Programs & Examples On #Expression evaluation

Anything related to expression evaluation, i.e. the process of determining the value of an expression in running code.

string.IsNullOrEmpty(string) vs. string.IsNullOrWhiteSpace(string)

It says it all IsNullOrEmpty() does not include white spacing while IsNullOrWhiteSpace() does!

IsNullOrEmpty() If string is:

IsNullOrWhiteSpace() If string is:
-Contains White Spaces Only

Using IF..ELSE in UPDATE (SQL server 2005 and/or ACCESS 2007)

this should work

update table_name
  set column_b = case
                  when column_a = 1 then 'Y'
                  else null
  set column_c = case
                  when column_a = 2 then 'Y'
                  else null
  set column_d = case
                  when column_a = 3 then 'Y'
                  else null

the question is why would you want to do may want to rethink the data model. you can replace null with whatever you want.

Allow anonymous authentication for a single folder in web.config?

The first approach to take is to modify your web.config using the <location> configuration tag, and <allow users="?"/> to allow anonymous or <allow users="*"/> for all:

   <location path="Path/To/Public/Folder">
            <allow users="?"/>

If that approach doesn't work then you can take the following approach which requires making a small modification to the IIS applicationHost.config.

First, change the anonymousAuthentication section's overrideModeDefault from "Deny" to "Allow" in C:\Windows\System32\inetsrv\config\applicationHost.config:

<section name="anonymousAuthentication" overrideModeDefault="Allow" />

overrideMode is a security feature of IIS. If override is disallowed at the system level in applicationHost.config then there is nothing you can do in web.config to enable it. If you don't have this level of access on your target system you have to take up that discussion with your hosting provider or system administrator.

Second, after setting overrideModeDefault="Allow" then you can put the following in your web.config:

<location path="Path/To/Public/Folder">
        <anonymousAuthentication enabled="true" />

How to uninstall mini conda? python

The proper way to fully uninstall conda (Anaconda / Miniconda):

  1. Remove all conda-related files and directories using the Anaconda-Clean package

    conda activate your_conda_env_name
    conda install anaconda-clean
    anaconda-clean # add `--yes` to avoid being prompted to delete each one
  2. Remove your entire conda directory

    rm -rf ~/miniconda3
  3. Remove the line which adds the conda path to the PATH environment variable

    vi ~/.bashrc
    # -> Search for conda and delete the lines containing it
    # -> If you're not sure if the line belongs to conda, comment it instead of deleting it just to be safe
    source ~/.bashrc
  4. Remove the backup folder created by the the Anaconda-Clean package NOTE: Think twice before doing this, because after that you won't be able to restore anything from your old conda installation!

    rm -rf ~/.anaconda_backup

Reference: Official conda documentation

Homebrew refusing to link OpenSSL

By default, homebrew gave me OpenSSL version 1.1 and I was looking for version 1.0 instead. This worked for me.

To install version 1.0:

brew install

Then I tried to symlink my way through it but it gave me the following error:

ln -s /usr/local/Cellar/openssl/1.0.2t/include/openssl /usr/bin/openssl
ln: /usr/bin/openssl: Operation not permitted

Finally linked openssl to point to 1.0 version using brew switch command:

brew switch openssl 1.0.2t
Cleaning /usr/local/Cellar/openssl/1.0.2t
Opt link created for /usr/local/Cellar/openssl/1.0.2t

How to make Python speak

This is what you are looking for. A complete TTS solution for the Mac. You can use this standalone or as a co-location Mac server for web apps:

How do I get some variable from another class in Java?

Do NOT do that! setNum(num);//fix- until someone fixes your setter. Your getter should not call your setter with the uninitialized value ofnum(e.g.0`).

I suggest making a few small changes -

public static class Vars {   private int num = 5; // Default to 5.    public void setNum(int x) {     this.num = x; // actually "set" the value.   }    public int getNum() {     return num;   } } 

How can I check if a file exists in Perl?


if (-f $filePath)
  # code

-e returns true even if the file is a directory. -f will only return true if it's an actual file

What's the use of session.flush() in Hibernate

With this method you evoke the flush process. This process synchronizes the state of your database with state of your session by detecting state changes and executing the respective SQL statements.

Run CRON job everyday at specific time

Cron utility is an effective way to schedule a routine background job at a specific time and/or day on an on-going basis.

Linux Crontab Format


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Example::Scheduling a Job For a Specific Time

The basic usage of cron is to execute a job in a specific time as shown below. This will execute the Full backup shell script (full-backup) on 10th June 08:30 AM.

Please note that the time field uses 24 hours format. So, for 8 AM use 8, and for 8 PM use 20.

30 08 10 06 * /home/yourname/full-backup
  • 30 – 30th Minute
  • 08 – 08 AM
  • 10 – 10th Day
  • 06 – 6th Month (June)
  • *– Every day of the week

In your case, for 2.30PM,

30 14 * * * YOURCMD
  1. 30 – 30th Minute
  2. 14 – 2PM
  3. *– Every day
  4. *– Every month
  5. *– Every day of the week

To know more about cron, visit this website.

Vibrate and Sound defaults on notification

Notification Vibrate

mBuilder.setVibrate(new long[] { 1000, 1000});



for more sound option

How to convert std::string to LPCSTR?

The easiest way to convert a std::string to a LPWSTR is in my opinion:

  1. Convert the std::string to a std::vector<wchar_t>
  2. Take the address of the first wchar_t in the vector.

std::vector<wchar_t> has a templated ctor which will take two iterators, such as the std::string.begin() and .end() iterators. This will convert each char to a wchar_t, though. That's only valid if the std::string contains ASCII or Latin-1, due to the way Unicode values resemble Latin-1 values. If it contains CP1252 or characters from any other encoding, it's more complicated. You'll then need to convert the characters.

Matching an empty input box using CSS

If only the field is required you could go with input:valid

#foo-thing:valid + .msg { visibility: visible!important; }      
 <input type="text" id="foo-thing" required="required">_x000D_
 <span class="msg" style="visibility: hidden;">Yay not empty</span>

See live on jsFiddle

OR negate using #foo-thing:invalid (credit to @SamGoody)

How to send post request with x-www-form-urlencoded body

string urlParameters = "param1=value1&param2=value2";
string _endPointName = "your url post api";

var httpWebRequest = (HttpWebRequest)WebRequest.Create(_endPointName);

httpWebRequest.ContentType = "application/x-www-form-urlencoded";
httpWebRequest.Method = "POST";
httpWebRequest.Headers["ContentType"] = "application/x-www-form-urlencoded";

System.Net.ServicePointManager.ServerCertificateValidationCallback +=
                                                  (se, cert, chain, sslerror) =>
                                                      return true;

using (var streamWriter = new StreamWriter(httpWebRequest.GetRequestStream()))
var httpResponse = (HttpWebResponse)httpWebRequest.GetResponse();

using (var streamReader = new StreamReader(httpResponse.GetResponseStream()))
                    var result = streamReader.ReadToEnd();

Check if a number is odd or even in python

One of the simplest ways is to use de modulus operator %. If n % 2 == 0, then your number is even.

Hope it helps,

Converting java.sql.Date to java.util.Date

Since java.sql.Date extends java.util.Date, you should be able to do

java.util.Date newDate = result.getDate("VALUEDATE");

Trying to SSH into an Amazon Ec2 instance - permission error

Following are the simple steps for Linux user to connect with the server using .pem file:

Step1: To to the location of pem file and copy it to home .ssh location.

cp example.pem ~/.ssh/example.pem

Step2: Change the permission

chmod 400 ~/.ssh/example.pem

Step3: Run the following command

ssh -i ~/.ssh/example.pem [email protected]

As this command is too long so you sould create the alias of this using following commands:

 vim ~/.bashrc

Write the same command in the following manner at the last.

alias sshConnect='ssh -i ~/.ssh/example.pem [email protected]'

Now restart your system and use sshConnect to connect with your server.

load and execute order of scripts

The browser will execute the scripts in the order it finds them. If you call an external script, it will block the page until the script has been loaded and executed.

To test this fact:

// file: test.php

// HTML file:
<script type="text/javascript" src="test.php"></script>

Dynamically added scripts are executed as soon as they are appended to the document.

To test this fact:

    <script type="text/javascript">
        var s = document.createElement('script');
        s.type = "text/javascript";
        s.src = "link.js"; // file contains alert("hello!");
    <script type="text/javascript">

Order of alerts is "appended" -> "hello!" -> "final"

If in a script you attempt to access an element that hasn't been reached yet (example: <script>do something with #blah</script><div id="blah"></div>) then you will get an error.

Overall, yes you can include external scripts and then access their functions and variables, but only if you exit the current <script> tag and start a new one.

Get Current Session Value in JavaScript?

The session is a server side thing, you cannot access it using jQuery. You can write an Http handler (that will share the sessionid if any) and return the value from there using $.ajax.

Xml Parsing in C#

First add an Enrty and Category class:

public class Entry {     public string Id { get; set; }     public string Title { get; set; }     public string Updated { get; set; }     public string Summary { get; set; }     public string GPoint { get; set; }     public string GElev { get; set; }     public List<string> Categories { get; set; } }  public class Category {     public string Label { get; set; }     public string Term { get; set; } } 

Then use LINQ to XML

XDocument xDoc = XDocument.Load("path");          List<Entry> entries = (from x in xDoc.Descendants("entry")             select new Entry()             {                 Id = (string) x.Element("id"),                 Title = (string)x.Element("title"),                 Updated = (string)x.Element("updated"),                 Summary = (string)x.Element("summary"),                 GPoint = (string)x.Element("georss:point"),                 GElev = (string)x.Element("georss:elev"),                 Categories = (from c in x.Elements("category")                                   select new Category                                   {                                       Label = (string)c.Attribute("label"),                                       Term = (string)c.Attribute("term")                                   }).ToList();             }).ToList(); 

Split Java String by New Line

The above code doesnt actually do anything visible - it just calcualtes then dumps the calculation. Is it the code you used, or just an example for this question?

try doing textAreaDoc.insertString(int, String, AttributeSet) at the end?

jQuery: Wait/Delay 1 second without executing code

Javascript is an asynchronous programming language so you can't stop the execution for a of time; the only way you can [pseudo]stop an execution is using setTimeout() that is not a delay but a "delayed function callback".

make: Nothing to be done for `all'

I think you missed a tab in 9th line. The line following all:hello must be a blank tab. Make sure that you have a blank tab in 9th line. It will make the interpreter understand that you want to use default recipe for makefile.

Adding header for HttpURLConnection

Step 1: Get HttpURLConnection object

URL url = new URL(urlToConnect);
HttpURLConnection httpUrlConnection = (HttpURLConnection) url.openConnection();

Step 2: Add headers to the HttpURLConnection using setRequestProperty method.

Map<String, String> headers = new HashMap<>();

headers.put("X-CSRF-Token", "fetch");
headers.put("content-type", "application/json");

for (String headerKey : headers.keySet()) {
    httpUrlConnection.setRequestProperty(headerKey, headers.get(headerKey));

Reference link

How do I install g++ on MacOS X?

Type g++(or make) on terminal.

This will prompt for you to install the developer tools, if they are missing.

Also the size will be very less when compared to xcode

return value after a promise

The best way to do this would be to use the promise returning function as it is, like this

lookupValue(file).then(function(res) {
    // Write the code which depends on the `res.val`, here

The function which invokes an asynchronous function cannot wait till the async function returns a value. Because, it just invokes the async function and executes the rest of the code in it. So, when an async function returns a value, it will not be received by the same function which invoked it.

So, the general idea is to write the code which depends on the return value of an async function, in the async function itself.

What does this mean? "Parse error: syntax error, unexpected T_PAAMAYIM_NEKUDOTAYIM"

For anyone using Laravel. I was having the same error on Laravel 7.0. The error looked like this

syntax error, unexpected '::' (T_PAAMAYIM_NEKUDOTAYIM), expecting ';' or ','

It was in my Routes\web.php file, which looked like this

use Illuminate\Support\Facades\Route;
use Illuminate\Http\Request;
use // this was an extra **use** statement that gave me the error

Route::get('/', function () {
    return view('save-online.index');

How do I create batch file to rename large number of files in a folder?

dir /b *.jpg >file.bat

This will give you lines such as:

Vacation2010 001.jpg
Vacation2010 002.jpg
Vacation2010 003.jpg

Edit file.bat in your favorite Windows text-editor, doing the equivalent of:

s/Vacation2010(.+)/rename "&" "December \1"/

That's a regex; many editors support them, but none that come default with Windows (as far as I know). You can also get a command line tool such as sed or perl which can take the exact syntax I have above, after escaping for the command line.

The resulting lines will look like:

rename "Vacation2010 001.jpg" "December 001.jpg"
rename "Vacation2010 002.jpg" "December 002.jpg"
rename "Vacation2010 003.jpg" "December 003.jpg"

You may recognize these lines as rename commands, one per file from the original listing. ;) Run that batch file in cmd.exe.

Difference between jar and war in Java

War -

distribute Java-based web applications. A WAR has the same file structure as a JAR file, which is a single compressed file that contains multiple files bundled inside it.

Jar -

The .jar files contain libraries, resources and accessories files like property files.

