequest = new XMLHttpRequest();
        asyncRequest.addEventListener("readystatechange", stateChange, false);'GET', '/Test', true);    //   /Test is url to Servlet!
    alert("Request failed");

function stateChange(){
if(asyncRequest.readyState == 4 && asyncRequest.status == 200)
    var text = document.getElementById("text");         //  text is an id of a 
    text.innerHTML = asyncRequest.responseText;         //  div in HTML document

window.addEventListener("load", start(), false);

Servlet java code:

public class Test extends HttpServlet{
public void doGet(HttpServletRequest req, HttpServletResponse resp)
    throws IOException{
        resp.getWriter().println("Servlet wrote this! (");

HTML document

 <div id = "text"></div>


I wrote answer above when I was new with web programming. I let it stand, but the javascript part should definitely be in jQuery instead, it is 10 times easier than raw javascript.

When is layoutSubviews called?

Building on the previous answer by @BadPirate, I experimented a bit further and came up with some clarifications/corrections. I found that layoutSubviews: will be called on a view if and only if:

  • Its own bounds (not frame) changed.
  • The bounds of one of its direct subviews changed.
  • A subview is added to the view or removed from the view.

Some relevant details:

  • The bounds are considered changed only if the new value is different, including a different origin. Note specifically that is why layoutSubviews: is called whenever a UIScrollView scrolls, as it performs the scrolling by changing its bounds' origin.
  • Changing the frame will only change the bounds if the size has changed, as this is the only thing propagated to the bounds property.
  • A change in bounds of a view that is not yet in a view hierarchy will result in a call to layoutSubviews: when the view is eventually added to a view hierarchy.
  • And just for completeness: these triggers do not directly call layoutSubviews, but rather call setNeedsLayout, which sets/raises a flag. Each iteration of the run loop, for all views in the view hierarchy, this flag is checked. For each view where the flag is found raised, layoutSubviews: is called on it and the flag is reset. Views higher up the hierarchy will be checked/called first.

How to select a directory and store the location using tkinter in Python

This code may be helpful for you.

from tkinter import filedialog
from tkinter import *
root = Tk()
folder_selected = filedialog.askdirectory()

How to import jquery using ES6 syntax?

The accepted answer did not work for me
note : using rollup js dont know if this answer belongs here
npm i --save jquery
in custom.js

import {$, jQuery} from 'jquery';


import {jQuery as $} from 'jquery';

i was getting error : Module ...node_modules/jquery/dist/jquery.js does not export jQuery
Module ...node_modules/jquery/dist/jquery.js does not export $

export default {
    entry: 'source/custom',
    dest: 'dist/custom.min.js',
    plugins: [
            include: '**/*.js',
            exclude: 'node_modules/**',
            jQuery: 'jquery',
            // $: 'jquery'
            jsnext: true,
        // uglify({}, minify),
    external: [],
    format: 'iife', //'cjs'
    moduleName: 'mycustom',

instead of rollup inject, tried

   namedExports: {
     // left-hand side can be an absolute path, a path
     // relative to the current directory, or the name
     // of a module in node_modules
     // 'node_modules/jquery/dist/jquery.js': [ '$' ]
     // 'node_modules/jquery/dist/jquery.js': [ 'jQuery' ]
        'jQuery': [ '$' ]
format: 'cjs' //'iife'


  "devDependencies": {
    "babel-cli": "^6.10.1",
    "babel-core": "^6.10.4",
    "babel-eslint": "6.1.0",
    "babel-loader": "^6.2.4",
    "babel-plugin-external-helpers": "6.18.0",
    "babel-preset-es2015": "^6.9.0",
    "babel-register": "6.9.0",
    "eslint": "2.12.0",
    "eslint-config-airbnb-base": "3.0.1",
    "eslint-plugin-import": "1.8.1",
    "rollup": "0.33.0",
    "rollup-plugin-babel": "2.6.1",
    "rollup-plugin-commonjs": "3.1.0",
    "rollup-plugin-inject": "^2.0.0",
    "rollup-plugin-node-resolve": "2.0.0",
    "rollup-plugin-uglify": "1.0.1",
    "uglify-js": "2.7.0"
  "scripts": {
    "build": "rollup -c",

This worked :
removed the rollup inject and commonjs plugins

import * as jQuery from 'jquery';

then in custom.js

$(function () {
        console.log('Hello jQuery');

Regex Until But Not Including

The explicit way of saying "search until X but not including X" is:


where X can be any regular expression.

In your case, though, this might be overkill - here the easiest way would be


This will match anything except z and therefore stop right before the next z.

So .*?quick[^z]* will match The quick fox jumps over the la.

However, as soon as you have more than one simple letter to look out for, (?:(?!X).)* comes into play, for example

(?:(?!lazy).)* - match anything until the start of the word lazy.

This is using a lookahead assertion, more specifically a negative lookahead.

.*?quick(?:(?!lazy).)* will match The quick fox jumps over the.


(?:        # Match the following but do not capture it:
 (?!lazy)  # (first assert that it's not possible to match "lazy" here
 .         # then match any character
)*         # end of group, zero or more repetitions.

Furthermore, when searching for keywords, you might want to surround them with word boundary anchors: \bfox\b will only match the complete word fox but not the fox in foxy.


If the text to be matched can also include linebreaks, you will need to set the "dot matches all" option of your regex engine. Usually, you can achieve that by prepending (?s) to the regex, but that doesn't work in all regex engines (notably JavaScript).

Alternative solution:

In many cases, you can also use a simpler, more readable solution that uses a lazy quantifier. By adding a ? to the * quantifier, it will try to match as few characters as possible from the current position:


will match any number of characters, stopping right before X (which can be any regex) or the end of the string (if X doesn't match). You may also need to set the "dot matches all" option for this to work. (Note: I added a non-capturing group around X in order to reliably isolate it from the alternation)

What does 'COLLATE SQL_Latin1_General_CP1_CI_AS' do?

The COLLATE keyword specify what kind of character set and rules (order, confrontation rules) you are using for string values.

For example in your case you are using Latin rules with case insensitive (CI) and accent sensitive (AS)

You can refer to this Documentation

Downloading folders from aws s3, cp or sync?

In case you need to use another profile, especially cross account. you need to add the profile in the config file

[profile profileName]
region = us-east-1
role_arn = arn:aws:iam::XXX:role/XXXX
source_profile = default

and then if you are accessing only a single file

aws s3 cp s3://crossAccountBucket/dir localdir --profile profileName

How to perform string interpolation in TypeScript?

In JavaScript you can use template literals:

let value = 100;
console.log(`The size is ${ value }`);

How to get rid of punctuation using NLTK tokenizer?

I think you need some sort of regular expression matching (the following code is in Python 3):

import string
import re
import nltk

s = "I can't do this now, because I'm so tired.  Please give me some time."
l = nltk.word_tokenize(s)
ll = [x for x in l if not re.fullmatch('[' + string.punctuation + ']+', x)]


['I', 'ca', "n't", 'do', 'this', 'now', ',', 'because', 'I', "'m", 'so', 'tired', '.', 'Please', 'give', 'me', 'some', 'time', '.']
['I', 'ca', "n't", 'do', 'this', 'now', 'because', 'I', "'m", 'so', 'tired', 'Please', 'give', 'me', 'some', 'time']

Should work well in most cases since it removes punctuation while preserving tokens like "n't", which can't be obtained from regex tokenizers such as wordpunct_tokenize.

How do you force a CIFS connection to unmount

This works for me (Ubuntu 13.10 Desktop to an Ubuntu 14.04 Server) :-

 sudo umount -f /mnt/my_share

Mounted with

 sudo mount -t cifs -o username=me,password=mine // /mnt/my_share

where serv_share is that set up and pointed to in the smb.conf file.

How to create a new column in a select query

select A, B, 'c' as C
from MyTable

How to create circular ProgressBar in android?

It's easy to create this yourself

In your layout include the following ProgressBar with a specific drawable (note you should get the width from dimensions instead). The max value is important here:

    android:progressDrawable="@drawable/circular" />

Now create the drawable in your resources with the following shape. Play with the radius (you can use innerRadius instead of innerRadiusRatio) and thickness values.

circular (Pre Lollipop OR API Level < 21)

        android:thickness="3.8sp" >
        <solid android:color="@color/yourColor" />

circular ( >= Lollipop OR API Level >= 21)

        android:thickness="3.8sp" >
        <solid android:color="@color/yourColor" />

useLevel is "false" by default in API Level 21 (Lollipop) .

Start Animation

Next in your code use an ObjectAnimator to animate the progress field of the ProgessBar of your layout.

ProgressBar progressBar = (ProgressBar) view.findViewById(;
ObjectAnimator animation = ObjectAnimator.ofInt(progressBar, "progress", 0, 500); // see this max value coming back here, we animate towards that value
animation.setDuration(5000); // in milliseconds
animation.setInterpolator(new DecelerateInterpolator());

Stop Animation


P.S. unlike examples above, it give smooth animation.

Pointers in C: when to use the ampersand and the asterisk?

I was looking through all the wordy explanations so instead turned to a video from University of New South Wales for rescue.Here is the simple explanation: if we have a cell that has address x and value 7, the indirect way to ask for address of value 7 is &7 and the indirect way to ask for value at address x is *x.So (cell: x , value: 7) == (cell: &7 , value: *x) .Another way to look into it: John sits at 7th seat.The *7th seat will point to John and &John will give address/location of the 7th seat. This simple explanation helped me and hope it will help others as well. Here is the link for the excellent video: click here.

Here is another example:

#include <stdio.h>

int main()
    int x;            /* A normal integer*/
    int *p;           /* A pointer to an integer ("*p" is an integer, so p
                       must be a pointer to an integer) */

    p = &x;           /* Read it, "assign the address of x to p" */
    scanf( "%d", &x );          /* Put a value in x, we could also use p here */
    printf( "%d\n", *p ); /* Note the use of the * to get the value */

Add-on: Always initialize pointer before using them.If not, the pointer will point to anything, which might result in crashing the program because the operating system will prevent you from accessing the memory it knows you don't own.But simply putting p = &x;, we are assigning the pointer a specific location.

How to validate phone number using PHP?

I depends heavily on which number formats you aim to support, and how strict you want to enforce number grouping, use of whitespace and other separators etc....

Take a look at this similar question to get some ideas.

Then there is E.164 which is a numbering standard recommendation from ITU-T

How can I know when an EditText loses focus?

Implement onFocusChange of setOnFocusChangeListener and there's a boolean parameter for hasFocus. When this is false, you've lost focus to another control.

 EditText txtEdit = (EditText) findViewById(;

 txtEdit.setOnFocusChangeListener(new OnFocusChangeListener() {          
        public void onFocusChange(View v, boolean hasFocus) {
            if (!hasFocus) {
               // code to execute when EditText loses focus

Where does forever store console.log output?

By default forever places all of the files it needs into /$HOME/.forever. If you would like to change that location just set the FOREVER_ROOT environment variable when you are running forever:

FOREVER_ROOT=/etc/forever forever start index.js

Getting the index of a particular item in array

     int i=  Array.IndexOf(temp1,  temp1.Where(x=>x.Contains("abc")).FirstOrDefault());

Using SQL LIKE and IN together

You'll need to use multiple LIKE terms, joined by OR.

Format a datetime into a string with milliseconds

from datetime import datetime
from time import clock

t = datetime.utcnow()
print 't == %s    %s\n\n' % (t,type(t))

n = 100000

te = clock()
for i in xrange(1):
    t_stripped = t.strftime('%Y%m%d%H%M%S%f')
print clock()-te
print t_stripped," t.strftime('%Y%m%d%H%M%S%f')"


te = clock()
for i in xrange(1):
    t_stripped = str(t).replace('-','').replace(':','').replace('.','').replace(' ','')
print clock()-te
print t_stripped," str(t).replace('-','').replace(':','').replace('.','').replace(' ','')"


te = clock()
for i in xrange(n):
    t_stripped = str(t).translate(None,' -:.')
print clock()-te
print t_stripped," str(t).translate(None,' -:.')"


te = clock()
for i in xrange(n):
    s = str(t)
    t_stripped = s[:4] + s[5:7] + s[8:10] + s[11:13] + s[14:16] + s[17:19] + s[20:] 
print clock()-te
print t_stripped," s[:4] + s[5:7] + s[8:10] + s[11:13] + s[14:16] + s[17:19] + s[20:] "


t == 2011-09-28 21:31:45.562000    <type 'datetime.datetime'>

20110928212155046000  t.strftime('%Y%m%d%H%M%S%f')

20110928212130453000 str(t).replace('-','').replace(':','').replace('.','').replace(' ','')

20110928212130453000 str(t).translate(None,' -:.')

20110928212130453000 s[:4] + s[5:7] + s[8:10] + s[11:13] + s[14:16] + s[17:19] + s[20:]

Use of translate() and slicing method run in same time
translate() presents the advantage to be usable in one line

Comparing the times on the basis of the first one:

1.000 * t.strftime('%Y%m%d%H%M%S%f')

0.351 * str(t).replace('-','').replace(':','').replace('.','').replace(' ','')

0.198 * str(t).translate(None,' -:.')

0.194 * s[:4] + s[5:7] + s[8:10] + s[11:13] + s[14:16] + s[17:19] + s[20:]

grid controls for ASP.NET MVC?

We have just rolled our own due to limited functionality requirements on our grids. We use some JQuery here and there for some niceties like pagination and that is all we really need.

If you need something a little more fully featured you could check out ExtJs grids here.

Also MvcContrib has a grid implementation that you could check out - try here. Or more specifically here.

How to check Network port access and display useful message?

If you're running Windows 8/Windows Server 2012 or newer, you can use the Test-NetConnection command in PowerShell.


Test-NetConnection -Port 53 -ComputerName LON-DC1

How to create JSON Object using String?

In contrast to what the accepted answer proposes, the documentation says that for JSONArray() you must use put(value) no add(value).

(Android API 19-27. Kotlin 1.2.50)

Determine if JavaScript value is an "integer"?

Try this:

if(Math.floor(id) == id && $.isNumeric(id)) 
  alert('yes its an int!');

$.isNumeric(id) checks whether it's numeric or not
Math.floor(id) == id will then determine if it's really in integer value and not a float. If it's a float parsing it to int will give a different result than the original value. If it's int both will be the same.

Send Post Request with params using Retrofit

You should create an interface for that like it is working well

public interface Service {
    Call<Result> addPerson(@Field("BloodGroup") String bloodgroup,
           @Field("Address") String Address,
           @Field("City") String city, @Field("ContactNumber") String  contactnumber, 
           @Field("PatientName") String name, 
           @Field("Time") String Time, @Field("DonatedBy") String donar);

or you can visit to

and youcan vist to

How to get current domain name in ASP.NET

Here is a screenshot of Request.RequestUri and all its properties for everyone's reference.

enter image description here

Guid is all 0's (zeros)?

In the spirit of being complete, the answers that instruct you to use Guid.NewGuid() are correct.

In addressing your subsequent edit, you'll need to post the code for your RequestObject class. I'm suspecting that your guid property is not marked as a DataMember, and thus is not being serialized over the wire. Since default(Guid) is the same as new Guid() (i.e. all 0's), this would explain the behavior you're seeing.

Counting array elements in Python

len is a built-in function that calls the given container object's __len__ member function to get the number of elements in the object.

Functions encased with double underscores are usually "special methods" implementing one of the standard interfaces in Python (container, number, etc). Special methods are used via syntactic sugar (object creation, container indexing and slicing, attribute access, built-in functions, etc.).

Using obj.__len__() wouldn't be the correct way of using the special method, but I don't see why the others were modded down so much.

How to find foreign key dependencies in SQL Server?

This query will return details about foreign keys in a table, it supports multiple column keys.

    SELECT *
    T1.constraint_name ConstraintName,
    T2.COLUMN_NAME ColumnName,
    T3.TABLE_NAME RefTableName, 
    T3.COLUMN_NAME RefColumnName,
    T1.MATCH_OPTION MatchOption, 
    T1.UPDATE_RULE UpdateRule, 
    T1.DELETE_RULE DeleteRule
    WHERE A.ConstraintName = 'table_name'

Download multiple files as a zip-file using php

You are ready to do with php zip lib, and can use zend zip lib too,

// create object
$zip = new ZipArchive();   

// open archive 
if ($zip->open('') !== TRUE) {
    die ("Could not open archive");

// get number of files in archive
$numFiles = $zip->numFiles;

// iterate over file list
// print details of each file
for ($x=0; $x<$numFiles; $x++) {
    $file = $zip->statIndex($x);
    printf("%s (%d bytes)", $file['name'], $file['size']);
    print "

// close archive

and there is also php pear lib for this

error: package does not exist

You shouldn't edit any code manually jetify should do this job for you, if you are running/building from cli using react-native you dont' need to do anything but if you are running/building Andriod studio you need to run jetify as pre-build, here is how can you automate this:

1- From the above menu go to edit configurations:

enter image description here

2- Add the bottom of the screen you will find before launch click on the plus and choose Run External Tool

enter image description here

2- Fill the following information, note that the working directory is your project root directory (not the android directory):

enter image description here

3- Make sure this run before anything else, in the end, your configuration should look something like this: enter image description here

Printing Mongo query output to a file while in the mongo shell

Combining several conditions:

  • write mongo query in JS file and send it from terminal
  • switch/define a database programmatically
  • output all found records
  • cut initial output lines
  • save the output into JSON file


// Switch current database to "mydatabase"
db = db.getSiblingDB('mydatabase');

// The mark for cutting initial output off

// Main output
// "toArray()" method allows to get all records
printjson( db.getCollection('jobs').find().toArray() );

Sending the query from terminal

-z key of sed allows treat output as a single multi-line string

$> mongo localhost --quiet myScriptFile.js | sed -z 's/^.*CUT_TO_HERE\n//' > output.json

Bring element to front using CSS

Note: z-index only works on positioned elements (position:absolute, position:relative, or position:fixed). Use one of those.

How to check if a table exists in a given schema

Perhaps use information_schema:

    SELECT * 
    FROM information_schema.tables 
      table_schema = 'company3' AND 
      table_name = 'tableincompany3schema'

UnicodeEncodeError: 'charmap' codec can't encode - character maps to <undefined>, print function

For debugging purposes, you could use print(repr(data)).

To display text, always print Unicode. Don't hardcode the character encoding of your environment such as Cp850 inside your script. To decode the HTTP response, see A good way to get the charset/encoding of an HTTP response in Python.

To print Unicode to Windows console, you could use win-unicode-console package.

What is the difference between Hibernate and Spring Data JPA

Hibernate is implementation of "JPA" which is a specification for Java objects in Database.

I would recommend to use w.r.t JPA as you can switch between different ORMS.

When you use JDBC then you need to use SQL Queries, so if you are proficient in SQL then go for JDBC.

Ruby replace string with captured regex pattern

def get_code(str)
  str.sub(/^(Z_.*): .*/, '\1')
get_code('Z_foo: bar!') # => "Z_foo"

How to find which views are using a certain table in SQL Server (2008)?


How to use jquery $.post() method to submit form values

Yor $.post has no data. You need to pass the form data. You can use serialize() to post the form data. Try this

    $.post("process.php", $('#reg-form').serialize() ,function(data){

How to print a list with integers without the brackets, commas and no quotes?