WAR files are used to combine JSPs, servlets, Java class files, XML files, javascript libraries, JAR libraries, static web pages, and any other resources needed to run the application.

replace NULL with Blank value or Zero in sql server

Different ways to replace NULL in sql server

Replacing NULL value using:

1. ISNULL() function

2. COALESCE() function

3. CASE Statement

SELECT Name as EmployeeName, ISNULL(Bonus,0) as EmployeeBonus from tblEmployee

SELECT Name as EmployeeName, COALESCE(Bonus, 0) as EmployeeBonus 
FROM tblEmployee

SELECT Name as EmployeeName, CASE WHEN Bonus IS NULL THEN 0 
ELSE Bonus  END as EmployeeBonus 
FROM  tblEmployee

How to get the python.exe location programmatically?

sys.executable is not reliable if working in an embedded python environment. My suggestions is to deduce it from

import os

Powershell import-module doesn't find modules

I had this problem, but only in Visual Studio Code, not in ISE. Turns out I was using an x86 session in VSCode. I displayed the PowerShell Session Menu and switched to the x64 session, and all the modules began working without full paths. I am using Version 1.17.2, architecture x64 of VSCode. My modules were stored in the C:\Windows\System32\WindowsPowerShell\v1.0\Modules directory.

Compare one String with multiple values in one expression

Here a performance test with multiples alternatives (some are case sensitive and others case insensitive):

public static void main(String[] args) {
    // Why 4 * 4:
    // The test contains 3 values (val1, val2 and val3). Checking 4 combinations will check the match on all values, and the non match;
    // Try 4 times: lowercase, UPPERCASE, prefix + lowercase, prefix + UPPERCASE;
    final int NUMBER_OF_TESTS = 4 * 4;
    final int EXCUTIONS_BY_TEST = 1_000_000;
    int numberOfMatches;
    int numberOfExpectedCaseSensitiveMatches;
    int numberOfExpectedCaseInsensitiveMatches;
    // Start at -1, because the first execution is always slower, and should be ignored!
    for (int i = -1; i < NUMBER_OF_TESTS; i++) {
        int iInsensitive = i % 4;
        List<String> testType = new ArrayList<>();
        List<Long> timeSteps = new ArrayList<>();
        String name = (i / 4 > 1 ? "dummyPrefix" : "") + ((i / 4) % 2 == 0 ? "val" : "VAL" )+iInsensitive ;
        numberOfExpectedCaseSensitiveMatches = 1 <= i && i <= 3 ? EXCUTIONS_BY_TEST : 0;
        numberOfExpectedCaseInsensitiveMatches = 1 <= iInsensitive && iInsensitive <= 3 && i / 4 <= 1 ? EXCUTIONS_BY_TEST : 0;
        numberOfMatches = 0;
        testType.add("List (Case sensitive)");
        for (int j = 0; j < EXCUTIONS_BY_TEST; j++) {
            if (Arrays.asList("val1", "val2", "val3").contains(name)) {
        if (numberOfMatches != numberOfExpectedCaseSensitiveMatches) {
            throw new RuntimeException();

        numberOfMatches = 0;
        testType.add("Set (Case sensitive)");
        for (int j = 0; j < EXCUTIONS_BY_TEST; j++) {
            if (new HashSet<>(Arrays.asList(new String[] {"val1", "val2", "val3"})).contains(name)) {
        if (numberOfMatches != numberOfExpectedCaseSensitiveMatches) {
            throw new RuntimeException();

        numberOfMatches = 0;
        testType.add("OR (Case sensitive)");
        for (int j = 0; j < EXCUTIONS_BY_TEST; j++) {
            if ("val1".equals(name) || "val2".equals(name) || "val3".equals(name)) {
        if (numberOfMatches != numberOfExpectedCaseSensitiveMatches) {
            throw new RuntimeException();

        numberOfMatches = 0;
        testType.add("OR (Case insensitive)");
        for (int j = 0; j < EXCUTIONS_BY_TEST; j++) {
            if ("val1".equalsIgnoreCase(name) || "val2".equalsIgnoreCase(name) || "val3".equalsIgnoreCase(name)) {
        if (numberOfMatches != numberOfExpectedCaseInsensitiveMatches) {
            throw new RuntimeException();

        numberOfMatches = 0;
        testType.add("ArraysBinarySearch(Case sensitive)");
        for (int j = 0; j < EXCUTIONS_BY_TEST; j++) {
            if (Arrays.binarySearch(new String[]{"val1", "val2", "val3"}, name) >= 0) {
        if (numberOfMatches != numberOfExpectedCaseSensitiveMatches) {
            throw new RuntimeException();

        numberOfMatches = 0;
        testType.add("Java8 Stream (Case sensitive)");
        for (int j = 0; j < EXCUTIONS_BY_TEST; j++) {
            if (Stream.of("val1", "val2", "val3").anyMatch(name::equals)) {
        if (numberOfMatches != numberOfExpectedCaseSensitiveMatches) {
            throw new RuntimeException();

        numberOfMatches = 0;
        testType.add("Java8 Stream (Case insensitive)");
        for (int j = 0; j < EXCUTIONS_BY_TEST; j++) {
            if (Stream.of("val1", "val2", "val3").anyMatch(name::equalsIgnoreCase)) {
        if (numberOfMatches != numberOfExpectedCaseInsensitiveMatches) {
            throw new RuntimeException();

        numberOfMatches = 0;
        testType.add("RegEx (Case sensitive)");
        // WARNING: if values contains special characters, that should be escaped by Pattern.quote(String)
        for (int j = 0; j < EXCUTIONS_BY_TEST; j++) {
            if (name.matches("val1|val2|val3")) {
        if (numberOfMatches != numberOfExpectedCaseSensitiveMatches) {
            throw new RuntimeException();

        numberOfMatches = 0;
        testType.add("RegEx (Case insensitive)");
        // WARNING: if values contains special characters, that should be escaped by Pattern.quote(String)
        for (int j = 0; j < EXCUTIONS_BY_TEST; j++) {
            if (name.matches("(?i)val1|val2|val3")) {
        if (numberOfMatches != numberOfExpectedCaseInsensitiveMatches) {
            throw new RuntimeException();

        numberOfMatches = 0;
        testType.add("StringIndexOf (Case sensitive)");
        // WARNING: the string to be matched should not contains the SEPARATOR!
        final String SEPARATOR = ",";
        for (int j = 0; j < EXCUTIONS_BY_TEST; j++) {
            // Don't forget the SEPARATOR at the begin and at the end!
            if ((SEPARATOR+"val1"+SEPARATOR+"val2"+SEPARATOR+"val3"+SEPARATOR).indexOf(SEPARATOR + name + SEPARATOR)>=0) {
        if (numberOfMatches != numberOfExpectedCaseSensitiveMatches) {
            throw new RuntimeException();

        StringBuffer sb = new StringBuffer("Test ").append(i)
                .append("{ name : ").append(name)
                .append(", numberOfExpectedCaseSensitiveMatches : ").append(numberOfExpectedCaseSensitiveMatches)
                .append(", numberOfExpectedCaseInsensitiveMatches : ").append(numberOfExpectedCaseInsensitiveMatches)
                .append(" }:\n");
        for (int j = 0; j < testType.size(); j++) {
            sb.append(String.format("    %4d ms with %s\n", timeSteps.get(j + 1)-timeSteps.get(j), testType.get(j)));

Output (only the worse case, that is when have to check all elements without match none):

Test 4{ name : VAL0, numberOfExpectedCaseSensitiveMatches : 0, numberOfExpectedCaseInsensitiveMatches : 0 }:
  43 ms with List (Case sensitive)
 378 ms with Set (Case sensitive)
  22 ms with OR (Case sensitive)
 254 ms with OR (Case insensitive)
  35 ms with ArraysBinarySearch(Case sensitive)
 266 ms with Java8 Stream (Case sensitive)
 531 ms with Java8 Stream (Case insensitive)
1009 ms with RegEx (Case sensitive)
1201 ms with RegEx (Case insensitive)
 107 ms with StringIndexOf (Case sensitive)

Ruby on Rails. How do I use the Active Record .build method in a :belongs to relationship?

@article = => "MainTitle")

Psexec "run as (remote) admin"

Simply add a -h after adding your credentials using a -u -p, and it will run with elevated privileges.

Displaying tooltip on mouse hover of a text

If you are using RichTextBox control. You can simply define the ToolTip object and show the tool-tip as the text is selected by moving the mouse inside the RichTextBox control.

    ToolTip m_ttInput = new ToolTip(); // define as member variable

    private void rtbInput_SelectionChanged(object sender, EventArgs e)
        if (rtbInput.SelectedText.Length > 0) 
            m_ttInput.Show(rtbInput.SelectedText.Length.ToString(), rtbInput, 1000);

Is it possible to set the equivalent of a src attribute of an img tag in CSS?

I know this is a really old question however no answers provide the proper reasoning for why this can never be done. While you can "do" what you are looking for you cannot do it in a valid way. In order to have a valid img tag it must have the src and alt attributes.

So any of the answers giving a way to do this with an img tag that does not use the src attribute are promoting use of invalid code.

In short: what you are looking for cannot be done legally within the structure of the syntax.

Source: W3 Validator

How to compare two tags with git?

For a side-by-side visual representation, I use git difftool with openDiff set to the default viewer.

Example usage:

git difftool tags/<FIRST TAG> tags/<SECOND TAG>

If you are only interested in a specific file, you can use:

git difftool tags/<FIRST TAG>:<FILE PATH> tags/<SECOND TAG>:<FILE PATH>

As a side-note, the tags/<TAG>s can be replaced with <BRANCH>es if you are interested in diffing branches.

Is there an easy way to check the .NET Framework version?

public class DA
    public static class VersionNetFramework
        public static string GetVersion()
            return Environment.Version.ToString();
        public static string GetVersionDicription()
            int Major = Environment.Version.Major;
            int Minor = Environment.Version.Minor;
            int Build = Environment.Version.Build;
            int Revision = Environment.Version.Revision;


            //4.0.30319.42000 = .NET 4.6 on Windows 8.1 64 - bit
            if ((Major >=4) && (Minor >=0) && (Build >= 30319) && (Revision >= 42000))
                return @".NET 4.6 on Windows 8.1 64 - bit or later";
            //4.0.30319.34209 = .NET 4.5.2 on Windows 8.1 64 - bit
            if ((Major >= 4) && (Minor >= 0) && (Build >= 30319) && (Revision >= 34209))
                return @".NET 4.5.2 on Windows 8.1 64 - bit or later";
            //4.0.30319.34209 = .NET 4.5.2 on Windows 7 SP1 64 - bit
            if ((Major >= 4) && (Minor >= 0) && (Build >= 30319) && (Revision >= 34209))
                return @".NET 4.5.2 on Windows 7 SP1 64 - bit or later";
            //4.0.30319.34014 = .NET 4.5.1 on Windows 8.1 64 - bit
            if ((Major >= 4) && (Minor >= 0) && (Build >= 30319) && (Revision >= 34014))
                return @".NET 4.5.1 on Windows 8.1 64 - bit or later";
            //4.0.30319.18444 = .NET 4.5.1 on Windows 7 SP1 64 - bit(with MS14 - 009 security update)
            if ((Major >= 4) && (Minor >= 0) && (Build >= 30319) && (Revision >= 18444))
                return @".NET 4.5.1 on Windows 7 SP1 64 - bit(with MS14 - 009 security update) or later";
            //4.0.30319.18408 = .NET 4.5.1 on Windows 7 SP1 64 - bit
            if ((Major >= 4) && (Minor >= 0) && (Build >= 30319) && (Revision >= 18408))
                return @".NET 4.5.1 on Windows 7 SP1 64 - bit or later";
            //4.0.30319.18063 = .NET 4.5 on Windows 7 SP1 64 - bit(with MS14 - 009 security update)
            if ((Major >= 4) && (Minor >= 0) && (Build >= 30319) && (Revision >= 18063))
                return @".NET 4.5 on Windows 7 SP1 64 - bit(with MS14 - 009 security update) or later";
            //4.0.30319.18052 = .NET 4.5 on Windows 7 SP1 64 - bit
            if ((Major >= 4) && (Minor >= 0) && (Build >= 30319) && (Revision >= 18052))
                return @".NET 4.5 on Windows 7 SP1 64 - bit or later";
            //4.0.30319.18010 = .NET 4.5 on Windows 8
            if ((Major >= 4) && (Minor >= 0) && (Build >= 30319) && (Revision >= 18010))
                return @".NET 4.5 on Windows 8 or later";
            //4.0.30319.17929 = .NET 4.5 RTM
            if ((Major >= 4) && (Minor >= 0) && (Build >= 30319) && (Revision >= 17929))
                return @".NET 4.5 RTM or later";
            //4.0.30319.17626 = .NET 4.5 RC
            if ((Major >= 4) && (Minor >= 0) && (Build >= 30319) && (Revision >= 17626))
                return @".NET 4.5 RC or later";
            //4.0.30319.17020.NET 4.5 Preview, September 2011
            if ((Major >= 4) && (Minor >= 0) && (Build >= 30319) && (Revision >= 17020))
                return @".NET 4.5 Preview, September 2011 or later";
            //4.0.30319.2034 = .NET 4.0 on Windows XP SP3, 7, 7 SP1(with MS14 - 009 LDR security update)
            if ((Major >= 4) && (Minor >= 0) && (Build >= 30319) && (Revision >= 2034))
                return @".NET 4.0 on Windows XP SP3, 7, 7 SP1(with MS14 - 009 LDR security update) or later";
            //4.0.30319.1026 = .NET 4.0 on Windows XP SP3, 7, 7 SP1(with MS14 - 057 GDR security update)
            if ((Major >= 4) && (Minor >= 0) && (Build >= 30319) && (Revision >= 1026))
                return @".NET 4.0 on Windows XP SP3, 7, 7 SP1(with MS14 - 057 GDR security update) or later";
            //4.0.30319.1022 = .NET 4.0 on Windows XP SP3, 7, 7 SP1(with MS14 - 009 GDR security update)
            if ((Major >= 4) && (Minor >= 0) && (Build >= 30319) && (Revision >= 1022))
                return @".NET 4.0 on Windows XP SP3, 7, 7 SP1(with MS14 - 009 GDR security update) or later";
            //4.0.30319.1008 = .NET 4.0 on Windows XP SP3, 7, 7 SP1(with MS13 - 052 GDR security update)
            if ((Major >= 4) && (Minor >= 0) && (Build >= 30319) && (Revision >= 1008))
                return @".NET 4.0 on Windows XP SP3, 7, 7 SP1(with MS13 - 052 GDR security update) or later";
            //4.0.30319.544 = .NET 4.0 on Windows XP SP3, 7, 7 SP1(with MS12 - 035 LDR security update)
            if ((Major >= 4) && (Minor >= 0) && (Build >= 30319) && (Revision >= 544))
                return @".NET 4.0 on Windows XP SP3, 7, 7 SP1(with MS12 - 035 LDR security update) or later";
            //4.0.30319.447   yes built by: RTMLDR, .NET 4.0 Platform Update 1, April 2011
            if ((Major >= 4) && (Minor >= 0) && (Build >= 30319) && (Revision >= 447))
                return @"built by: RTMLDR, .NET 4.0 Platform Update 1, April 2011 or later";
            //4.0.30319.431   yes built by: RTMLDR, .NET 4.0 GDR Update, March 2011 / with VS 2010 SP1 / or.NET 4.0 Update
            if ((Major >= 4) && (Minor >= 0) && (Build >= 30319) && (Revision >= 431))
                return @"built by: RTMLDR, .NET 4.0 GDR Update, March 2011 / with VS 2010 SP1 / or.NET 4.0 Update or later";
            //4.0.30319.296 = .NET 4.0 on Windows XP SP3, 7(with MS12 - 074 GDR security update)
            if ((Major >= 4) && (Minor >= 0) && (Build >= 30319) && (Revision >= 296))
                return @".NET 4.0 on Windows XP SP3, 7(with MS12 - 074 GDR security update) or later";
            //4.0.30319.276 = .NET 4.0 on Windows XP SP3 (4.0.3 Runtime update)
            if ((Major >= 4) && (Minor >= 0) && (Build >= 30319) && (Revision >= 276))
                return @".NET 4.0 on Windows XP SP3 (4.0.3 Runtime update) or later";
            //4.0.30319.269 = .NET 4.0 on Windows XP SP3, 7, 7 SP1(with MS12 - 035 GDR security update)
            if ((Major >= 4) && (Minor >= 0) && (Build >= 30319) && (Revision >= 269))
                return @".NET 4.0 on Windows XP SP3, 7, 7 SP1(with MS12 - 035 GDR security update) or later";
            //4.0.30319.1 yes built by: RTMRel, .NET 4.0 RTM Release, April 2010
            if ((Major >= 4) && (Minor >= 0) && (Build >= 30319) && (Revision >= 1))
                return @"built by: RTMRel, .NET 4.0 RTM Release, April 2010 or later";