Something like this should do it:

for element in list_:

python global name 'self' is not defined

self is the self-reference in a Class. Your code is not in a class, you only have functions defined. You have to wrap your methods in a class, like below. To use the method main(), you first have to instantiate an object of your class and call the function on the object.

Further, your function setavalue should be in __init___, the method called when instantiating an object. The next step you probably should look at is supplying the name as an argument to init, so you can create arbitrarily named objects of the Name class ;)

class Name:
    def __init__(self):
        self.myname = "harry"

    def printaname(self):
        print "Name", self.myname     

    def main(self):

if __name__ == "__main__":
    objName = Name()

Have a look at the Classes chapter of the Python tutorial an at Dive into Python for further references.

J2ME/Android/BlackBerry - driving directions, route between two locations

J2ME Map Route Provider has a navigation service which can provide you route information in KML format.

To get kml file we need to form url with start and destination locations:

public static String getUrl(double fromLat, double fromLon,
                            double toLat, double toLon) {// connect to map web service
    StringBuffer urlString = new StringBuffer();
    urlString.append("&saddr=");// from
    urlString.append("&daddr=");// to
    return urlString.toString();

Next you will need to parse xml (implemented with SAXParser) and fill data structures:

public class Point {
    String mName;
    String mDescription;
    String mIconUrl;
    double mLatitude;
    double mLongitude;

public class Road {
    public String mName;
    public String mDescription;
    public int mColor;
    public int mWidth;
    public double[][] mRoute = new double[][] {};
    public Point[] mPoints = new Point[] {};

Network connection is implemented in different ways on Android and Blackberry, so you will have to first form url:

 public static String getUrl(double fromLat, double fromLon,
     double toLat, double toLon)

then create connection with this url and get InputStream.
Then pass this InputStream and get parsed data structure:

 public static Road getRoute(InputStream is) 

Full source code


class MapPathScreen extends MainScreen {
    MapControl map;
    Road mRoad = new Road();
    public MapPathScreen() {
        double fromLat = 49.85, fromLon = 24.016667;
        double toLat = 50.45, toLon = 30.523333;
        String url = RoadProvider.getUrl(fromLat, fromLon, toLat, toLon);
        InputStream is = getConnection(url);
        mRoad = RoadProvider.getRoute(is);
        map = new MapControl();
        add(new LabelField(mRoad.mName));
        add(new LabelField(mRoad.mDescription));
    protected void onUiEngineAttached(boolean attached) {
        if (attached) {
    private InputStream getConnection(String url) {
        HttpConnection urlConnection = null;
        InputStream is = null;
        try {
            urlConnection = (HttpConnection);
            is = urlConnection.openInputStream();
        } catch (IOException e) {
        return is;

See full code on J2MEMapRouteBlackBerryEx on Google Code


Android G1 screenshot

public class MapRouteActivity extends MapActivity {
    LinearLayout linearLayout;
    MapView mapView;
    private Road mRoad;
    public void onCreate(Bundle savedInstanceState) {
        mapView = (MapView) findViewById(;
        new Thread() {
            public void run() {
                double fromLat = 49.85, fromLon = 24.016667;
                double toLat = 50.45, toLon = 30.523333;
                String url = RoadProvider
                        .getUrl(fromLat, fromLon, toLat, toLon);
                InputStream is = getConnection(url);
                mRoad = RoadProvider.getRoute(is);

    Handler mHandler = new Handler() {
        public void handleMessage(android.os.Message msg) {
            TextView textView = (TextView) findViewById(;
            textView.setText(mRoad.mName + " " + mRoad.mDescription);
            MapOverlay mapOverlay = new MapOverlay(mRoad, mapView);
            List<Overlay> listOfOverlays = mapView.getOverlays();

    private InputStream getConnection(String url) {
        InputStream is = null;
        try {
            URLConnection conn = new URL(url).openConnection();
            is = conn.getInputStream();
        } catch (MalformedURLException e) {
        } catch (IOException e) {
        return is;
    protected boolean isRouteDisplayed() {
        return false;

See full code on J2MEMapRouteAndroidEx on Google Code

Android: remove left margin from actionbar's custom layout


    supportActionBar?.displayOptions = ActionBar.DISPLAY_SHOW_CUSTOM;

    val parent = supportActionBar?.customView?.parent as Toolbar
    parent?.setPadding(0, 0, 0, 0)//for tab otherwise give space in tab
    parent?.setContentInsetsAbsolute(0, 0)

Convert dictionary values into array

There is a ToArray() function on Values:

Foo[] arr = new Foo[dict.Count];    
dict.Values.CopyTo(arr, 0);

But I don't think its efficient (I haven't really tried, but I guess it copies all these values to the array). Do you really need an Array? If not, I would try to pass IEnumerable:

IEnumerable<Foo> foos = dict.Values;

Using JQuery to open a popup window and print

Are you sure you can't alter the HTML in the popup window?

If you can, add a <script> tag at the end of the popup's HTML, and call window.print() inside it. Then it won't be called until the HTML has loaded.

What is the difference between 'my' and 'our' in Perl?

Coping with Scoping is a good overview of Perl scoping rules. It's old enough that our is not discussed in the body of the text. It is addressed in the Notes section at the end.

The article talks about package variables and dynamic scope and how that differs from lexical variables and lexical scope.

Custom events in jQuery?

It is an old post, but I will try to update it with a new information.

To use custom events you need to bind it to some DOM element and to trigger it. So you need to use

.on() method takes an event type and an event handling function as arguments. Optionally, it can also receive event-related data as its second argument, pushing the event handling function to the third argument. Any data that is passed will be available to the event handling function in the data property of the event object. The event handling function always receives the event object as its first argument.


.trigger() method takes an event type as its argument. Optionally, it can also take an array of values. These values will be passed to the event handling function as arguments after the event object.

The code looks like this:

$(document).on("getMsg", {
    msg: "Hello to everyone",
    time: new Date()
}, function(e, param) {
    console.log( );
    console.log( );
    console.log( param );

$( document ).trigger("getMsg", [ "Hello guys"] );

Nice explanation can be found here and here. Why exactly this can be useful? I found how to use it in this excellent explanation from twitter engineer.

P.S. In plain javascript you can do this with new CustomEvent, but beware of IE and Safari problems.

Can't execute jar- file: "no main manifest attribute"

For me this error occurred simply because I forgot tell Eclipse that I wanted a runnable jar file and not a simple library jar file. So when you create the jar file in Eclipse make sure that you click the right radio button

SQL Query - how do filter by null or not null

I think this could work:

select * from tbl where statusid = isnull(@statusid,statusid)

Using HTML5/JavaScript to generate and save a file

Saving large files

Long data URIs can give performance problems in browsers. Another option to save client-side generated files, is to put their contents in a Blob (or File) object and create a download link using URL.createObjectURL(blob). This returns an URL that can be used to retrieve the contents of the blob. The blob is stored inside the browser until either URL.revokeObjectURL() is called on the URL or the document that created it is closed. Most web browsers have support for object URLs, Opera Mini is the only one that does not support them.

Forcing a download

If the data is text or an image, the browser can open the file, instead of saving it to disk. To cause the file to be downloaded upon clicking the link, you can use the the download attribute. However, not all web browsers have support for the download attribute. Another option is to use application/octet-stream as the file's mime-type, but this causes the file to be presented as a binary blob which is especially user-unfriendly if you don't or can't specify a filename. See also 'Force to open "Save As..." popup open at text link click for pdf in HTML'.

Specifying a filename

If the blob is created with the File constructor, you can also set a filename, but only a few web browsers (including Chrome & Firefox) have support for the File constructor. The filename can also be specified as the argument to the download attribute, but this is subject to a ton of security considerations. Internet Explorer 10 and 11 provides its own method, msSaveBlob, to specify a filename.

Example code

var file;_x000D_
var data = [];_x000D_
data.push("This is a test\n");_x000D_
data.push("Of creating a file\n");_x000D_
data.push("In a browser\n");_x000D_
var properties = {type: 'text/plain'}; // Specify the file's mime-type._x000D_
try {_x000D_
  // Specify the filename using the File constructor, but ..._x000D_
  file = new File(data, "file.txt", properties);_x000D_
} catch (e) {_x000D_
  // ... fall back to the Blob constructor if that isn't supported._x000D_
  file = new Blob(data, properties);_x000D_
var url = URL.createObjectURL(file);_x000D_
document.getElementById('link').href = url;
<a id="link" target="_blank" download="file.txt">Download</a>

Hex transparency in colors

Color hexadecimal notation is like following: #AARRGGBB

  • A : alpha
  • R : red
  • G : green
  • B : blue

You should first look at how hexadecimal works. You can write at most FF.

How to find day of week in php in a specific timezone

Another quick way:

echo date("l");

What causes the error "undefined reference to (some function)"?

It's a linker error. ld is the linker, so if you get an error message ending with "ld returned 1 exit status", that tells you that it's a linker error.

The error message tells you that none of the object files you're linking against contains a definition for avergecolumns. The reason for that is that the function you've defined is called averagecolumns (in other words: you misspelled the function name when calling the function (and presumably in the header file as well - otherwise you'd have gotten a different error at compile time)).

Allowing Java to use an untrusted certificate for SSL/HTTPS connection

Following code from here is a useful solution. No keystores etc. Just call method SSLUtilities.trustAllHttpsCertificates() before initializing the service and port (in SOAP).


 * This class provide various static methods that relax X509 certificate and
 * hostname verification while using the SSL over the HTTP protocol.
 * @author
public final class SSLUtilities {

   * Hostname verifier for the Sun's deprecated API.
   * @deprecated see {@link #_hostnameVerifier}.
  private static __hostnameVerifier;
   * Thrust managers for the Sun's deprecated API.
   * @deprecated see {@link #_trustManagers}.
  private static[] __trustManagers;
   * Hostname verifier.
  private static HostnameVerifier _hostnameVerifier;
   * Thrust managers.
  private static TrustManager[] _trustManagers;

   * Set the default Hostname Verifier to an instance of a fake class that
   * trust all hostnames. This method uses the old deprecated API from the
   * com.sun.ssl package.
   * @deprecated see {@link #_trustAllHostnames()}.
  private static void __trustAllHostnames() {
    // Create a trust manager that does not validate certificate chains
    if (__hostnameVerifier == null) {
        __hostnameVerifier = new SSLUtilities._FakeHostnameVerifier();
    } // if
    // Install the all-trusting host name verifier
  } // __trustAllHttpsCertificates

   * Set the default X509 Trust Manager to an instance of a fake class that
   * trust all certificates, even the self-signed ones. This method uses the
   * old deprecated API from the com.sun.ssl package.
   * @deprecated see {@link #_trustAllHttpsCertificates()}.
  private static void __trustAllHttpsCertificates() { context;

    // Create a trust manager that does not validate certificate chains
    if (__trustManagers == null) {
        __trustManagers = new[]{new SSLUtilities._FakeX509TrustManager()};
    } // if
    // Install the all-trusting trust manager
    try {
        context ="SSL");
        context.init(null, __trustManagers, new SecureRandom());
    } catch (GeneralSecurityException gse) {
        throw new IllegalStateException(gse.getMessage());
    } // catch
  } // __trustAllHttpsCertificates

   * Return true if the protocol handler property java. protocol.handler.pkgs
   * is set to the Sun's internal.www.protocol deprecated
   * one, false otherwise.
   * @return true if the protocol handler property is set to the Sun's
   * deprecated one, false otherwise.
  private static boolean isDeprecatedSSLProtocol() {
    return ("".equals(System
  } // isDeprecatedSSLProtocol

   * Set the default Hostname Verifier to an instance of a fake class that
   * trust all hostnames.
  private static void _trustAllHostnames() {
      // Create a trust manager that does not validate certificate chains
      if (_hostnameVerifier == null) {
          _hostnameVerifier = new SSLUtilities.FakeHostnameVerifier();
      } // if
      // Install the all-trusting host name verifier:
  } // _trustAllHttpsCertificates

   * Set the default X509 Trust Manager to an instance of a fake class that
   * trust all certificates, even the self-signed ones.
  private static void _trustAllHttpsCertificates() {
    SSLContext context;

      // Create a trust manager that does not validate certificate chains
      if (_trustManagers == null) {
          _trustManagers = new TrustManager[]{new SSLUtilities.FakeX509TrustManager()};
      } // if
      // Install the all-trusting trust manager:
      try {
          context = SSLContext.getInstance("SSL");
          context.init(null, _trustManagers, new SecureRandom());
      } catch (GeneralSecurityException gse) {
          throw new IllegalStateException(gse.getMessage());
      } // catch
  } // _trustAllHttpsCertificates

   * Set the default Hostname Verifier to an instance of a fake class that
   * trust all hostnames.
  public static void trustAllHostnames() {
      // Is the deprecated protocol setted?
      if (isDeprecatedSSLProtocol()) {
      } else {
      } // else
  } // trustAllHostnames

   * Set the default X509 Trust Manager to an instance of a fake class that
   * trust all certificates, even the self-signed ones.
  public static void trustAllHttpsCertificates() {
    // Is the deprecated protocol setted?
    if (isDeprecatedSSLProtocol()) {
    } else {
    } // else
  } // trustAllHttpsCertificates

   * This class implements a fake hostname verificator, trusting any host
   * name. This class uses the old deprecated API from the com.sun. ssl
   * package.
   * @author
   * @deprecated see {@link SSLUtilities.FakeHostnameVerifier}.
  public static class _FakeHostnameVerifier implements {

     * Always return true, indicating that the host name is an acceptable
     * match with the server's authentication scheme.
     * @param hostname the host name.
     * @param session the SSL session used on the connection to host.
     * @return the true boolean value indicating the host name is trusted.
    public boolean verify(String hostname, String session) {
        return (true);
    } // verify
  } // _FakeHostnameVerifier

   * This class allow any X509 certificates to be used to authenticate the
   * remote side of a secure socket, including self-signed certificates. This
   * class uses the old deprecated API from the com.sun.ssl package.
   * @author
   * @deprecated see {@link SSLUtilities.FakeX509TrustManager}.
  public static class _FakeX509TrustManager implements {

     * Empty array of certificate authority certificates.
    private static final X509Certificate[] _AcceptedIssuers = new X509Certificate[]{};

     * Always return true, trusting for client SSL chain peer certificate
     * chain.
     * @param chain the peer certificate chain.
     * @return the true boolean value indicating the chain is trusted.
    public boolean isClientTrusted(X509Certificate[] chain) {
        return (true);
    } // checkClientTrusted

     * Always return true, trusting for server SSL chain peer certificate
     * chain.
     * @param chain the peer certificate chain.
     * @return the true boolean value indicating the chain is trusted.
    public boolean isServerTrusted(X509Certificate[] chain) {
        return (true);
    } // checkServerTrusted

     * Return an empty array of certificate authority certificates which are
     * trusted for authenticating peers.
     * @return a empty array of issuer certificates.
    public X509Certificate[] getAcceptedIssuers() {
        return (_AcceptedIssuers);
    } // getAcceptedIssuers
  } // _FakeX509TrustManager

   * This class implements a fake hostname verificator, trusting any host
   * name.
   * @author
  public static class FakeHostnameVerifier implements HostnameVerifier {

     * Always return true, indicating that the host name is an acceptable
     * match with the server's authentication scheme.
     * @param hostname the host name.
     * @param session the SSL session used on the connection to host.
     * @return the true boolean value indicating the host name is trusted.
    public boolean verify(String hostname, session) {
        return (true);
    } // verify
  } // FakeHostnameVerifier

   * This class allow any X509 certificates to be used to authenticate the
   * remote side of a secure socket, including self-signed certificates.
   * @author
  public static class FakeX509TrustManager implements X509TrustManager {

     * Empty array of certificate authority certificates.
    private static final X509Certificate[] _AcceptedIssuers = new X509Certificate[]{};

     * Always trust for client SSL chain peer certificate chain with any
     * authType authentication types.
     * @param chain the peer certificate chain.
     * @param authType the authentication type based on the client
     * certificate.
    public void checkClientTrusted(X509Certificate[] chain, String authType) {
    } // checkClientTrusted

     * Always trust for server SSL chain peer certificate chain with any
     * authType exchange algorithm types.
     * @param chain the peer certificate chain.
     * @param authType the key exchange algorithm used.
    public void checkServerTrusted(X509Certificate[] chain, String authType) {
    } // checkServerTrusted

     * Return an empty array of certificate authority certificates which are
     * trusted for authenticating peers.
     * @return a empty array of issuer certificates.
    public X509Certificate[] getAcceptedIssuers() {
        return (_AcceptedIssuers);
    } // getAcceptedIssuers
  } // FakeX509TrustManager
} // SSLUtilities

jQuery scrollTop not working in Chrome but working in Firefox

 $("html, body").animate({ scrollTop: 0 }, "slow");

This CSS conflict with scroll to top so take care of this

 html, body {
         overflow-x: hidden;        

How to add constraints programmatically using Swift

It helps me to learn visually, so this is a supplemental answer.

Boilerplate code

override func viewDidLoad() {

    let myView = UIView()
    myView.backgroundColor =
    myView.translatesAutoresizingMaskIntoConstraints = false

    // Add constraints code here
    // ...

Each of the following examples are independent of the others.

Pin left edge

myView.leading = leadingMargin + 20

enter image description here

Method 1: Anchor Style

let margins = view.layoutMarginsGuide
myView.leadingAnchor.constraint(equalTo: margins.leadingAnchor, constant: 20).isActive = true
  • In addition to leadingAnchor, there is also trailingAnchor, topAnchor, and bottomAnchor.

Method 2: NSLayoutConstraint Style

NSLayoutConstraint(item: myView, attribute: NSLayoutAttribute.leading, relatedBy: NSLayoutRelation.equal, toItem: view, attribute: NSLayoutAttribute.leadingMargin, multiplier: 1.0, constant: 20.0).isActive = true
  • In addition to .leading there is also .trailing, .top, and .bottom.
  • In addition to .leadingMargin there is also .trailingMargin, .topMargin, and .bottomMargin.

Set Width and Height

width = 200
height = 100

enter image description here

Method 1: Anchor Style

myView.widthAnchor.constraint(equalToConstant: 200).isActive = true
myView.heightAnchor.constraint(equalToConstant: 100).isActive = true

Method 2: NSLayoutConstraint Style

NSLayoutConstraint(item: myView, attribute: NSLayoutAttribute.width, relatedBy: NSLayoutRelation.equal, toItem: nil, attribute: NSLayoutAttribute.notAnAttribute, multiplier: 1, constant: 200).isActive = true
NSLayoutConstraint(item: myView, attribute: NSLayoutAttribute.height, relatedBy: NSLayoutRelation.equal, toItem: nil, attribute: NSLayoutAttribute.notAnAttribute, multiplier: 1, constant: 100).isActive = true

Center in container

myView.centerX = centerX
myView.centerY = centerY

enter image description here

Method 1: Anchor Style

myView.centerXAnchor.constraint(equalTo: view.centerXAnchor).isActive = true
myView.centerYAnchor.constraint(equalTo: view.centerYAnchor).isActive = true

Method 2: NSLayoutConstraint Style

NSLayoutConstraint(item: myView, attribute: NSLayoutAttribute.centerX, relatedBy: NSLayoutRelation.equal, toItem: view, attribute: NSLayoutAttribute.centerX, multiplier: 1, constant: 0).isActive = true
NSLayoutConstraint(item: myView, attribute: NSLayoutAttribute.centerY, relatedBy: NSLayoutRelation.equal, toItem: view, attribute: NSLayoutAttribute.centerY, multiplier: 1, constant: 0).isActive = true


  • Anchor style is the preferred method over NSLayoutConstraint Style, however it is only available from iOS 9, so if you are supporting iOS 8 then you should still use NSLayoutConstraint Style.
  • The examples above showed just the one or two constraints that were being focused on. However, in order to properly place myView in my test project I needed to have four constraints.