            //4.0.30128.1     built by: RC1Rel, .NET 4.0 Release Candidate, Feb 2010
            if ((Major >=4) && (Minor >=0) && (Build >= 30128) && (Revision >= 1))
                return @"built by: RC1Rel, .NET 4.0 Release Candidate, Feb 2010 or later";
            //4.0.21006.1     built by: B2Rel, .NET 4.0 Beta2, Oct 2009
            if ((Major >=4) && (Minor >=0) && (Build >= 21006) && (Revision >=1))
                return @"built by: B2Rel, .NET 4.0 Beta2, Oct 2009 or later";
            //4.0.20506.1     built by: Beta1, .NET 4.0 Beta1, May 2009
            if ((Major >=4) && (Minor >=0) && (Build >= 20506) && (Revision >=1))
                return @"built by: Beta1, .NET 4.0 Beta1, May 2009 or later";
            //4.0.11001.1     built by: CTP2 VPC, .NET 4.0 CTP, October 2008
            if ((Major >=4) && (Minor >=0) && (Build >= 11001) && (Revision >=1))
                return @"built by: CTP2 VPC, .NET 4.0 CTP, October 2008 or later";

            //3.5.30729.5420  yes built by: Win7SP1, .NET 3.5.1 Sicherheits - Update, 12 April 2011
            if ((Major >=3) && (Minor >=5) && (Build >= 30729) && (Revision >= 5420))
                return @"built by: Win7SP1, .NET 3.5.1 Sicherheits - Update, 12 April 2011 or later";
            //3.5.30729.5004  yes built by: NetFXw7 / Windows 7..Rel., Jan 2010 / +Data functions KB976127 .NET 3.5 SP1
            if ((Major >=3) && (Minor >=5) && (Build >= 30729) && (Revision >= 5004))
                return @"built by: NetFXw7 / Windows 7..Rel., Jan 2010 / +Data functions KB976127 .NET 3.5 SP1 or later";
            //3.5.30729.4466  yes built by: NetFXw7 / Windows XP..Rel. , Jan 2010 / +Data functions KB976127 .NET 3.5 SP1
            if ((Major >=3) && (Minor >=5) && (Build >= 30729) && (Revision >= 4466))
                return @"built by: NetFXw7 / Windows XP..Rel. , Jan 2010 / +Data functions KB976127 .NET 3.5 SP1 or later";
            //3.5.30729.4926  yes built by: NetFXw7 / Windows 7 Release, Oct 2009 / .NET 3.5 SP1 + Hotfixes
            if ((Major >=3) && (Minor >=5) && (Build >= 30729) && (Revision >= 4926))
                return @"built by: NetFXw7 / Windows 7 Release, Oct 2009 / .NET 3.5 SP1 + Hotfixes or later";
            //3.5.30729.4918      built by: NetFXw7 / Windows 7 Release Candidate, June 2009
            if ((Major >=3) && (Minor >=5) && (Build >= 30729) && (Revision >= 4918))
                return @"built by: NetFXw7 / Windows 7 Release Candidate, June 2009 or later";
            //3.5.30729.196   yes built by: QFE, .NET 3.5 Family Update Vista / W2008, Dec 2008
            if ((Major >= 3) && (Minor >= 5) && (Build >= 30729) && (Revision >=196))
                return @"built by: QFE, .NET 3.5 Family Update Vista / W2008, Dec 2008 or later";
            //3.5.30729.1 yes built by: SP, .NET 3.5 SP1, Aug 2008
            if ((Major >= 3) && (Minor >= 5) && (Build >= 30729) && (Revision >=1))
                return @"built by: SP, .NET 3.5 SP1, Aug 2008 or later";

            //3.5.30428.1         built by: SP1Beta1, .NET 3.5 SP1 BETA1, May 2008
            if ((Major >=3) && (Minor >=5) && (Build >= 30428) && (Revision >=1))
                return @"built by: SP1Beta1, .NET 3.5 SP1 BETA1, May 2008 or later";
            //3.5.21022.8 yes built by: RTM, Jan 2008
            if ((Major >=3) && (Minor >=5) && (Build >= 21022) && (Revision >= 8))
                return @"built by: RTM, Jan 2008 or later";
            //3.5.20706.1     built by: Beta2, Orcas Beta2, Oct 2007
            if ((Major >=3) && (Minor >=5) && (Build >= 20706) && (Revision >= 1))
                return @"built by: Beta2, Orcas Beta2, Oct 2007 or later";
            //3.5.20526.0     built by: MCritCTP, Orcas Beta1, Mar 2007
            if ((Major >=3) && (Minor >=5) && (Build >= 20526) && (Revision >=0))
                return @"built by: MCritCTP, Orcas Beta1, Mar 2007 or later";

            //3.0.6920.1500   yes built by: QFE, Family Update Vista / W2008, Dez 2008, KB958483
            if ((Major >=3) && (Minor >=0) && (Build >= 6920) && (Revision >= 1500))
                return @"built by: QFE, Family Update Vista / W2008, Dez 2008, KB958483 or later";
            //3.0.4506.4926   yes(NetFXw7.030729 - 4900) / Windows 7 Release, Oct 2009
            if ((Major >=3) && (Minor >=0) && (Build >= 4506) && (Revision >= 4926))
                return @"(NetFXw7.030729 - 4900) / Windows 7 Release, Oct 2009 or later";
            //3.0.4506.4918(NetFXw7.030729 - 4900) / Windows 7 Release Candidate, June 2009
            if ((Major >=3) && (Minor >=5) && (Build >= 4506) && (Revision >= 4918))
                return @"(NetFXw7.030729 - 4900) / Windows 7 Release Candidate, June 2009 or later";
            //3.0.4506.2152       3.0.4506.2152(SP.030729 - 0100) / .NET 4.0 Beta1 / May 2009
            if ((Major >= 3) && (Minor >= 5) && (Build >= 4506) && (Revision >= 2152))
                return @"3.0.4506.2152(SP.030729 - 0100) / .NET 4.0 Beta1 / May 2009 or later";
            //3.0.4506.2123   yes(NetFX.030618 - 0000).NET 3.0 SP2, Aug 2008
            if ((Major >= 3) && (Minor >= 5) && (Build >= 4506) && (Revision >= 2123))
                return @"s(NetFX.030618 - 0000).NET 3.0 SP2, Aug 2008 or later";
            //3.0.4506.2062(SP1Beta1.030428 - 0100), .NET 3.0 SP1 BETA1, May 2008
            if ((Major >= 3) && (Minor >= 5) && (Build >= 4506) && (Revision >= 2062))
                return @"(SP1Beta1.030428 - 0100), .NET 3.0 SP1 BETA1, May 2008 or later";
            //3.0.4506.590(winfxredb2.004506 - 0590), Orcas Beta2, Oct 2007
            if ((Major >= 3) && (Minor >= 5) && (Build >= 4506) && (Revision >= 590))
                return @"(winfxredb2.004506 - 0590), Orcas Beta2, Oct 2007 or later";
            //3.0.4506.577(winfxred.004506 - 0577), Orcas Beta1, Mar 2007
            if ((Major >= 3) && (Minor >= 5) && (Build >= 4506) && (Revision >= 577))
                return @"(winfxred.004506 - 0577), Orcas Beta1, Mar 2007 or later";
            //3.0.4506.30 yes Release (.NET Framework 3.0) Nov 2006
            if ((Major >= 3) && (Minor >= 5) && (Build >= 4506) && (Revision >= 30))
                return @"Release (.NET Framework 3.0) Nov 2006 or later";
            //3.0.4506.25 yes(WAPRTM.004506 - 0026) Vista Ultimate, Jan 2007
            if ((Major >= 3) && (Minor >= 5) && (Build >= 4506) && (Revision >= 25))
                return @"(WAPRTM.004506 - 0026) Vista Ultimate, Jan 2007 or later";