Further Reading

How to use split?

Documentation can be found e.g. at MDN. Note that .split() is not a jQuery method, but a native string method.

If you use .split() on a string, then you get an array back with the substrings:

var str = 'something -- something_else';
var substr = str.split(' -- ');
// substr[0] contains "something"
// substr[1] contains "something_else"

If this value is in some field you could also do:

tRow.append($('<td>').text($('[id$=txtEntry2]').val().split(' -- ')[0])));

ASP.NET MVC - Set custom IIdentity or IPrincipal

I can't speak directly for ASP.NET MVC, but for ASP.NET Web Forms, the trick is to create a FormsAuthenticationTicket and encrypt it into a cookie once the user has been authenticated. This way, you only have to call the database once (or AD or whatever you are using to perform your authentication), and each subsequent request will authenticate based on the ticket stored in the cookie.

A good article on this: (broken link)


Since the link above is broken, I would recommend LukeP's solution in his answer above: - I would also suggest that the accepted answer be changed to that one.

Edit 2: An alternative for the broken link:

How do you see the entire command history in interactive Python?

Code for printing the entire history:

Python 3

One-liner (quick copy and paste):

import readline; print('\n'.join([str(readline.get_history_item(i + 1)) for i in range(readline.get_current_history_length())]))

(Or longer version...)

import readline
for i in range(readline.get_current_history_length()):
    print (readline.get_history_item(i + 1))

Python 2

One-liner (quick copy and paste):

import readline; print '\n'.join([str(readline.get_history_item(i + 1)) for i in range(readline.get_current_history_length())])

(Or longer version...)

import readline
for i in range(readline.get_current_history_length()):
    print readline.get_history_item(i + 1)

Note: get_history_item() is indexed from 1 to n.

Using Javascript's atob to decode base64 doesn't properly decode utf-8 strings

I would assume that one might want a solution that produces a widely useable base64 URI. Please visit data:text/plain;charset=utf-8;base64,4pi44pi54pi64pi74pi84pi+4pi/ to see a demonstration (copy the data uri, open a new tab, paste the data URI into the address bar, then press enter to go to the page). Despite the fact that this URI is base64-encoded, the browser is still able to recognize the high code points and decode them properly. The minified encoder+decoder is 1058 bytes (+Gzip?589 bytes)

!function(e){"use strict";function h(b){var a=b.charCodeAt(0);if(55296<=a&&56319>=a)if(b=b.charCodeAt(1),b===b&&56320<=b&&57343>=b){if(a=1024*(a-55296)+b-56320+65536,65535<a)return d(240|a>>>18,128|a>>>12&63,128|a>>>6&63,128|a&63)}else return d(239,191,189);return 127>=a?inputString:2047>=a?d(192|a>>>6,128|a&63):d(224|a>>>12,128|a>>>6&63,128|a&63)}function k(b){var a=b.charCodeAt(0)<<24,f=l(~a),c=0,e=b.length,g="";if(5>f&&e>=f){a=a<<f>>>24+f;for(c=1;c<f;++c)a=a<<6|b.charCodeAt(c)&63;65535>=a?g+=d(a):1114111>=a?(a-=65536,g+=d((a>>10)+55296,(a&1023)+56320)):c=0}for(;c<e;++c)g+="\ufffd";return g}var m=Math.log,n=Math.LN2,l=Math.clz32||function(b){return 31-m(b>>>0)/n|0},d=String.fromCharCode,p=atob,q=btoa;e.btoaUTF8=function(b,a){return q((a?"\u00ef\u00bb\u00bf":"")+b.replace(/[\x80-\uD7ff\uDC00-\uFFFF]|[\uD800-\uDBFF][\uDC00-\uDFFF]?/g,h))};e.atobUTF8=function(b,a){a||"\u00ef\u00bb\u00bf"!==b.substring(0,3)||(b=b.substring(3));return p(b).replace(/[\xc0-\xff][\x80-\xbf]*/g,k)}}(""+void 0==typeof global?""+void 0==typeof self?this:self:global)

Below is the source code used to generate it.

var fromCharCode = String.fromCharCode;
var btoaUTF8 = (function(btoa, replacer){"use strict";
    return function(inputString, BOMit){
        return btoa((BOMit ? "\xEF\xBB\xBF" : "") + inputString.replace(
            /[\x80-\uD7ff\uDC00-\uFFFF]|[\uD800-\uDBFF][\uDC00-\uDFFF]?/g, replacer
})(btoa, function(nonAsciiChars){"use strict";
    // make the UTF string into a binary UTF-8 encoded string
    var point = nonAsciiChars.charCodeAt(0);
    if (point >= 0xD800 && point <= 0xDBFF) {
        var nextcode = nonAsciiChars.charCodeAt(1);
        if (nextcode !== nextcode) // NaN because string is 1 code point long
            return fromCharCode(0xef/*11101111*/, 0xbf/*10111111*/, 0xbd/*10111101*/);
        if (nextcode >= 0xDC00 && nextcode <= 0xDFFF) {
            point = (point - 0xD800) * 0x400 + nextcode - 0xDC00 + 0x10000;
            if (point > 0xffff)
                return fromCharCode(
                    (0x1e/*0b11110*/<<3) | (point>>>18),
                    (0x2/*0b10*/<<6) | ((point>>>12)&0x3f/*0b00111111*/),
                    (0x2/*0b10*/<<6) | ((point>>>6)&0x3f/*0b00111111*/),
                    (0x2/*0b10*/<<6) | (point&0x3f/*0b00111111*/)
        } else return fromCharCode(0xef, 0xbf, 0xbd);
    if (point <= 0x007f) return nonAsciiChars;
    else if (point <= 0x07ff) {
        return fromCharCode((0x6<<5)|(point>>>6), (0x2<<6)|(point&0x3f));
    } else return fromCharCode(
        (0xe/*0b1110*/<<4) | (point>>>12),
        (0x2/*0b10*/<<6) | ((point>>>6)&0x3f/*0b00111111*/),
        (0x2/*0b10*/<<6) | (point&0x3f/*0b00111111*/)

Then, to decode the base64 data, either HTTP get the data as a data URI or use the function below.

var clz32 = Math.clz32 || (function(log, LN2){"use strict";
    return function(x) {return 31 - log(x >>> 0) / LN2 | 0};
})(Math.log, Math.LN2);
var fromCharCode = String.fromCharCode;
var atobUTF8 = (function(atob, replacer){"use strict";
    return function(inputString, keepBOM){
        inputString = atob(inputString);
        if (!keepBOM && inputString.substring(0,3) === "\xEF\xBB\xBF")
            inputString = inputString.substring(3); // eradicate UTF-8 BOM
        // 0xc0 => 0b11000000; 0xff => 0b11111111; 0xc0-0xff => 0b11xxxxxx
        // 0x80 => 0b10000000; 0xbf => 0b10111111; 0x80-0xbf => 0b10xxxxxx
        return inputString.replace(/[\xc0-\xff][\x80-\xbf]*/g, replacer);
})(atob, function(encoded){"use strict";
    var codePoint = encoded.charCodeAt(0) << 24;
    var leadingOnes = clz32(~codePoint);
    var endPos = 0, stringLen = encoded.length;
    var result = "";
    if (leadingOnes < 5 && stringLen >= leadingOnes) {
        codePoint = (codePoint<<leadingOnes)>>>(24+leadingOnes);
        for (endPos = 1; endPos < leadingOnes; ++endPos)
            codePoint = (codePoint<<6) | (encoded.charCodeAt(endPos)&0x3f/*0b00111111*/);
        if (codePoint <= 0xFFFF) { // BMP code point
          result += fromCharCode(codePoint);
        } else if (codePoint <= 0x10FFFF) {
          codePoint -= 0x10000;
          result += fromCharCode(
            (codePoint >> 10) + 0xD800,  // highSurrogate
            (codePoint & 0x3ff) + 0xDC00 // lowSurrogate
        } else endPos = 0; // to fill it in with INVALIDs
    for (; endPos < stringLen; ++endPos) result += "\ufffd"; // replacement character
    return result;

The advantage of being more standard is that this encoder and this decoder are more widely applicable because they can be used as a valid URL that displays correctly. Observe.