            //2.0.50727.4927  yes(NetFXspW7.050727 - 4900) / Windows 7 Release, Oct 2009
            if ((Major >=2) && (Minor >=0) && (Build >= 50727) && (Revision >= 4927))
                return @"(NetFXspW7.050727 - 4900) / Windows 7 Release, Oct 2009 or later";
            //2.0.50727.4918(NetFXspW7.050727 - 4900) / Windows 7 Release Candidate, June 2009
            if ((Major >= 2) && (Minor >= 0) && (Build >= 50727) && (Revision >= 4918))
                return @"(NetFXspW7.050727 - 4900) / Windows 7 Release Candidate, June 2009 or later";
            //2.0.50727.4200  yes(NetFxQFE.050727 - 4200).NET 2.0 SP2, KB974470, Securityupdate, Oct 2009
            if ((Major >= 2) && (Minor >= 0) && (Build >= 50727) && (Revision >= 4200))
                return @"(NetFxQFE.050727 - 4200).NET 2.0 SP2, KB974470, Securityupdate, Oct 2009 or later";
            //2.0.50727.3603(GDR.050727 - 3600).NET 4.0 Beta 2, Oct 2009
            if ((Major >= 2) && (Minor >= 0) && (Build >= 50727) && (Revision >= 3603))
                return @"(GDR.050727 - 3600).NET 4.0 Beta 2, Oct 2009 or later";
            //2.0.50727.3082  yes(QFE.050727 - 3000), .NET 3.5 Family Update XP / W2003, Dez 2008, KB958481
            if ((Major >= 2) && (Minor >= 0) && (Build >= 50727) && (Revision >= 3082))
                return @"(QFE.050727 - 3000), .NET 3.5 Family Update XP / W2003, Dez 2008, KB958481 or later";
            //2.0.50727.3074  yes(QFE.050727 - 3000), .NET 3.5 Family Update Vista / W2008, Dez 2008, KB958481
            if ((Major >= 2) && (Minor >= 0) && (Build >= 50727) && (Revision >= 3074))
                return @"(QFE.050727 - 3000), .NET 3.5 Family Update Vista / W2008, Dez 2008, KB958481 or later";
            //2.0.50727.3053  yes(netfxsp.050727 - 3000), .NET 2.0 SP2, Aug 2008
            if ((Major >= 2) && (Minor >= 0) && (Build >= 50727) && (Revision >= 3053))
                return @"yes(netfxsp.050727 - 3000), .NET 2.0 SP2, Aug 2008 or later";
            //2.0.50727.3031(netfxsp.050727 - 3000), .NET 2.0 SP2 Beta 1, May 2008
            if ((Major >= 2) && (Minor >= 0) && (Build >= 50727) && (Revision >= 3031))
                return @"(netfxsp.050727 - 3000), .NET 2.0 SP2 Beta 1, May 2008 or later";
            //2.0.50727.1434  yes(REDBITS.050727 - 1400), Windows Server 2008 and Windows Vista SP1, Dez 2007
            if ((Major >= 2) && (Minor >= 0) && (Build >= 50727) && (Revision >= 1434))
                return @"(REDBITS.050727 - 1400), Windows Server 2008 and Windows Vista SP1, Dez 2007 or later";
            //2.0.50727.1433  yes(REDBITS.050727 - 1400), .NET 2.0 SP1 Release, Nov 2007,
            if ((Major >= 2) && (Minor >= 0) && (Build >= 50727) && (Revision >= 1433))
                return @"(REDBITS.050727 - 1400), .NET 2.0 SP1 Release, Nov 2007 or later";
            //2.0.50727.1378(REDBITSB2.050727 - 1300), Orcas Beta2, Oct 2007
            if ((Major >= 2) && (Minor >= 0) && (Build >= 50727) && (Revision >= 1378))
                return @"(REDBITSB2.050727 - 1300), Orcas Beta2, Oct 2007 or later";
            //2.0.50727.1366(REDBITS.050727 - 1300), Orcas Beta1, Mar 2007
            if ((Major >= 2) && (Minor >= 0) && (Build >= 50727) && (Revision >= 1366))
                return @"(REDBITS.050727 - 1300), Orcas Beta1, Mar 2007 or later";
            //2.0.50727.867   yes(VS Express Edition 2005 SP1), Apr 2007,
            if ((Major >= 2) && (Minor >= 0) && (Build >= 50727) && (Revision >= 867))
                return @"(VS Express Edition 2005 SP1), Apr 2007 or later";
            //2.0.50727.832(Fix x86 VC++2005), Apr 2007,
            if ((Major >= 2) && (Minor >= 0) && (Build >= 50727) && (Revision >= 832))
                return @"(Fix x86 VC++2005), Apr 2007 or later";
            //2.0.50727.762   yes(VS TeamSuite SP1),
            if ((Major >= 2) && (Minor >= 0) && (Build >= 50727) && (Revision >= 762))
                return @"(VS TeamSuite SP1) or later";
            //2.0.50727.312   yes(rtmLHS.050727 - 3100) Vista Ultimate, Jan 2007
            if ((Major >= 2) && (Minor >= 0) && (Build >= 50727) && (Revision >= 312))
                return @"(rtmLHS.050727 - 3100) Vista Ultimate, Jan 2007 or later";
            //2.0.50727.42    yes Release (.NET Framework 2.0) Oct 2005
            if ((Major >= 2) && (Minor >= 0) && (Build >= 50727) && (Revision >= 42))
                return @"Release (.NET Framework 2.0) Oct 2005 or later";
            //2.0.50727.26        Version 2.0(Visual Studio Team System 2005 Release Candidate) Oct 2005
            if ((Major >= 2) && (Minor >= 0) && (Build >= 50727) && (Revision >= 26))
                return @"Version 2.0(Visual Studio Team System 2005 Release Candidate) Oct 2005 or later";

            //2.0.50712       Version 2.0(Visual Studio Team System 2005(Drop3) CTP) July 2005
            if ((Major >=2) && (Minor >=0) && (Build >= 50712))
                return @"Version 2.0(Visual Studio Team System 2005(Drop3) CTP) July 2005 or later";
            //2.0.50215       Version 2.0(WinFX SDK for Indigo / Avalon 2005 CTP) July 2005
            if ((Major >=2) && (Minor >=0) && (Build >= 50215))
                return @"Version 2.0(WinFX SDK for Indigo / Avalon 2005 CTP) July 2005 or later";
            //2.0.50601.0     Version 2.0(Visual Studio.NET 2005 CTP) June 2005
            if ((Major >=2) && (Minor >=0) && (Build >= 50601) && (Revision >=0))
                return @"Version 2.0(Visual Studio.NET 2005 CTP) June 2005 or later";
            //2.0.50215.44        Version 2.0(Visual Studio.NET 2005 Beta 2, Visual Studio Express Beta 2) Apr 2005
            if ((Major >=2) && (Minor >=0) && (Build >= 50215) && (Revision >= 44))
                return @"Version 2.0(Visual Studio.NET 2005 Beta 2, Visual Studio Express Beta 2) Apr 2005 or later";
            //2.0.50110.28        Version 2.0(Visual Studio.NET 2005 CTP, Professional Edition) Feb 2005
            if ((Major >=2) && (Minor >=0) && (Build >= 50110) && (Revision >=28))
                return @"Version 2.0(Visual Studio.NET 2005 CTP, Professional Edition) Feb 2005 or later";
            //2.0.41115.19        Version 2.0(Visual Studio.NET 2005 Beta 1, Team System Refresh) Dec 2004
            if ((Major >=2 ) && (Minor >=0 ) && (Build >= 41115) && (Revision >= 19))
                return @"Version 2.0(Visual Studio.NET 2005 Beta 1, Team System Refresh) Dec 2004 or later";
            //2.0.40903.0         Version 2.0(Whidbey CTP, Visual Studio Express) Oct 2004
            if ((Major >=2) && (Minor >=0) && (Build >= 40903) && (Revision >=0))
                return @"Version 2.0(Whidbey CTP, Visual Studio Express) Oct 2004 or later";
            //2.0.40607.85        Version 2.0(Visual Studio.NET 2005 Beta 1, Team System Refresh) Aug 2004 *
            if ((Major >=2) && (Minor >=0) && (Build >= 40607) && (Revision >= 85))
                return @"Version 2.0(Visual Studio.NET 2005 Beta 1, Team System Refresh) Aug 2004 * or later";
            //2.0.40607.42        Version 2.0(SQL Server Yukon Beta 2) July 2004
            if ((Major >=2) && (Minor >=0) && (Build >= 40607) && (Revision >= 42))
                return @"Version 2.0(SQL Server Yukon Beta 2) July 2004 or later";
            //2.0.40607.16        Version 2.0(Visual Studio.NET 2005 Beta 1, TechEd Europe 2004) June 2004
            if ((Major >=2) && (Minor >=0) && (Build >= 40607) && (Revision >= 16))
                return @"Version 2.0(Visual Studio.NET 2005 Beta 1, TechEd Europe 2004) June 2004 or later";
            //2.0.40301.9         Version 2.0(Whidbey CTP, WinHEC 2004) March 2004 *
            if ((Major >=0) && (Minor >=0) && (Build >= 40301) && (Revision >=9))
                return @"Version 2.0(Whidbey CTP, WinHEC 2004) March 2004 * or later";

            //1.2.30703.27        Version 1.2(Whidbey Alpha, PDC 2004) Nov 2003 *
            if ((Major >=1) && (Minor >=2) && (Build >= 30703) && (Revision >= 27))
                return @"Version 1.2(Whidbey Alpha, PDC 2004) Nov 2003 * or later";
            //1.2.21213.1     Version 1.2(Whidbey pre - Alpha build) *
            if ((Major >=1) && (Minor >=2) && (Build >= 21213) && (Revision >=1))
                return @"Version 1.2(Whidbey pre - Alpha build) * or later";

            //1.1.4322.2443   yes Version 1.1 Servicepack 1, KB953297, Oct 2009
            if ((Major >=1) && (Minor >=1) && (Build >= 4322) && (Revision >=2443))
                return @"Version 1.1 Servicepack 1, KB953297, Oct 2009 or later";
            //1.1.4322.2407   yes Version 1.1 RTM
            if ((Major >=1) && (Minor >=1) && (Build >= 4322) && (Revision >= 2407))
                return @"Version 1.1 RTM or later";
            //1.1.4322.2407       Version 1.1 Orcas Beta2, Oct 2007
            if ((Major >=1) && (Minor >=1) && (Build >= 4322) && (Revision >= 2407))
                return @"Version 1.1 Orcas Beta2, Oct 2007 or later";
            //1.1.4322.2379       Version 1.1 Orcas Beta1, Mar 2007
            if ((Major >=1) && (Minor >=1) && (Build >= 4322) && (Revision >= 2379))
                return @"Version 1.1 Orcas Beta1, Mar 2007 or later";
            //1.1.4322.2032   yes Version 1.1 SP1 Aug 2004
            if ((Major >=1) && (Minor >=1) && (Build >= 4322) && (Revision >= 2032))
                return @"Version 1.1 SP1 Aug 2004 or later";
            //1.1.4322.573    yes Version 1.1 RTM(Visual Studio.NET 2003 / Windows Server 2003) Feb 2003 *
            if ((Major >=1) && (Minor >=1) && (Build >= 4322) && (Revision >= 573))
                return @"Version 1.1 RTM(Visual Studio.NET 2003 / Windows Server 2003) Feb 2003 * or later";
            //1.1.4322.510        Version 1.1 Final Beta Oct 2002 *
            if ((Major >=1) && (Minor >=1) && (Build >= 4322) && (Revision >= 510))
                return @"Version 1.1 Final Beta Oct 2002 * or later";

            //1.0.3705.6018   yes Version 1.0 SP3 Aug 2004
            if ((Major >=1) && (Minor >=0) && (Build >= 3705) && (Revision >= 6018))
                return @"Version 1.0 SP3 Aug 2004 or later";
            //1.0.3705.288    yes Version 1.0 SP2 Aug 2002 *
            if ((Major >=1) && (Minor >=0) && (Build >= 3705) && (Revision >= 288))
                return @"Version 1.0 SP2 Aug 2002 * or later";
            //1.0.3705.209    yes Version 1.0 SP1 Mar 2002 *
            if ((Major >=1) && (Minor >=0) && (Build >= 3705) && (Revision >=209))
                return @"Version 1.0 SP1 Mar 2002 * or later";
            //1.0.3705.0  yes Version 1.0 RTM(Visual Studio.NET 2002) Feb 2002 *
            if ((Major >=1) && (Minor >=0) && (Build >= 3705) && (Revision >=0))
                return @"Version 1.0 RTM(Visual Studio.NET 2002) Feb 2002 * or later";
            //1.0.3512.0      Version 1.0 Pre - release RC3(Visual Studio.NET 2002 RC3)
            if ((Major >=1) && (Minor >=0) && (Build >= 3512) && (Revision >=0))
                return @"Version 1.0 Pre - release RC3(Visual Studio.NET 2002 RC3) or later";
            //1.0.2914.16     Version 1.0 Public Beta 2 Jun 2001 *
            if ((Major >=1) && (Minor >=0) && (Build >= 2914) && (Revision >= 16))
                return @"Version 1.0 Public Beta 2 Jun 2001 * or later";
            //1.0.2204.21         Version 1.0 Public Beta 1 Nov 2000 *
            if ((Major >=1) && (Minor >=0) && (Build >= 2204) && (Revision >=21))
                return @"Version 1.0 Public Beta 1 Nov 2000 * or later";

            return @"Unknown .NET version";

Laravel 5.2 Missing required parameters for [Route: user.profile] [URI: user/{nickname}/profile]

You have to pass the route parameters to the route method, for example:

<li><a href="{{ route('user.profile', $nickname) }}">Profile</a></li>
<li><a href="{{ route('user.settings', $nickname) }}">Settings</a></li>

It's because, both routes have a {nickname} in the route declaration. I've used $nickname for example but make sure you change the $nickname to appropriate value/variable, for example, it could be something like the following:

<li><a href="{{ route('user.settings', auth()->user()->nickname) }}">Settings</a></li>

Select single item from a list

just saw this now, if you are working with a list of object you can try this

 public class user
    public string username { get; set; }
    public string password { get; set; }

  List<user> userlist = new List<user>();

        userlist.Add(new user { username = "macbruno", password = "1234" });
        userlist.Add(new user { username = "james", password = "5678" });
        string myusername = "james";
        string mypassword = "23432";

  user theUser = userlist.Find(
            delegate (user thisuser)
                return thisuser.username== myusername && thisuser.password == mypassword;

            if (theUser != null)


How to check for an undefined or null variable in JavaScript?

Testing nullity (if (value == null)) or non-nullity (if (value != null)) is less verbose than testing the definition status of a variable.

Moreover, testing if (value) (or if( to ensure the existence of your variable (or object property) fails if it is defined with a boolean false value. Caveat emptor :)

Getting 404 Not Found error while trying to use ErrorDocument

When we apply local url, ErrorDocument directive expect the full path from DocumentRoot. There fore,

 ErrorDocument 404 /yourfoldernames/errors/404.html

Remove all newlines from inside a string

strip only removes characters from the beginning and end of a string. You want to use replace:

str2 = str.replace("\n", "")
re.sub('\s{2,}', ' ', str) # To remove more than one space 

Named regular expression group "(?P<group_name>regexp)": what does "P" stand for?

Python Extension. From the Python Docs:

The solution chosen by the Perl developers was to use (?...) as the extension syntax. ? immediately after a parenthesis was a syntax error because the ? would have nothing to repeat, so this didn’t introduce any compatibility problems. The characters immediately after the ? indicate what extension is being used, so (?=foo) is one thing (a positive lookahead assertion) and (?:foo) is something else (a non-capturing group containing the subexpression foo).

Python supports several of Perl’s extensions and adds an extension syntax to Perl’s extension syntax.If the first character after the question mark is a P, you know that it’s an extension that’s specific to Python

Java Byte Array to String to Byte Array

If you want to convert the string back into a byte array you will need to use String.getBytes() (or equivalent Python function) and this will allow you print out the original byte array.

How to enable CORS in AngularJs

I had a similar problem and for me it boiled down to adding the following HTTP headers at the response of the receiving end:

Access-Control-Allow-Headers: Content-Type
Access-Control-Allow-Methods: GET, POST, OPTIONS
Access-Control-Allow-Origin: *

You may prefer not to use the * at the end, but only the domainname of the host sending the data. Like *

But this is only feasible when you have access to the configuration of the server.

What are the differences between if, else, and else if?

If-elseif-else can be written as a nested if-else. These are (logically speaking) equivalent:

if (A) 
else if (B)
else if (C)

is the same as:

if (A) 
    if (B)
         if (C)

The result is that ultimately only one of doA, doB, doC, or doX will be evaluated.

How to set DOM element as the first child?

2017 version

You can use

targetElement.insertAdjacentElement('afterbegin', newFirstElement)

From MDN :

The insertAdjacentElement() method inserts a given element node at a given position relative to the element it is invoked upon.

A DOMString representing the position relative to the element; must be one of the following strings:
beforebegin: Before the element itself.
afterbegin: Just inside the element, before its first child.
beforeend: Just inside the element, after its last child.
afterend: After the element itself.

The element to be inserted into the tree.

Also in the family of insertAdjacent there is the sibling methods:

element.insertAdjacentHTML('afterbegin','htmlText') for inject html string directly, like innerHTML but without overide everything , so you can jump oppressive process of document.createElement and even build whole componet with string manipulation process

element.insertAdjacentText for inject sanitize string into element . no more encode/decode

Place API key in Headers or URL

I would not put the key in the url, as it does violate this loose 'standard' that is REST. However, if you did, I would place it in the 'user' portion of the url.

eg: http://[email protected]/myresource/myid

This way it can also be passed as headers with basic-auth.

EditText, inputType values (xml)

Supplemental answer

Here is how the standard keyboard behaves for each of these input types.

enter image description here

See this answer for more details.

Android check permission for LocationManager

The last part of the error message you quoted states: ...with ("checkPermission") or explicitly handle a potential "SecurityException"

A much quicker/simpler way of checking if you have permissions is to surround your code with try { ... } catch (SecurityException e) { [insert error handling code here] }. If you have permissions, the 'try' part will execute, if you don't, the 'catch' part will.

How to use ADB to send touch events to device using sendevent command?

In order to do a particular action (for example to open the web browser), you need to first figure out where to tap. To do that, you can first run:

adb shell getevent -l

Once you press on the device, at the location that you want, you will see this output:

/dev/input/event3: EV_KEY       BTN_TOUCH            DOWN
/dev/input/event3: EV_ABS       ABS_MT_POSITION_X    000002f5
/dev/input/event3: EV_ABS       ABS_MT_POSITION_Y    0000069e

adb is telling you that a key was pressed (button down) at position 2f5, 69e in hex which is 757 and 1694 in decimal.

If you now want to generate the same event, you can use the input tap command at the same position:

adb shell input tap 757 1694

More info can be found at:

How can I get a value from a map?

How can I get the value from the map, which is passed as a reference to a function?

Well, you can pass it as a reference. The standard reference wrapper that is.

typedef std::map<std::string, std::string> MAP;
// create your map reference type
using map_ref_t = std::reference_wrapper<MAP>;

// use it 
void function(map_ref_t map_r)
    // get to the map from inside the
    // std::reference_wrapper
    // see the alternatives behind that link
    MAP & the_map = map_r;
    // take the value from the map
    // by reference
    auto & value_r = the_map["key"];
    // change it, "in place"
    value_r = "new!";

And the test.

    void test_ref_to_map() {

    MAP valueMap;
    valueMap["key"] = "value";
    // pass it by reference
    // check that the value has changed
    assert( "new!" == valueMap["key"] );

I think this is nice and simple. Enjoy ...

Hash table runtime complexity (insert, search and delete)

Ideally, a hashtable is O(1). The problem is if two keys are not equal, however they result in the same hash.

For example, imagine the strings "it was the best of times it was the worst of times" and "Green Eggs and Ham" both resulted in a hash value of 123.

When the first string is inserted, it's put in bucket 123. When the second string is inserted, it would see that a value already exists for bucket 123. It would then compare the new value to the existing value, and see they are not equal. In this case, an array or linked list is created for that key. At this point, retrieving this value becomes O(n) as the hashtable needs to iterate through each value in that bucket to find the desired one.

For this reason, when using a hash table, it's important to use a key with a really good hash function that's both fast and doesn't often result in duplicate values for different objects.

Make sense?

How can I join on a stored procedure?

The short answer is "you can't". What you'll need to do is either use a subquery or you could convert your existing stored procedure in to a table function. Creating it as function would depend on how "reusable" you would need it to be.

Write applications in C or C++ for Android?

Google has released a Native Development Kit (NDK) (according to at 00:07:30).

Hopefully the information will be updated on the google groups page (, as it says it hasn't been released yet.

I'm not sure where to get a simple download for it, but I've heard that you can get a copy of the NDK from Google's Git repository under the donut branch.

How to check if an NSDictionary or NSMutableDictionary contains a key?

Using Swift, it would be:

if myDic[KEY] != nil {
    // key exists

CodeIgniter - return only one row?

You've just answered your own question :) You can do something like this:

$query = $this->db->get();
$ret = $query->row();
return $ret->campaign_id;

You can read more about it here:

Proper MIME type for .woff2 fonts

It seem that w3c switched it to font/woff2

I see there is some discussion about the proper mime type. In the link we read:

This document defines a top-level MIME type "font" ...

... the officially defined IANA subtypes such as "application/font-woff" ...

The members of the W3C WebFonts WG believe the use of "application" top-level type is not ideal.

and later

6.5. WOFF 2.0

    Type name:

    Subtype name:


So proposition from W3C differs from IANA.

We can see that it also differs from woff type: where we read:

Type name:

Subtype name:


which is


Javascript - check array for value

If you don't care about legacy browsers:

if ( bank_holidays.indexOf( '06/04/2012' ) > -1 )

if you do care about legacy browsers, there is a shim available on MDN. Otherwise, jQuery provides an equivalent function:

if ( $.inArray( '06/04/2012', bank_holidays ) > -1 )

How to simulate browsing from various locations?

The only thing that springs to mind for this is to use a proxy server based in Europe. Either have your colleague set one up [if possible] or find a free proxy. A quick Google search came up with as the top result.

TypeScript enum to object array

I don't think the order can be guaranteed, otherwise it would be easy enough to slice the second half of Object.entries result and map from there.

The only (very minor) issues with the answers above is that

  • there is a lot of unnecessary type conversion between string and number.
  • the entries are iterated twice when a single iteration is just as clean and effective.
type StandardEnum = { [id: string]: number | string; [nu: number]: string;}

function enumToList<T extends StandardEnum> (enm: T) : { id: number; description: string }[] {
    return Object.entries(enm).reduce((accum, kv) => {
        if (typeof kv[1] === 'number') {
            accum.push({ id: kv[1], description: kv[0] })
        return accum
    }, []) // if enum is huge, perhaps pre-allocate with new Array(entries.length / 2), however then push won't work, so tracking an index would also be required

Removing packages installed with go get


goclean() {
 local pkg=$1; shift || return 1
 local ost
 local cnt
 local scr

 # Clean removes object files from package source directories (ignore error)
 go clean -i $pkg &>/dev/null

 # Set local variables
 [[ "$(uname -m)" == "x86_64" ]] \
 && ost="$(uname)";ost="${ost,,}_amd64" \
 && cnt="${pkg//[^\/]}"

 # Delete the source directory and compiled package directory(ies)
 if (("${#cnt}" == "2")); then
  rm -rf "${GOPATH%%:*}/src/${pkg%/*}"
  rm -rf "${GOPATH%%:*}/pkg/${ost}/${pkg%/*}"
 elif (("${#cnt}" > "2")); then
  rm -rf "${GOPATH%%:*}/src/${pkg%/*/*}"
  rm -rf "${GOPATH%%:*}/pkg/${ost}/${pkg%/*/*}"

 # Reload the current shell
 source ~/.bashrc


# Either launch a new terminal and copy `goclean` into the current shell process, 
# or create a shell script and add it to the PATH to enable command invocation with bash.


Reverse the ordering of words in a string

Better version
Check my blog

public string reverseTheWords(string description)
    if(!(string.IsNullOrEmpty(description)) && (description.IndexOf(" ") > 1))
        string[] words= description.Split(' ');
        foreach (string word in words)
            string phrase = string.Join(" ", words);
        return phrase;
    return description;

TypeError: ObjectId('') is not JSON serializable

from bson.objectid import ObjectId
from import DbConnectionService

class DbExecutionService:
     def __init__(self):
        self.db = DbConnectionService()

     def list(self, collection, search):
        session = self.db.create_connection(collection)
        return list(map(lambda row: {i: str(row[i]) if isinstance(row[i], ObjectId) else row[i] for i in row}, session.find(search))

Setting Timeout Value For .NET Web Service

Try setting the timeout value in your web service proxy class:

WebReference.ProxyClass myProxy = new WebReference.ProxyClass();
myProxy.Timeout = 100000; //in milliseconds, e.g. 100 seconds

Angular2 equivalent of $document.ready()

In order to use jQuery inside Angular only declare the $ as following: declare var $: any;

How can I unstage my files again after making a local commit?


git reset HEAD^

That does a "mixed" reset by default, which will do what you asked; put in unstaged, removing the most recent commit.

How to access Session variables and set them in javascript?

Accessing & Assigning the Session Variable using Javascript:

Assigning the ASP.NET Session Variable using Javascript:

 <script type="text/javascript">
function SetUserName()
    var userName = "Shekhar Shete";
    '<%Session["UserName"] = "' + userName + '"; %>';
     alert('<%=Session["UserName"] %>');

Accessing ASP.NET Session variable using Javascript:

<script type="text/javascript">
    function GetUserName()

        var username = '<%= Session["UserName"] %>';
        alert(username );

Getting java.lang.ClassNotFoundException: org.apache.commons.logging.LogFactory exception

I have already included common-logging1.1.1.jar and ...

Are you sure you spelled the name of the JAR file exactly right? I think it should probably be commons-logging-1.1.1.jar (note the extra - in the name). Also check if the directory name is correct.

NoClassDefFoundError always means that a class cannot be found, so most likely your class path is not correct.

.m2 , settings.xml in Ubuntu

As per Where is Maven Installed on Ubuntu it will first create your settings.xml on /usr/share/maven2/, then you can copy to your home folder as jens mentioned

$ cp /usr/share/maven3/conf/settings.xml ~/.m2/settings.xml

Making Maven run all tests, even when some fail

I just found the "-fae" parameter, which causes Maven to run all tests and not stop on failure.

convert a list of objects from one type to another using lambda expression

Assume that you have multiple properties you want to convert.

public class OrigType{
    public string Prop1A {get;set;}
    public string Prop1B {get;set;}

public class TargetType{
    public string Prop2A {get;set;}
    public string Prop2B {get;set;}

var list1 = new List<OrigType>();
var list2 = new List<TargetType>();

list1.ConvertAll(x => new OrigType { Prop2A = x.Prop1A, Prop2B = x.Prop1B })

Excel formula to get cell color

No, you can only get to the interior color of a cell by using a Macro. I am afraid. It's really easy to do (cell.interior.color) so unless you have a requirement that restricts you from using VBA, I say go for it.

'cannot open git-upload-pack' error in Eclipse when cloning or pushing git repository

The repository owner should give you a contributor permission: Example

Find a file by name in Visual Studio Code

It's Ctrl+Shift+O / Cmd+Shift+O on mac. You can see it if you close all tabs

CSS: Change image src on img:hover

On older browsers, :hover only worked on <a> elements. So you'd have to do something like this to get it to work.


  background-image: url('');

  background-image: url('');

<a href="#" id="aks"></a>

How to Change color of Button in Android when Clicked?

If you want to change the backgorund image or color of the button when it is pressed, then just copy this code and paste in your project at exact location described below.

      <!-- Create new xml file like mybtn_layout.xml file in drawable -->
<?xml version="1.0" encoding="utf-8"?>
<selector xmlns:android="">
<item android:state_pressed="true" android:drawable="@drawable/pressed" /> <!--pressed --> 
<item android:drawable="@drawable/normal" /> <!-- Normal -->
  <!-- Now this file should be in a drawable folder and use this 
  single line code in    button code to get all the properties of this xml file -->

      android:background="@drawable/layout_a" > <!-- your required code -->

Pass array to MySQL stored routine

Use a join with a temporary table. You don't need to pass temporary tables to functions, they are global.

create temporary table ids( id int ) ;
insert into ids values (1),(2),(3) ;

delimiter //
drop procedure if exists tsel //
create procedure tsel() -- uses temporary table named ids. no params
  -- use the temporary table `ids` in the SELECT statement or
  -- whatever query you have
  select * from Users INNER JOIN ids on ;
END //

CALL tsel() ; -- call the procedure

How to get year, month, day, hours, minutes, seconds and milliseconds of the current moment in Java?