    "use strict";_x000D_
    var sourceEle = document.getElementById("source");_x000D_
    var urlBarEle = document.getElementById("urlBar");_x000D_
    var mainFrameEle = document.getElementById("mainframe");_x000D_
    var gotoButton = document.getElementById("gotoButton");_x000D_
    var parseInt = window.parseInt;_x000D_
    var fromCodePoint = String.fromCodePoint;_x000D_
    var parse = JSON.parse;_x000D_
    function unescape(str){_x000D_
        return str.replace(/\\u[\da-f]{0,4}|\\x[\da-f]{0,2}|\\u{[^}]*}|\\[bfnrtv"'\\]|\\0[0-7]{1,3}|\\\d{1,3}/g, function(match){_x000D_
            if (match.startsWith("\\u{"))_x000D_
              return fromCodePoint(parseInt(match.slice(2,-1),16));_x000D_
            if (match.startsWith("\\u") || match.startsWith("\\x"))_x000D_
              return fromCodePoint(parseInt(match.substring(2),16));_x000D_
            if (match.startsWith("\\0") && match.length > 2)_x000D_
              return fromCodePoint(parseInt(match.substring(2),8));_x000D_
            if (/^\\\d/.test(match)) return fromCodePoint(+match.slice(1));_x000D_
          }catch(e){return "\ufffd".repeat(match.length)}_x000D_
          return parse('"' + match + '"');_x000D_
    function whenChange(){_x000D_
      try{ urlBarEle.value = "data:text/plain;charset=UTF-8;base64," + btoaUTF8(unescape(sourceEle.value), true);_x000D_
      } finally{ gotoURL(); }_x000D_
    // IFrame Setup:_x000D_
    function gotoURL(){mainFrameEle.src = urlBarEle.value}_x000D_
    gotoButton.addEventListener("click", gotoURL, {passive: 1});_x000D_
    function urlChanged(){urlBarEle.value = mainFrameEle.src}_x000D_
    mainFrameEle.addEventListener("load", urlChanged, {passive: 1});_x000D_
    urlBarEle.addEventListener("keypress", function(evt){_x000D_
      if (evt.key === "enter") evt.preventDefault(), urlChanged();_x000D_
    }, {passive: 1});_x000D_
    var fromCharCode = String.fromCharCode;_x000D_
    var btoaUTF8 = (function(btoa, replacer){_x000D_
      "use strict";_x000D_
        return function(inputString, BOMit){_x000D_
         return btoa((BOMit?"\xEF\xBB\xBF":"") + inputString.replace(_x000D_
          /[\x80-\uD7ff\uDC00-\uFFFF]|[\uD800-\uDBFF][\uDC00-\uDFFF]?/g, replacer_x000D_
    })(btoa, function(nonAsciiChars){_x000D_
  "use strict";_x000D_
     // make the UTF string into a binary UTF-8 encoded string_x000D_
     var point = nonAsciiChars.charCodeAt(0);_x000D_
     if (point >= 0xD800 && point <= 0xDBFF) {_x000D_
      var nextcode = nonAsciiChars.charCodeAt(1);_x000D_
      if (nextcode !== nextcode) { // NaN because string is 1code point long_x000D_
       return fromCharCode(0xef/*11101111*/, 0xbf/*10111111*/, 0xbd/*10111101*/);_x000D_
      if (nextcode >= 0xDC00 && nextcode <= 0xDFFF) {_x000D_
       point = (point - 0xD800) * 0x400 + nextcode - 0xDC00 + 0x10000;_x000D_
       if (point > 0xffff) {_x000D_
        return fromCharCode(_x000D_
         (0x1e/*0b11110*/<<3) | (point>>>18),_x000D_
         (0x2/*0b10*/<<6) | ((point>>>12)&0x3f/*0b00111111*/),_x000D_
         (0x2/*0b10*/<<6) | ((point>>>6)&0x3f/*0b00111111*/),_x000D_
         (0x2/*0b10*/<<6) | (point&0x3f/*0b00111111*/)_x000D_
      } else {_x000D_
       return fromCharCode(0xef, 0xbf, 0xbd);_x000D_
     if (point <= 0x007f) { return inputString; }_x000D_
     else if (point <= 0x07ff) {_x000D_
      return fromCharCode((0x6<<5)|(point>>>6), (0x2<<6)|(point&0x3f/*00111111*/));_x000D_
     } else {_x000D_
      return fromCharCode(_x000D_
       (0xe/*0b1110*/<<4) | (point>>>12),_x000D_
       (0x2/*0b10*/<<6) | ((point>>>6)&0x3f/*0b00111111*/),_x000D_
       (0x2/*0b10*/<<6) | (point&0x3f/*0b00111111*/)_x000D_
    setTimeout(whenChange, 0);_x000D_
<textarea id="source" style="width:66.7vw">Hello \u1234 W\186\0256ld!_x000D_
Enter text into the top box. Then the URL will update automatically._x000D_
</textarea><br />_x000D_
<div style="width:66.7vw;display:inline-block;height:calc(25vw + 1em + 6px);border:2px solid;text-align:left;line-height:1em">_x000D_
<input id="urlBar" style="width:calc(100% - 1em - 13px)" /><img id="gotoButton" src="data:image/png;base64,iVBORw0KGgoAAAANSUhEUgAAABsAAAAeCAMAAADqx5XUAAAAclBMVEX///9NczZ8e32ko6fDxsU/fBoSQgdFtwA5pAHVxt+7vLzq5ex23y4SXABLiiTm0+/c2N6DhoQ6WSxSyweVlZVvdG/Uz9aF5kYlbwElkwAggACxs7Jl3hX07/cQbQCar5SU9lRntEWGum+C9zIDHwCGnH5IvZAOAAABmUlEQVQoz7WS25acIBBFkRLkIgKKtOCttbv//xdDmTGZzHv2S63ltuBQQP4rdRiRUP8UK4wh6nVddQwj/NtDQTvac8577zTQb72zj65/876qqt7wykU6/1U6vFEgjE1mt/5LRqrpu7oVsn0sjZejMfxR3W/yLikqAFcUx93YxLmZGOtElmEu6Ufd9xV3ZDTGcEvGLbMk0mHHlUSvS5svCwS+hVL8loQQyfpI1Ay8RF/xlNxcsTchGjGDIuBG3Ik7TMyNxn8m0TSnBAK6Z8UZfp3IbAonmJvmsEACum6aNv7B0CnvpezDcNhw9XWsuAr7qnRg6dABmeM4dTgn/DZdXWs3LMspZ1KDMt1kcPJ6S1icWNp2qaEmjq6myx7jbQK3VKItLJaW5FR+cuYlRhYNKzGa9vF4vM5roLW3OSVjkmiGJrPhUq301/16pVKZRGFYWjTP50spTxBN5Z4EKnSonruk+n4tUokv1aJSEl/MLZU90S3L6/U6o0J142iQVp3HcZxKSo8LfkNRCtJaKYFSRX7iaoAAUDty8wvWYR6HJEepdwAAAABJRU5ErkJggg==" style="width:calc(1em + 4px);line-height:1em;vertical-align:-40%;cursor:pointer" />_x000D_
<iframe id="mainframe" style="width:66.7vw;height:25vw" frameBorder="0"></iframe>_x000D_

In addition to being very standardized, the above code snippets are also very fast. Instead of an indirect chain of succession where the data has to be converted several times between various forms (such as in Riccardo Galli's response), the above code snippet is as direct as performantly possible. It uses only one simple fast String.prototype.replace call to process the data when encoding, and only one to decode the data when decoding. Another plus is that (especially for big strings), String.prototype.replace allows the browser to automatically handle the underlying memory management of resizing the string, leading a significant performance boost especially in evergreen browsers like Chrome and Firefox that heavily optimize String.prototype.replace. Finally, the icing on the cake is that for you latin script exclusivo users, strings which don't contain any code points above 0x7f are extra fast to process because the string remains unmodified by the replacement algorithm.

I have created a github repository for this solution at

How do I know which version of Javascript I'm using?

Click on this link to see which version your BROWSER is using:

You should be able filter by using script tags to each JS version.

<script type="text/javascript">
  var jsver = 1.0;
<script language="Javascript1.1">
  jsver = 1.1;
<script language="Javascript1.2">
  jsver = 1.2;
<script language="Javascript1.3">
  jsver = 1.3;
<script language="Javascript1.4">
  jsver = 1.4;
<script language="Javascript1.5">
  jsver = 1.5;
<script language="Javascript1.6">
  jsver = 1.6;
<script language="Javascript1.7">
  jsver = 1.7;
<script language="Javascript1.8">
  jsver = 1.8;
<script language="Javascript1.9">
  jsver = 1.9;

<script type="text/javascript">

My Chrome reports 1.7

Blatantly stolen from:

How to run a specific Android app using Terminal?

I keep this build-and-run script handy, whenever I am working from command line:

#!/usr/bin/env bash

echo "Package: $PACKAGE"

echo "Building the project with tasks: $TASKS"
./gradlew $TASKS

echo "Uninstalling $PACKAGE"
adb uninstall $PACKAGE

echo "Installing $APK_LOCATION"
adb install $APK_LOCATION

echo "Starting $ACTIVITY"
adb shell am start -n $PACKAGE/$ACTIVITY

Switch statement with returns -- code correctness

What do you think? Is it fine to remove them? Or would you keep them for increased "correctness"?

It is fine to remove them. Using return is exactly the scenario where break should not be used.

Delete all rows in a table based on another table

FROM Table1
INNER JOIN Table2 ON Table1.ID = Table2.ID

Passing multiple parameters with $.ajax url

why not just pass an data an object with your key/value pairs then you don't have to worry about encoding

    type: "Post",
    url: "getdata.php",
       timestamp: timestamp,
       uid: id,
       uname: name
    async: true,
    cache: false,
    success: function(data) {


PHP - Indirect modification of overloaded property

All you need to do is add "&" in front of your __get function to pass it as reference:

public function &__get ( $index )

Struggled with this one for a while.