Or use java.sql.Timestamp. Calendar is kinda heavy,I would recommend against using it in production code. Joda is better.

import java.sql.Timestamp;

public class DateTest {

     * @param args
    public static void main(String[] args) {
        System.out.println(new Timestamp(System.currentTimeMillis()));

IE9 jQuery AJAX with CORS returns "Access is denied"

This is a known bug with jQuery. The jQuery team has "no plans to support this in core and is better suited as a plugin." (See this comment). IE does not use the XMLHttpRequest, but an alternative object named XDomainRequest.

There is a plugin available to support this in jQuery, which can be found here:

EDIT The function $.ajaxTransport registers a transporter factory. A transporter is used internally by $.ajax to perform requests. Therefore, I assume you should be able to call $.ajax as usual. Information on transporters and extending $.ajax can be found here.

Also, a perhaps better version of this plugin can be found here.

Two other notes:

  1. The object XDomainRequest was introduced from IE8 and will not work in versions below.
  2. From IE10 CORS will be supported using a normal XMLHttpRequest.

Edit 2: http to https problem

Requests must be targeted to the same scheme as the hosting page

This restriction means that if your AJAX page is at, then your target URL must also begin with HTTP. Similarly, if your AJAX page is at, then your target URL must also begin with HTTPS.


SQL JOIN - WHERE clause vs. ON clause

They are not the same thing.

Consider these queries:

FROM Orders
LEFT JOIN OrderLines ON OrderLines.OrderID=Orders.ID
WHERE Orders.ID = 12345


FROM Orders
LEFT JOIN OrderLines ON OrderLines.OrderID=Orders.ID 
    AND Orders.ID = 12345

The first will return an order and its lines, if any, for order number 12345. The second will return all orders, but only order 12345 will have any lines associated with it.

With an INNER JOIN, the clauses are effectively equivalent. However, just because they are functionally the same, in that they produce the same results, does not mean the two kinds of clauses have the same semantic meaning.

java.lang.IllegalArgumentException: contains a path separator

openFileInput() doesn't accept paths, only a file name if you want to access a path, use File file = new File(path) and corresponding FileInputStream

How to change XAMPP apache server port?

if don't work above port id then change 8082,8080 Restart xammp,Start apache server,Check it.It's now working.

Unloading classes in java?

Classes have an implicit strong reference to their ClassLoader instance, and vice versa. They are garbage collected as with Java objects. Without hitting the tools interface or similar, you can't remove individual classes.

As ever you can get memory leaks. Any strong reference to one of your classes or class loader will leak the whole thing. This occurs with the Sun implementations of ThreadLocal, java.sql.DriverManager and java.beans, for instance.

How to save local data in a Swift app?

They Say Use NSUserDefaults

When I was implementing long term (after app close) data storage for the first time, everything I read online pointed me towards NSUserDefaults. However, I wanted to store a dictionary and, although possible, it was proving to be a pain. I spent hours trying to get type-errors to go away.

NSUserDefaults is Also Limited in Function

Further reading revealed how the read/write of NSUserDefaults really forces the app to read/write everything or nothing, all at once, so it isn't efficient. Then I learned that retrieving an array isn't straight forward. I realized that if you're storing more than a few strings or booleans, NSUserDefaults really isn't ideal.

It's also not scalable. If you're learning how to code, learn the scalable way. Only use NSUserDefaults for storing simple strings or booleans related to preferences. Store arrays and other data using Core Data, it's not as hard as they say. Just start small.

Update: Also, if you add Apple Watch support, there's another potential consideration. Your app's NSUserDefaults is now automatically sent to the Watch Extension.

Using Core Data

So I ignored the warnings about Core Data being a more difficult solution and started reading. Within three hours I had it working. I had my table array being saved in Core Data and reloading the data upon opening the app back up! The tutorial code was easy enough to adapt and I was able to have it store both title and detail arrays with only a little extra experimenting.

So for anyone reading this post who's struggling with NSUserDefault type issues or whose need is more than storing strings, consider spending an hour or two playing with core data.

Here's the tutorial I read:

If you didn't check "Core Data"

If you didn't check "Core Data"when you created your app, you can add it after and it only takes five minutes:

How to Delete from Core Data Lists

Delete Data from Coredata Swift

How to make an ng-click event conditional?

It is not good to manipulate with DOM (including checking of attributes) in any place except directives. You can add into scope some value indicating if link should be disabled.

But other problem is that ngDisabled does not work on anything except form controls, so you can't use it with <a>, but you can use it with <button> and style it as link.

Another way is to use lazy evaluation of expressions like isDisabled || action() so action wouold not be called if isDisabled is true.

Here goes both solutions:

CSS: Truncate table cells, but fit as much as possible

Use some css hack, it seems the display: table-column; can come to rescue:

<div class="myTable">
    <div class="flexibleCell">A very long piece of content in first cell, long enough that it would normally wrap into multiple lines.</div>
    <div class="staticCell">Less content</div>

.myTable {
    display: table;
    width: 100%;

.myTable:before {
    display: table-column;
    width: 100%;
    content: '';

.flexibleCell {
    display: table-cell;
    white-space: nowrap;
    overflow: hidden;

.staticCell {
    white-space: nowrap;


How to check if a json key exists?

You can try this to check wether the key exists or not:

JSONObject object = new JSONObject(jsonfile);
if (object.containskey("key")) {
  //etc. etc.

How do I validate a date in rails?

Active Record gives you _before_type_cast attributes which contain the raw attribute data before typecasting. This can be useful for returning error messages with pre-typecast values or just doing validations that aren't possible after typecast.

I would shy away from Daniel Von Fange's suggestion of overriding the accessor, because doing validation in an accessor changes the accessor contract slightly. Active Record has a feature explicitly for this situation. Use it.

How do I turn a python datetime into a string, with readable format date?

Using f-strings, in Python 3.6+.

from datetime import datetime

date_string = f'{ %H:%M:%S%z}'

How do I auto-hide placeholder text upon focus using css or jquery?

have you tried placeholder attr?

<input id ="myID" type="text" placeholder="enter your text " />


I see, try this then:

$(function () {

    $('#myId').data('holder', $('#myId').attr('placeholder'));

    $('#myId').focusin(function () {
        $(this).attr('placeholder', '');
    $('#myId').focusout(function () {
        $(this).attr('placeholder', $(this).data('holder'));




Actually, since placeholder should be used to describe the value, not the name of the input. I suggest the following alternative


<label class="overlabel"> 
    <span>First Name</span>
    <input name="first_name" type="text" />


$('.overlabel').each(function () {
    var $this = $(this);
    var field = $this.find('[type=text], [type=file], [type=email], [type=password], textarea');
    var span = $(this).find('> span');
    var onBlur = function () {
        if ($.trim(field.val()) == '') {
        } else {
            span.fadeTo(100, 0);
    field.focus(function () {


.overlabel {
  border: 0.1em solid;
  color: #aaa;
  position: relative;
  display: inline-block;
  vertical-align: middle;
  min-height: 2.2em;
.overlabel span {
  position: absolute;
  left: 0;
  top: 0;
  white-space: nowrap;
  overflow: hidden;
  text-overflow: ellipsis;
.overlabel span, .overlabel input {
  text-align: left;
  font-size: 1em;
  line-height: 2em;
  padding: 0 0.5em;
  margin: 0;
  background: transparent;
  -webkit-appearance: none; /* prevent ios styling */
  border-width: 0;
  width: 100%;
  outline: 0;


Why am I getting "Thread was being aborted" in ASP.NET?

This error can be caused by trying to end a response more than once. As other answers already mentioned, there are various methods that will end a response (like Response.End, or Response.Redirect). If you call more than one in a row, you'll get this error.

I came across this error when I tried to use Response.End after using Response.TransmitFile which seems to end the response too.

Is it possible to run JavaFX applications on iOS, Android or Windows Phone 8?

Desktop: first-class support

Oracle JavaFX from Java SE supports only OS X (macOS), GNU/Linux and Microsoft Windows. On these platforms, JavaFX applications are typically run on JVM from Java SE or OpenJDK.

Android: should work

There is also a JavaFXPorts project, which is an open-source project sponsored by a third-party. It aims to port JavaFX library to Android and iOS.

On Android, this library can be used like any other Java library; the JVM bytecode is compiled to Dalvik bytecode. It's what people mean by saying that "Android runs Java".

iOS: status not clear

On iOS, situation is a bit more complex, as neither Java SE nor OpenJDK supports Apple mobile devices. Till recently, the only sensible option was to use RoboVM ahead-of-time Java compiler for iOS. Unfortunately, on 15 April 2015, RoboVM project was shut down.

One possible alternative is Intel's Multi-OS Engine. Till recently, it was a proprietary technology, but on 11 August 2016 it was open-sourced. Although it can be possible to compile an iOS JavaFX app using JavaFXPorts' JavaFX implementation, there is no evidence for that so far. As you can see, the situation is dynamically changing, and this answer will be hopefully updated when new information is available.

Windows Phone: no support

With Windows Phone it's simple: there is no JavaFX support of any kind.

Importing a long list of constants to a Python file

And ofcourse you can do:


from a import *

Get JSONArray without array name?

I've assumed a named JSONArray is a JSONObject and accessed the data from the server to populate an Android GridView. For what it is worth my method is:

private String[] fillTable( JSONObject jsonObject ) {
   String[] dummyData = new String[] {"1", "2", "3", "4", "5", "6", "7","1", "2", "3", "4", "5", "6", "7","1", "2", "3", "4", "5", "6", "7", };
  if( jsonObject != null ) {
      ArrayList<String> data = new ArrayList<String>();
      try {
          // jsonArray looks like { "everything" : [{}, {},] }
          JSONArray jsonArray = jsonObject.getJSONArray( "everything" );
          int number = jsonArray.length(); //How many rows have got from the database?
          Log.i( Constants.INFORMATION, "Number of ows returned:  " + Integer.toString( number ) );
                  // Array elements look like this
          //{"success":1,"error":0,"name":"English One","owner":"Tutor","description":"Initial Alert","posted":"2013-08-09 15:35:40"}
          for( int element = 0; element < number; element++ ) { //visit each element
             JSONObject jsonObject_local = jsonArray.getJSONObject( element );
             //  Overkill on the error/success checking
             Log.e("JSON SUCCESS", Integer.toString( jsonObject_local.getInt(Constants.KEY_SUCCESS) ) );
             Log.e("JSON ERROR", Integer.toString( jsonObject_local.getInt(Constants.KEY_ERROR) ) );
                if ( jsonObject_local.getInt( Constants.KEY_SUCCESS) == Constants.JSON_SUCCESS ) {
                   String name = jsonObject_local.getString( Constants.KEY_NAME );
                   data.add( name );
                   String owner = jsonObject_local.getString( Constants.KEY_OWNER );
                   data.add( owner );
                   String description = jsonObject_local.getString( Constants.KEY_DESCRIPTION );
                   Log.i( "DESCRIPTION", description );
                   data.add( description ); 
                   String date = jsonObject_local.getString( Constants.KEY_DATE );
                   data.add( date );
                else {
                    for( int i = 0; i < 4; i++ ) {
                        data.add( "ERROR" );
  }  //JSON object is null
  catch ( JSONException jsone) {
      Log.e( "JSON EXCEPTION", jsone.getMessage() );
      dummyData = data.toArray( dummyData );
  return dummyData;


How to get the mouse position without events (without moving the mouse)?

The most simple solution but not 100% accurate


Result: {top: 148, left: 62.5}
The result depend on the nearest element size and return undefined when user switched the tab

Passing parameters to a JQuery function

Do you want to pass parameters to another page or to the function only?

If only the function, you don't need to add the $.ajax() tvanfosson added. Just add your function content instead. Like:

function DoAction (id, name ) {
    // ...
    // do anything you want here
    alert ("id: "+id+" - name: "+name);

This will return an alert box with the id and name values.

top align in html table?

Some CSS :

table td, table td * {
    vertical-align: top;

Error: EACCES: permission denied, access '/usr/local/lib/node_modules'

For linux / ubuntu if the command

npm install -g <package_name>

npm WARN deprecated [email protected]: Please note that v5.0.1+ of superagent removes User-Agent header by default, therefore you may need to add it yourself (e.g. GitHub blocks requests without a User-Agent header).  This notice will go away with v5.0.2+ once it is released.

npm ERR! path ../lib/node_modules/<package_name>/bin/..

npm ERR! code EACCES

npm ERR! errno -13

npm ERR! syscall symlink

npm ERR! Error: EACCES: permission denied, symlink '../lib/node_modules
/<package_name>/bin/..' -> '/usr/local/bin/<package_name>'

npm ERR!  { [Error: EACCES: permission denied, symlink '../lib/node_modules/<package_name>/bin/..' -> '/usr/local/bin/<package_name>']

npm ERR!   cause:
npm ERR!    { Error: EACCES: permission denied, symlink '../lib/node_modules/<package_name>/bin/..' -> '/usr/local/bin/<package_name>'

npm ERR!      errno: -13,

npm ERR!      code: 'EACCES',

npm ERR!      syscall: 'symlink',

npm ERR!      path: '../lib/node_modules/<package_name>/bin/..',
npm ERR!      dest: '/usr/local/bin/ionic' },

npm ERR!   stack:
npm ERR!    'Error: EACCES: permission denied, symlink \'../lib/node_modules/ionic/bin/ionic\' -> \'/usr/local/bin/ionic\'',

npm ERR!   errno: -13,

npm ERR!   code: 'EACCES',

npm ERR!   syscall: 'symlink',

npm ERR!   path: '../lib/node_modules/<package-name>/bin/<package-name>',

npm ERR!   dest: '/usr/local/bin/<package-name>' }

npm ERR! 

npm ERR! The operation was rejected by your operating system.

npm ERR! It is likely you do not have the permissions to access this file as the current user

npm ERR! 

npm ERR! If you believe this might be a permissions issue, please double-check the

npm ERR! permissions of the file and its containing directories, or try running

npm ERR! the command again as root/Administrator (though this is not recommended).

npm ERR! A complete log of this run can be found in:

npm ERR!     /home/User/.npm/_logs/2019-07-29T01_20_10_566Z-debug.log

Fix : Install with root permissions

sudo npm install <package_name> -g

How to sign an android apk file

APK Signing Process

To manually sign an Android APK file run these three commands:

  1. Generate Keystore file

    keytool -genkey -v -keystore YOUR_KEYSTORE_NAME.keystore -alias ALIAS_NAME -keyalg RSA -keysize 2048 -validity 10000
  2. Sign Your APK file using jarsigner

    jarsigner -verbose -sigalg SHA1withRSA -digestalg SHA1 -keystore KEYSTORE_FILE_PATH UNSIGNED_APK_PATH ALIAS_NAME
  3. Align Signed APK using zipalign tool



Generate Keystore file

keytool -genkey -v -keystore YOUR_KEYSTORE_NAME.keystore -alias ALIAS_NAME -keyalg RSA -keysize 2048 -validity 10000


keytool -genkey -v -keystore id.keystore -alias MySignedApp -keyalg RSA -keysize 2048 -validity 10000

keystore password : yourApp@123 key password : yourApp@123


D:\ru\SignedBuilds\MySignedApp>keytool -genkey -v -keystore id.keystore
 -alias MySignedApp -keyalg RSA -keysize 2048 -validity 10000
Enter keystore password:
Re-enter new password:
What is your first and last name?
  [Unknown]:  MySignedApp Sample
What is the name of your organizational unit?
  [Unknown]:  Information Technology
What is the name of your organization?
  [Unknown]:  MySignedApp Demo
What is the name of your City or Locality?
  [Unknown]:  Mumbai
What is the name of your State or Province?
  [Unknown]:  Maharashtra
What is the two-letter country code for this unit?
  [Unknown]:  IN
Is CN=MySignedApp Demo, OU=Information Technology, O=MySignedApp Demo, L=Mumbai, ST=Maharashtra, C=IN corr
  [no]:  y

Generating 2,048 bit RSA key pair and self-signed certificate (SHA256withRSA) with a validity of 10,
000 days
        for: CN=MySignedApp Demo, OU=Information Technology, O=MySignedApp Demo, L=Mumbai, ST=Maharashtra,
Enter key password for <MySignedApp>
        (RETURN if same as keystore password):
Re-enter new password:
[Storing id.keystore]



Sign your app with your private keystore using jarsigner

jarsigner -verbose -sigalg SHA1withRSA -digestalg SHA1 -keystore KEYSTORE_FILE_PATH UNSIGNED_APK_PATH ALIAS_NAME


jarsigner -verbose -sigalg SHA1withRSA -digestalg SHA1 -keystore D:\ru\SignedBuilds\MySignedApp\id.keystore D:\ru\SignedBuilds\MySignedApp\MySignedAppS1-release-unsigned.apk id


D:\ru\SignedBuilds\MySignedApp>jarsigner -verbose -sigalg SHA1withRSA -
digestalg SHA1 -keystore D:\ru\SignedBuilds\MySignedApp\id.keystore D:\ru\SignedBuilds\MySignedApp\MySignedAppS1-release-unsigned.apk id ---
Enter Passphrase for keystore:
   adding: META-INF/---.SF
   adding: META-INF/---.RSA
  signing: AndroidManifest.xml
    signing: classes.dex
  signing: lib/commons-codec-1.6.jar
  signing: lib/armeabi/
jar signed.

No -tsa or -tsacert is provided and this jar is not timestamped. Without a timestamp, users may not
be able to validate this jar after the signer certificate's expiration date (2044-02-07) or after an
y future revocation date.


Verify that your APK is signed

jarsigner -verify -verbose -certs JARSIGNED_APK_FILE_PATH


jarsigner -verify -verbose -certs MySignedAppS1-release-unsigned.apk


D:\ru\SignedBuilds\MySignedApp>jarsigner -verify -verbose -certs MySignedAppS1-release-unsigned.apk
 s = signature was verified
  m = entry is listed in manifest
  k = at least one certificate was found in keystore
  i = at least one certificate was found in identity scope

jar verified.

This jar contains entries whose certificate chain is not validated.
This jar contains signatures that does not include a timestamp. Without a timestamp, users may not b
e able to validate this jar after the signer certificate's expiration date (2044-02-09) or after any
 future revocation date.



Align the final APK package using zipalign



zipalign -v 4 D:\ru\SignedBuilds\MySignedApp\MySignedAppS1-release-unsigned.apk D:\ru\SignedBuilds\MySignedApp\MySignedApp.apk


D:\Android\android-sdk\build-tools\19.1.0>zipalign -v 4 D:\ru\ru_doc\Signed_apk\MySignedApp\28.09.16
_prod_playstore\MySignedAppS1-release-unsigned.apk D:\ru\ru_doc\Signed_apk\MySignedApp\28.09.16_prod
Verifying alignment of D:\ru\SignedBuilds\MySignedApp\MySignedApp.apk (

  4528613 classes.dex (OK - compressed)
 5656594 lib/commons-codec-1.6.jar (OK - compressed)
 5841869 lib/armeabi/ (OK - compressed)
Verification succesful


Verify that your APK is Aligned successfully

zipalign -c -v 4 YOUR_APK_PATH


zipalign -c -v 4 D:\ru\SignedBuilds\MySignedApp\MySignedApp.apk


D:\Android\android-sdk\build-tools\19.1.0>zipalign -c -v 4 D:\ru\SignedBuilds\MySignedApp\MySignedApp.apk
Verifying alignment of D:\ru\SignedBuilds\MySignedApp\MySignedApp.apk (

 4453984 res/drawable/zoomout.png (OK)
 4454772 res/layout/tabview.xml (OK - compressed)
 4455243 res/layout/wheel_item.xml (OK - compressed)
 4455608 resources.arsc (OK)
 4470161 classes.dex (OK - compressed)
 5597923 lib/commons-codec-1.6.jar (OK - compressed)
 5783198 lib/armeabi/ (OK - compressed)
Verification succesful



The verify command is just to check whether APK is built and signed correctly!


I hope this will help one and all :)

Java Try and Catch IOException Problem

Your countLines(String filename) method throws IOException.

You can't use it in a member declaration. You'll need to perform the operation in a main(String[] args) method.

Your main(String[] args) method will get the IOException thrown to it by countLines and it will need to handle or declare it.

Try this to just throw the IOException from main

public class MyClass {
  private int lineCount;
  public static void main(String[] args) throws IOException {
    lineCount = LineCounter.countLines(sFileName);

or this to handle it and wrap it in an unchecked IllegalArgumentException:

public class MyClass {
  private int lineCount;
  private String sFileName  = "myfile";
  public static void main(String[] args) throws IOException {
    try {
      lineCount = LineCounter.countLines(sFileName);
     } catch (IOException e) {
       throw new IllegalArgumentException("Unable to load " + sFileName, e);

Resizing SVG in html?

Try these:

  1. Set the missing viewbox and fill in the height and width values of the set height and height attributes in the svg tag

  2. Then scale the picture simply by setting the height and width to the desired percent values. Good luck.

  3. Set a fixed aspect ratio with preserveAspectRatio="X200Y200 meet (e.g. 200px), but it's not necessary


   preserveAspectRatio="x200Y200 meet"
   viewBox="0 0 350 350"
   inkscape:version="0.48.0 r9654"

How to import a module given the full path?

You can use the

load_source(module_name, path_to_file) 

method from imp module.

Converting a view to Bitmap without displaying it in Android?

there is a way to do this. you have to create a Bitmap and a Canvas and call view.draw(canvas);

here is the code:

public static Bitmap loadBitmapFromView(View v) {
    Bitmap b = Bitmap.createBitmap( v.getLayoutParams().width, v.getLayoutParams().height, Bitmap.Config.ARGB_8888);                
    Canvas c = new Canvas(b);
    v.layout(v.getLeft(), v.getTop(), v.getRight(), v.getBottom());
    return b;

if the view wasn't displayed before the size of it will be zero. Its possible to measure it like this:

if (v.getMeasuredHeight() <= 0) {
    v.measure(LayoutParams.WRAP_CONTENT, LayoutParams.WRAP_CONTENT);
    Bitmap b = Bitmap.createBitmap(v.getMeasuredWidth(), v.getMeasuredHeight(), Bitmap.Config.ARGB_8888);
    Canvas c = new Canvas(b);
    v.layout(0, 0, v.getMeasuredWidth(), v.getMeasuredHeight());
    return b;

EDIT: according to this post, Passing WRAP_CONTENT as value to makeMeasureSpec() doesn't to do any good (although for some view classes it does work), and the recommended method is:

// Either this
int specWidth = MeasureSpec.makeMeasureSpec(parentWidth, MeasureSpec.AT_MOST);
// Or this
int specWidth = MeasureSpec.makeMeasureSpec(0 /* any */, MeasureSpec.UNSPECIFIED);
view.measure(specWidth, specWidth);
int questionWidth = view.getMeasuredWidth();

Submit form and stay on same page?

99% of the time I would use XMLHttpRequest or fetch for something like this. However, there's an alternative solution which doesn't require javascript...

You could include a hidden iframe on your page and set the target attribute of your form to point to that iframe.

  .hide { position:absolute; top:-1px; left:-1px; width:1px; height:1px; }

<iframe name="hiddenFrame" class="hide"></iframe>

<form action="" method="post" target="hiddenFrame">
  <input name="signed" type="checkbox">
  <input value="Save" type="submit">

There are very few scenarios where I would choose this route. Generally handling it with javascript is better because, with javascript you can...

  • gracefully handle errors (e.g. retry)
  • provide UI indicators (e.g. loading, processing, success, failure)
  • run logic before the request is sent, or run logic after the response is received.

Switch statement for greater-than/less-than

What exactly are you doing in //do stuff?

You may be able to do something like:

(scrollLeft < 1000) ? //do stuff
: (scrollLeft > 1000 && scrollLeft < 2000) ? //do stuff
: (scrollLeft > 2000) ? //do stuff
: //etc. 

check / uncheck checkbox using jquery?

For jQuery 1.6+ :

.attr() is deprecated for properties; use the new .prop() function instead as:

$('#myCheckbox').prop('checked', true); // Checks it
$('#myCheckbox').prop('checked', false); // Unchecks it

For jQuery < 1.6:

To check/uncheck a checkbox, use the attribute checked and alter that. With jQuery you can do:

$('#myCheckbox').attr('checked', true); // Checks it
$('#myCheckbox').attr('checked', false); // Unchecks it

Cause you know, in HTML, it would look something like:

<input type="checkbox" id="myCheckbox" checked="checked" /> <!-- Checked -->
<input type="checkbox" id="myCheckbox" /> <!-- Unchecked -->

However, you cannot trust the .attr() method to get the value of the checkbox (if you need to). You will have to rely in the .prop() method.

Sharepoint: How do I filter a document library view to show the contents of a subfolder?

With Sharepoint Designer you can edit the CAML of your XSLT List View.

If you set the Scope attribute of the View element to Recursive or RecursiveAll, which returns all Files and Folders, you can filter the documents by FileDirRef:

      <FieldRef Name='FileDirRef' />
      <Value Type='Lookup'>MyFolder</Value>

This returns all documents which contain the string 'MyFolder' in their path.

I found infos about this on and useful information abouts fields at

Fatal error: Cannot use object of type stdClass as array in

Sorry.Though it is a bit late but hope it would help others as well . Always use the stdClass object.e.g

 $getvidids = $ci->db->query("SELECT * FROM videogroupids WHERE videogroupid='$videogroup'   AND used='0' LIMIT 10");

foreach($getvidids->result() as $key=>$myids)

  $vidid[$key] = $myids->videoid;  // better methodology to retrieve and store multiple records in arrays in loop

Private Variables and Methods in Python

Please note that there is no such thing as "private method" in Python. Double underscore is just name mangling:

>>> class A(object):
...     def __foo(self):
...         pass
>>> a = A()
>>> A.__dict__.keys()
['__dict__', '_A__foo', '__module__', '__weakref__', '__doc__']
>>> a._A__foo()

So therefore __ prefix is useful when you need the mangling to occur, for example to not clash with names up or below inheritance chain. For other uses, single underscore would be better, IMHO.

EDIT, regarding confusion on __, PEP-8 is quite clear on that:

If your class is intended to be subclassed, and you have attributes that you do not want subclasses to use, consider naming them with double leading underscores and no trailing underscores. This invokes Python's name mangling algorithm, where the name of the class is mangled into the attribute name. This helps avoid attribute name collisions should subclasses inadvertently contain attributes with the same name.

Note 3: Not everyone likes name mangling. Try to balance the need to avoid accidental name clashes with potential use by advanced callers.