How to send a JSON object using html form data

You can try something like:


    <form id="formElem">
        <input type="text" name="firstname" value="Karam">
        <input type="text" name="lastname" value="Yousef">
        <input type="submit">
    <div id="decoded"></div>
    <button id="encode">Encode</button>
    <div id="encoded"></div>
    encode.onclick = async (e) => {
        let response = await fetch('http://localhost:8482/encode', {
                method: 'GET',
                headers: {
                    'Content-Type': 'application/json',

        let text = await response.text(); // read response body as text
        data = JSON.parse(text);
        document.querySelector("#encoded").innerHTML = text;
      //  document.querySelector("#encoded").innerHTML = `First name = ${data.firstname} <br/> 
      //                                                  Last name = ${data.lastname} <br/>
      //                                                  Age    = ${data.age}`

    formElem.onsubmit = async (e) => {
      var form = document.querySelector("#formElem");
     // var form = document.forms[0];

        data = {
          firstname : form.querySelector('input[name="firstname"]').value,
          lastname : form.querySelector('input[name="lastname"]').value,
          age : 5

        let response = await fetch('http://localhost:8482/decode', {
                method: 'POST', // or 'PUT'
                headers: {
                    'Content-Type': 'application/json',
                body: JSON.stringify(data),

        let text = await response.text(); // read response body as text
        document.querySelector("#decoded").innerHTML = text;

WHERE Clause to find all records in a specific month

As an alternative to the MONTH and YEAR functions, a regular WHERE clause will work too:

select *
from yourtable
where '2009-01-01' <= datecolumn and datecolumn < '2009-02-01'

Pretty-Printing JSON with PHP

Have color full output: Tiny Solution


$s = '{"access": {"token": {"issued_at": "2008-08-16T14:10:31.309353", "expires": "2008-08-17T14:10:31Z", "id": "MIICQgYJKoZIhvcIegeyJpc3N1ZWRfYXQiOiAi"}, "serviceCatalog": [], "user": {"username": "ajay", "roles_links": [], "id": "16452ca89", "roles": [], "name": "ajay"}}}';

$crl = 0;
$ss = false;
echo "<pre>";
for($c=0; $c<strlen($s); $c++)
    if ( $s[$c] == '}' || $s[$c] == ']' )
        echo "\n";
        echo str_repeat(' ', ($crl*2));
    if ( $s[$c] == '"' && ($s[$c-1] == ',' || $s[$c-2] == ',') )
        echo "\n";
        echo str_repeat(' ', ($crl*2));
    if ( $s[$c] == '"' && !$ss )
        if ( $s[$c-1] == ':' || $s[$c-2] == ':' )
            echo '<span style="color:#0000ff;">';
            echo '<span style="color:#ff0000;">';
    echo $s[$c];
    if ( $s[$c] == '"' && $ss )
        echo '</span>';
    if ( $s[$c] == '"' )
          $ss = !$ss;
    if ( $s[$c] == '{' || $s[$c] == '[' )
        echo "\n";
        echo str_repeat(' ', ($crl*2));
echo $s[$c];

How to make Twitter bootstrap modal full screen

The following class will make a full-screen modal in Bootstrap:

.full-screen {
    width: 100%;
    height: 100%;
    margin: 0;
    top: 0;
    left: 0;

I'm not sure how the inner content of your modal is structured, this may have an effect on the overall height depending on the CSS that is associated with it.

Difference between 3NF and BCNF in simple terms (must be able to explain to an 8-year old)

The subtle difference is that 3NF makes a distinction between key and non-key attributes (also called non-prime attributes) whereas BCNF does not.

This is best explained using Zaniolo's definition of 3NF, which is equivalent to Codd's:

A relation, R, is in 3NF iff for every nontrivial FD (X->A) satisfied by R at least ONE of the following conditions is true:

(a) X is a superkey for R, or

(b) A is a key attribute for R

BCNF requires (a) but doesn't treat (b) as a special case of its own. In other words BCNF requires that every nontrivial determinant is a superkey even its dependent attributes happen to be part of a key.

A relation, R, is in BCNF iff for every nontrivial FD (X->A) satisfied by R the following condition is true:

(a) X is a superkey for R

BCNF is therefore more strict.

The difference is so subtle that what many people informally describe as 3NF is actually BCNF. For example, you stated here that 3NF means "data depends on the key[s]... and nothing but the key[s]", but that is really an informal description of BCNF and not 3NF. 3NF could more accurately be described as "non-key data depends on the keys... and nothing but the keys".

You also stated:

the 3NF quote explicitly says "nothing but the key" meaning that all attributes depend solely on the primary key.

That's an oversimplification. 3NF and BCNF and all the Normal Forms are concerned with all candidate keys and/or superkeys, not just one "primary" key.

Why cannot change checkbox color whatever I do?

Agree with iLoveTux , applying too many things (many colors and backgrounds) nothing worked , but here's what started working, Apply these properties to its css:

-webkit-appearance: none;
  -moz-appearance: none;
  -o-appearance: none;

and then css styling started working on checkbox :)

error: member access into incomplete type : forward declaration of

Move doSomething definition outside of its class declaration and after B and also make add accessible to A by public-ing it or friend-ing it.

class B;

class A
    void doSomething(B * b);

class B
    void add() {}

void A::doSomething(B * b)

I need to know how to get my program to output the word i typed in and also the new rearranged word using a 2D array

  1. What exactly doesn't work?
  2. Why are you using a 2d array?
  3. If you must use a 2d array:

    int numOfPairs = 10;  String[][] array = new String[numOfPairs][2]; for(int i = 0; i < array.length; i++){     for(int j = 0; j < array[i].length; j++){         array[i] = new String[2];         array[i][0] = "original word";         array[i][1] = "rearranged word";     }    } 

Does this give you a hint?

How to create hyperlink to call phone number on mobile devices?

I also found this format online, and used it. Seems to work with or without dashes. I have verified it works on my Mac (tries to call the number in FaceTime), and on my iPhone:

<!-- Cross-platform compatible (Android + iPhone) -->
<a href="tel://1-555-555-5555">+1 (555) 555-5555</a>

Dynamically allocating an array of objects

You need an assignment operator so that:

arrayOfAs[i] = A(3);

works as it should.

Compute a confidence interval from sample data

Starting Python 3.8, the standard library provides the NormalDist object as part of the statistics module:

from statistics import NormalDist

def confidence_interval(data, confidence=0.95):
  dist = NormalDist.from_samples(data)
  z = NormalDist().inv_cdf((1 + confidence) / 2.)
  h = dist.stdev * z / ((len(data) - 1) ** .5)
  return dist.mean - h, dist.mean + h


  • Creates a NormalDist object from the data sample (NormalDist.from_samples(data), which gives us access to the sample's mean and standard deviation via NormalDist.mean and NormalDist.stdev.

  • Compute the Z-score based on the standard normal distribution (represented by NormalDist()) for the given confidence using the inverse of the cumulative distribution function (inv_cdf).

  • Produces the confidence interval based on the sample's standard deviation and mean.

This assumes the sample size is big enough (let's say more than ~100 points) in order to use the standard normal distribution rather than the student's t distribution to compute the z value.

Proper use of errors

The convention for out of range in JavaScript is using RangeError. To check the type use if / else + instanceof starting at the most specific to the most generic

try {
    throw new RangeError();
catch (e){
    if (e instanceof RangeError){
        console.log('out of range');
    } else { 

Install sbt on ubuntu

The simplest way of installing SBT on ubuntu is the deb package provided by Typesafe.

Run the following shell commands:

  1. wget
  2. sudo dpkg -i repo-deb-build-0002.deb
  3. sudo apt-get update
  4. sudo apt-get install sbt

And you're done !

Change Title of Javascript Alert

It's not possible, sorry. If really needed, you could use a jQuery plugin to have a custom alert.

Last executed queries for a specific database

This works for me to find queries on any database in the instance. I'm sysadmin on the instance (check your privileges):

SELECT deqs.last_execution_time AS [Time], dest.text AS [Query], dest.*
FROM sys.dm_exec_query_stats AS deqs
CROSS APPLY sys.dm_exec_sql_text(deqs.sql_handle) AS dest
WHERE dest.dbid = DB_ID('msdb')
ORDER BY deqs.last_execution_time DESC

This is the same answer that Aaron Bertrand provided but it wasn't placed in an answer.

How to get absolute path to file in /resources folder of your project

You need to specifie path started from /

URL resource = YourClass.class.getResource("/abc");

Switching to landscape mode in Android Emulator


  • ctrl+fn+F11 on Mac to change the landscape to portrait and vice versa.
  • left-ctrl+F11on Windows 7.
  • ctrl+F11on Linux.

For Mac users, you only need to use the fn key if the setting "Use all F1, F2 etc. keys as function keys" (under System Preferences -> Keyboard) is checked.

  • left-ctrl+F11on Windows 7 It works fine in Windows 7 for android emulator to change the landscape orientation to portrait and vice versa.

Method call if not null in C#

I agree with the answer by Kenny Eliasson. Go with Extension methods. Here is a brief overview of extension methods and your required IfNotNull method.

Extension Methods ( IfNotNull method )

Uncaught SyntaxError: Invalid or unexpected token

The accepted answer work when you have a single line string(the email) but if you have a

multiline string, the error will remain.

Please look into this matter:

<!-- start: definition-->
    dynamic item = new System.Dynamic.ExpandoObject();
    item.MultiLineString = @"a multi-line
    item.SingleLineString = "a single-line string";
<!-- end: definition-->
<a href="#" onclick="Getinfo('@item.MultiLineString')">6/16/2016 2:02:29 AM</a>
    function Getinfo(text) {

Change the single-quote(') to backtick(`) in Getinfo as bellow and error will be fixed:

<a href="#" onclick="Getinfo(`@item.MultiLineString`)">6/16/2016 2:02:29 AM</a>

ssh remote host identification has changed

The sledgehammer is to remove every known host in one fell swoop:

rm ~/.ssh/known_hosts

I come up against this as we use small subnets of short-lived servers from a jump box, and frequently have internal IP address reuse of servers that share the same ssh key.

Changing button color programmatically

Try this code You may want something like this

<button class="normal" id="myButton" 
        value="Hover" onmouseover="mouseOver()" 
        onmouseout="mouseOut()">Some text</button>

Then on your .js file enter this.Make sure your html is connected to your .js

var tag=document.getElementById("myButton");

function mouseOver() {"yellow";
function mouseOut() {"white";

How can jQuery deferred be used?

The best use case I can think of is in caching AJAX responses. Here's a modified example from Rebecca Murphey's intro post on the topic:

var cache = {};

function getData( val ){

    // return either the cached value or jqXHR object wrapped Promise
    return $.when(
        cache[ val ] || 
        $.ajax('/foo/', {
            data: { value: val },
            dataType: 'json',
            success: function( resp ){
                cache[ val ] = resp;

    // do something with the response, which may
    // or may not have been retrieved using an
    // XHR request.

Basically, if the value has already been requested once before it's returned immediately from the cache. Otherwise, an AJAX request fetches the data and adds it to the cache. The $.when/.then doesn't care about any of this; all you need to be concerned about is using the response, which is passed to the .then() handler in both cases. jQuery.when() handles a non-Promise/Deferred as a Completed one, immediately executing any .done() or .then() on the chain.

Deferreds are perfect for when the task may or may not operate asynchronously, and you want to abstract that condition out of the code.

Another real world example using the $.when helper:

$.when($.getJSON('/some/data/'), $.get('template.tpl')).then(function (data, tmpl) {

    $(tmpl) // create a jQuery object out of the template
    .tmpl(data) // compile it
    .appendTo("#target"); // insert it into the DOM


Truncating Text in PHP?

$mystring = "this is the text I would like to truncate";

// Pass your variable to the function
$mystring = truncate($mystring);

// Truncated tring printed out;
echo $mystring;

//truncate text function
public function truncate($text) {

    //specify number fo characters to shorten by
    $chars = 25;

    $text = $text." ";
    $text = substr($text,0,$chars);
    $text = substr($text,0,strrpos($text,' '));
    $text = $text."...";
    return $text;

How to have an auto incrementing version number (Visual Studio)?

You could try using UpdateVersion by Matt Griffith. It's quite old now, but works well. To use it, you simply need to setup a pre-build event which points at your AssemblyInfo.cs file, and the application will update the version numbers accordingly, as per the command line arguments.

As the application is open-source, I've also created a version to increment the version number using the format (Major version).(Minor version).([year][dayofyear]).(increment). I've put the code for my modified version of the UpdateVersion application on GitHub:

Converting DateTime format using razor

The [DisplayFormat] attribute is only used in EditorFor/DisplayFor, and not by the raw HTML APIs like TextBoxFor. I got it working by doing the following,


[Display(Name = "When was that document issued ?")]
[DisplayFormat(ApplyFormatInEditMode = true, DataFormatString = "{0:d}")]
public DateTime? LiquorLicenceDocumentIssueDate { get; set; }


        <div id="IsLiquorLicenceDocumentOnPremisesYes" class="groupLongLabel">
            @Html.LabelFor(m => m.LiquorLicenceDocumentIssueDate)
            <span class="indicator"></span>
            @Html.EditorFor(m => m.LiquorLicenceDocumentIssueDate)
            <span id="validEmail"></span>
            <br />
            @Html.ValidationMessageFor(m => m.LiquorLicenceDocumentIssueDate)

Output: 30/12/2011

Related link:

php: check if an array has duplicates

I'm using this:

    echo("all values are unique");
    echo("there's dupe values");

I don't know if it's the fastest but works pretty good so far

Cast object to interface in TypeScript

There's no casting in javascript, so you cannot throw if "casting fails".
Typescript supports casting but that's only for compilation time, and you can do it like this:

const toDo = <IToDoDto> req.body;
// or
const toDo = req.body as IToDoDto;

You can check at runtime if the value is valid and if not throw an error, i.e.:

function isToDoDto(obj: any): obj is IToDoDto {
    return typeof obj.description === "string" && typeof obj.status === "boolean";

addToDo(@Response() res, @Request() req) {
    if (!isToDoDto(req.body)) {
        throw new Error("invalid request");

    const toDo = req.body as IToDoDto;
    return res.status(HttpStatus.CREATED).end();


As @huyz pointed out, there's no need for the type assertion because isToDoDto is a type guard, so this should be enough:

if (!isToDoDto(req.body)) {
    throw new Error("invalid request");


WordPress path url in js script file


    $wnm_custom = array( 'template_url' => get_bloginfo('template_url') );
    wp_localize_script( 'custom-js', 'wnm_custom', $wnm_custom );

and in custom.js


Using LIMIT within GROUP BY to get N results per group?

Please try below stored procedure. I have already verified. I am getting proper result but without using groupby.

CREATE DEFINER=`ks_root`@`%` PROCEDURE `first_five_record_per_id`()
DECLARE query_string text;
DECLARE datasource1 varchar(24);
DECLARE tenants varchar(50);

    SET @query_string='';

      OPEN cur1;
      read_loop: LOOP

      FETCH cur1 INTO tenants ;

      IF done THEN
        LEAVE read_loop;
      END IF;

      SET @datasource1 = tenants;
      SET @query_string = concat(@query_string,'(select * from demo  where `id` = ''',@datasource1,''' order by rate desc LIMIT 5) UNION ALL ');

       END LOOP; 
      close cur1;

    SET @query_string  = TRIM(TRAILING 'UNION ALL' FROM TRIM(@query_string));  
  select @query_string;
PREPARE stmt FROM @query_string;


Getting Gradle dependencies in IntelliJ IDEA using Gradle build

Andrey's above post is still valid for the latest version of Intellij as of 3rd Quarter of 2017. So use it. 'Cause, build project, and external command line gradle build, does NOT add it to the external dependencies in Intellij...crazy as that sounds it is true. Only difference now is that the UI looks different to the above, but still the same icon for updating is used. I am only putting an answer here, cause I cannot paste a snapshot of the new UI...I dont want any up votes per se. Andrey still gave the correct answer above: enter image description here

new Image(), how to know if image 100% loaded or not?

Using the Promise pattern:

function getImage(url){
        return new Promise(function(resolve, reject){
            var img = new Image()
            img.onload = function(){
            img.onerror = function(){
            img.src = url

And when calling the function we can handle its response or error quite neatly.

    //do stufff
    //do stuff

javascript compare strings without being case sensitive

Try this...

if(string1.toLowerCase() == string2.toLowerCase()){
    return true;

Also, it's not a loop, it's a block of code. Loops are generally repeated (although they can possibly execute only once), whereas a block of code never repeats.

I read your note about not using toLowerCase, but can't see why it would be a problem.

applying css to specific li class

Define them more in your css file. Instead of



#sub-navigation-home li.sub-navigation-home-news 

Check this for more details:

How to hide a View programmatically?

Try this:


How to write into a file in PHP?

In order to write to a file in PHP you need to go through the following steps:

  1. Open the file

  2. Write to the file

  3. Close the file

    $select = "data what we trying to store in a file";
    $file = fopen("/var/www/htdocs/folder/test.txt", "a");
    fwrite($file  , $select->__toString());
         fclose($file );

How to use Javascript to read local text file and read line by line?

Without jQuery:

document.getElementById('file').onchange = function(){

  var file = this.files[0];

  var reader = new FileReader();
  reader.onload = function(progressEvent){
    // Entire file

    // By lines
    var lines = this.result.split('\n');
    for(var line = 0; line < lines.length; line++){


<input type="file" name="file" id="file">

Remember to put your javascript code after the file field is rendered.

Serializing/deserializing with memory stream

BinaryFormatter may produce invalid output in some specific cases. For example it will omit unpaired surrogate characters. It may also have problems with values of interface types. Read this documentation page including community content.

If you find your error to be persistent you may want to consider using XML serializer like DataContractSerializer or XmlSerializer.

Get Android Device Name

Following works for me.

String deviceName = Settings.Global.getString(.getContentResolver(), Settings.Global.DEVICE_NAME);

I don't think so its duplicate answer. The above ppl are talking about Setting Secure, for me setting secure is giving null, if i use setting global it works. Thanks anyways.

Setting POST variable without using form

Yes, simply set it to another value:

$_POST['text'] = 'another value';

This will override the previous value corresponding to text key of the array. The $_POST is superglobal associative array and you can change the values like a normal PHP array.

Caution: This change is only visible within the same PHP execution scope. Once the execution is complete and the page has loaded, the $_POST array is cleared. A new form submission will generate a new $_POST array.

If you want to persist the value across form submissions, you will need to put it in the form as an input tag's value attribute or retrieve it from a data store.

Play infinitely looping video on-load in HTML5

For iPhone it works if you add also playsinline so:

<video width="320" height="240" autoplay loop muted playsinline>
  <source src="movie.mp4" type="video/mp4" />

How to generate components in a specific folder with Angular CLI?

Try to use

ng g component plainsight/some-name.component.ts

Or try it manually, if you feel more comfortable.

Compile c++14-code with g++

For gcc 4.8.4 you need to use -std=c++1y in later versions, looks like starting with 5.2 you can use -std=c++14.

If we look at the gcc online documents we can find the manuals for each version of gcc and we can see by going to Dialect options for 4.9.3 under the GCC 4.9.3 manual it says:


The next revision of the ISO C++ standard, tentatively planned for 2014. Support is highly experimental, and will almost certainly change in incompatible ways in future releases.

So up till 4.9.3 you had to use -std=c++1y while the gcc 5.2 options say:

‘c++14’ ‘c++1y’

The 2014 ISO C++ standard plus amendments. The name ‘c++1y’ is deprecated.

It is not clear to me why this is listed under Options Controlling C Dialect but that is how the documents are currently organized.

Finding Android SDK on Mac and adding to PATH

If Android Studio shows you the path /Users/<name>/Library/Android/sdk but you can not find it in your folder, just right-click and select "Show View Option". There you will be able to select "Show Library Folder"; select it and you can access the SDK.

What does MissingManifestResourceException mean and how to fix it?

Also the same error may occur when you put a new class into the source code of a designer created form's class.

This new class may be removed, and placed in a different cs file.

(At least in my case this was the problem...)