So if you don't expect subclass to accidentally re-define own method with same name, don't use it.

AWS ssh access 'Permission denied (publickey)' issue

Ubuntu 10.04 with openSSH

this is the exact usage:

ssh -v -i [yourkeypairfile] ec2-user@[yourdnsaddress]

for example:

ssh -v -i GSG_Keypair.pem [email protected]

above example was taken directly from the AWS tutorial for connecting to a Linux/UNIX machine at:

At least one JAR was scanned for TLDs yet contained no TLDs

If one wants to have the conf\ read one must (see also here) dump this file into the Servers\Tomcat v7.0 Server at localhost-config\ folder and then add the lines :

-Djava.util.logging.config.file="${workspace_loc}\Servers\Tomcat v7.0 Server at localhost-config\" -Djava.util.logging.manager=org.apache.juli.ClassLoaderLogManager

to the VM arguments of the launch configuration one is using.

This may have taken a restart or two (or not) but finally I saw in the console in bright red :

FINE: No TLD files were found in [file:/C:/Dropbox/eclipse_workspaces/javaEE/.metadata/.plugins/org.eclipse.wst.server.core/tmp0/wtpwebapps/ted2012/WEB-INF/lib/logback-classic-1.0.7.jar]. Consider adding the JAR to the tomcat.util.scan.DefaultJarScanner.jarsToSkip or org.apache.catalina.startup.TldConfig.jarsToSkip property in CATALINA_BASE/conf/ file. //etc

I still don't know when exactly this FINE warning appears - does not appear immediately on tomcat launch EDIT: from the comment by @Stephan: "The FINE warning appears each time any change is done in the JSP file".

Bonus: To make the warning go away add in :

# Additional JARs (over and above the default JARs listed above) to skip when
# scanning for TLDs. The list must be a comma separated list of JAR file names.

How to write a shell script that runs some commands as superuser and some commands not as superuser, without having to babysit it?

File sutest

echo "uid is ${UID}"
echo "user is ${USER}"
echo "username is ${USERNAME}"

run it: `./sutest' gives me

uid is 500
user is stephenp
username is stephenp

but using sudo: sudo ./sutest gives

uid is 0
user is root
username is stephenp

So you retain the original user name in $USERNAME when running as sudo. This leads to a solution similar to what others posted:

sudo -u ${USERNAME} normal_command_1
sudo -u ${USERNAME} normal_command_2
# etc.

Just sudo to invoke your script in the first place, it will prompt for the password once.

I originally wrote this answer on Linux, which does have some differences with OS X

OS X (I'm testing this on Mountain Lion 10.8.3) has an environment variable SUDO_USER when you're running sudo, which can be used in place of USERNAME above, or to be more cross-platform the script could check to see if SUDO_USER is set and use it if so, or use USERNAME if that's set.

Changing the original script for OS X, it becomes...

sudo -u ${SUDO_USER} normal_command_1
sudo -u ${SUDO_USER} normal_command_2
# etc.

A first stab at making it cross-platform could be...

# set "THE_USER" to SUDO_USER if that's set,
#  else set it to USERNAME if THAT is set,
#   else set it to the string "unknown"
# should probably then test to see if it's "unknown"

sudo -u ${THE_USER} normal_command_1
sudo -u ${THE_USER} normal_command_2
# etc.

How to import the class within the same directory or sub directory?

To make it more simple to understand:

Step 1: lets go to one directory, where all will be included

$ cd /var/tmp

Step 2: now lets make a file which has a class name Class1 with some code

$ cat > <<\EOF
class Class1:
    OKBLUE = '\033[94m'
    ENDC = '\033[0m'
    OK = OKBLUE + "[Class1 OK]: " + ENDC

Step 3: now lets make a file which has a class name Class2 with some code

$ cat > <<\EOF
class Class2:
    OKBLUE = '\033[94m'
    ENDC = '\033[0m'
    OK = OKBLUE + "[Class2 OK]: " + ENDC

Step 4: now lets make one which will be execute once to use Class1 and Class2 from 2 different files

$ cat > <<\EOF
"""this is how we are actually calling and  from that file loading Class1"""
from class1 import Class1 
"""this is how we are actually calling and  from that file loading Class2"""
from class2 import Class2

print Class1.OK
print Class2.OK

Step 5: Run the program

$ python

The output would be

[Class1 OK]: 
[Class2 OK]:

Check if a variable is null in plsql

if var is NULL then
  var :=5;
end if;

Python class returning value

the worked proposition for me is __call__ on class who create list of little numbers:

import itertools
class SmallNumbers:
    def __init__(self, how_much):
        self.how_much = int(how_much)
        self.work_list = ['0', '1', '2', '3', '4', '5', '6', '7', '8', '9']
        self.generated_list = ['0', '1', '2', '3', '4', '5', '6', '7', '8', '9']
        start = 10
        end = 100
        for cmb in range(2, len(str(self.how_much)) + 1):
            self.ListOfCombinations(is_upper_then=start, is_under_then=end, combinations=cmb)
            start *= 10
            end *= 10

    def __call__(self, number, *args, **kwargs):
        return self.generated_list[number]

    def ListOfCombinations(self, is_upper_then, is_under_then, combinations):
        multi_work_list = eval(str('self.work_list,') * combinations)
        nbr = 0
        for subset in itertools.product(*multi_work_list):
            if is_upper_then <= nbr < is_under_then:
                if self.how_much == nbr:
            nbr += 1

and to run it:

if __name__ == '__main__':
        sm = SmallNumbers(56)
        print(sm.generated_list[34], sm.generated_list[27], sm.generated_list[10])
        print('The Best', sm(15), sm(55), sm(49), sm(0))


['0', '1', '2', '3', '4', '5', '6', '7', '8', '9', '10', '11', '12', '13', '14', '15', '16', '17', '18', '19', '20', '21', '22', '23', '24', '25', '26', '27', '28', '29', '30', '31', '32', '33', '34', '35', '36', '37', '38', '39', '40', '41', '42', '43', '44', '45', '46', '47', '48', '49', '50', '51', '52', '53', '54', '55', '56']
34 27 10
The Best 15 55 49 0

How should I pass an int into stringWithFormat?

And for comedic value:

label.text = [NSString stringWithFormat:@"%@", [NSNumber numberWithInt:count]];

(Though it could be useful if one day you're dealing with NSNumber's)

How to identify numpy types in python?

Old question but I came up with a definitive answer with an example. Can't hurt to keep questions fresh as I had this same problem and didn't find a clear answer. The key is to make sure you have numpy imported, and then run the isinstance bool. While this may seem simple, if you are doing some computations across different data types, this small check can serve as a quick test before your start some numpy vectorized operation.

# important part!

import numpy as np

# toy array for demo

arr = np.asarray(range(1,100,2))

# The instance check


How can I submit a POST form using the <a href="..."> tag?

You have to use Javascript submit function on your form object. Take a look in other functions.

<form action="showMessage.jsp" method="post">
    <a href="javascript:;" onclick="parentNode.submit();"><%=n%></a>
    <input type="hidden" name="mess" value=<%=n%>/>

How to check if there exists a process with a given pid in Python?

I'd say use the PID for whatever purpose you're obtaining it and handle the errors gracefully. Otherwise, it's a classic race (the PID may be valid when you check it's valid, but go away an instant later)

Simple PHP form: Attachment to email (code golf)

This article "How to create PHP based email form with file attachment" presents step-by-step instructions how to achieve your requirement.


This article shows you how to create a PHP based email form that supports file attachment. The article will also show you how to validate the type and size of the uploaded file.

It consists of the following steps:

  • The HTML form with file upload box
  • Getting the uploaded file in the PHP script
  • Validating the size and extension of the uploaded file
  • Copy the uploaded file
  • Sending the Email

The entire example code can be downloaded here

mysql count group by having

One way would be to use a nested query:

SELECT count(*)
   SELECT COUNT(Genre) AS count
   FROM movies
   HAVING (count = 4)
) AS x

The inner query gets all the movies that have exactly 4 genres, then outer query counts how many rows the inner query returned.

Bash conditionals: how to "and" expressions? (if [ ! -z $VAR && -e $VAR ])

if [ ! -z "$var" ] && [ -e "$var" ]; then
      # something ...

Fatal error: Maximum execution time of 30 seconds exceeded

All the answers above are correct, but I use a simple way to avoid it in some cases.

Just put this command in the begining of your script:


git pull error "The requested URL returned error: 503 while accessing"

here you can see the latest updated status form their website

bitbucket site status

if Git via HTTPS status is Major Outage, you will not be able to pull/push, let this status to get green

HTTP Error 503 - Service unavailable

MySQL duplicate entry error even though there is no duplicate entry

Less common cases, but keep in mind that according to DOC

When running an online ALTER TABLE operation, the thread that runs the ALTER TABLE operation will apply an “online log” of DML operations that were run concurrently on the same table from other connection threads. When the DML operations are applied, it is possible to encounter a duplicate key entry error (ERROR 1062 (23000): Duplicate entry), even if the duplicate entry is only temporary and would be reverted by a later entry in the “online log”. This is similar to the idea of a foreign key constraint check in InnoDB in which constraints must hold during a transaction.

WebApi's {"message":"an error has occurred"} on IIS7, not in IIS Express

In case this helps anyone:

I had a similar issue, and following Nates instructions I added:

     <customErrors mode="Off"/>

This showed me more information about the error:

"ExceptionMessage": "Unable to load the specified metadata resource.", "ExceptionType": "System.Data.Entity.Core.MetadataException", "StackTrace": " at System.Data.Entity.Core.Metadata.Edm.MetadataArtifactLoaderCompositeResource.LoadResources(...

This is when I remembered that I had moved the edmx file to a different location and had forgotten to change the connectionstrings node in the config (connectionsstrings node was placed in a seperate file using "configSource", but that's another story).

How to install .MSI using PowerShell

$computername = Get-Content 'M:\Applications\Powershell\comp list\Test.txt'
$sourcefile = "\\server\Apps\LanSchool 7.7\Windows\Student.msi"
#This section will install the software 
foreach ($computer in $computername) 
    $destinationFolder = "\\$computer\C$\download\LanSchool"
    #This section will copy the $sourcefile to the $destinationfolder. If the Folder does not exist it will create it.
    if (!(Test-Path -path $destinationFolder))
        New-Item $destinationFolder -Type Directory
    Copy-Item -Path $sourcefile -Destination $destinationFolder
    Invoke-Command -ComputerName $computer -ScriptBlock { & cmd /c "msiexec.exe /i c:\download\LanSchool\Student.msi" /qn ADVANCED_OPTIONS=1 CHANNEL=100}

I've searched all over for this myself and came up with zilch but have finally cobbled this working script together. It's working great! Thought I'd post here hopefully someone else can benefit. It pulls in a list of computers, copies the files down to the local machines and runs it. :) party on!

Convert string to a variable name

assign is what you are looking for.

assign("x", 5)

[1] 5

but buyer beware.

See R FAQ 7.21

How do you make a div tag into a link


  • If you want a link, wrap the content in the proper <A>NCHOR</a>.
  • If you want to turn the <DIV> into a link, use "Javascript" to wrap the <DIV> inside an <A>NCHOR</A>
  • If you want to perform some action when clicking the <DIV> use the onclick event handler... and don't call it a "link".

Counting the number of elements with the values of x in a vector

If you want to count the number of appearances subsequently, you can make use of the sapply function:

cbind(numbers, index)


        numbers index
 [1,]       4     1
 [2,]      23     1
 [3,]       4     2
 [4,]      23     2
 [5,]       5     1
 [6,]      43     1
 [7,]      54     1
 [8,]      56     1
 [9,]     657     1
[10,]      67     1
[11,]      67     2
[12,]     435     1
[13,]     453     1
[14,]     435     2
[15,]     324     1
[16,]      34     1
[17,]     456     1
[18,]      56     2
[19,]     567     1
[20,]      65     1
[21,]      34     2
[22,]     435     3

How do I check if an object has a key in JavaScript?

Try the JavaScript in operator.

if ('key' in myObj)

And the inverse.

if (!('key' in myObj))

Be careful! The in operator matches all object keys, including those in the object's prototype chain.

Use myObj.hasOwnProperty('key') to check an object's own keys and will only return true if key is available on myObj directly:


Unless you have a specific reason to use the in operator, using myObj.hasOwnProperty('key') produces the result most code is looking for.

Setting Java heap space under Maven 2 on Windows

On the Mac: Instead of JAVA_OPTS and MAVEN_OPTS, use _JAVA_OPTIONS instead. This works!

Save file Javascript with file name

function saveAs(uri, filename) {
    var link = document.createElement('a');
    if (typeof === 'string') {
        document.body.appendChild(link); // Firefox requires the link to be in the body = filename;
        link.href = uri;;
        document.body.removeChild(link); // remove the link when done
    } else {

Python: How exactly can you take a string, split it, reverse it and join it back together again?

You mean this?

from string import punctuation, digits

takeout = punctuation + digits

turnthis = "(fjskl) 234 = -345 089 abcdef"
turnthis = turnthis.translate(None, takeout)[::-1]
print turnthis

How can I represent a range in Java?

Apache Commons Lang has a Range class for doing arbitrary ranges.

Range<Integer> test = Range.between(1, 3);

Guava Range has similar API.

If you are just wanting to check if a number fits into a long value or an int value, you could try using it through BigDecimal. There are methods for longValueExact and intValueExact that throw exceptions if the value is too big for those precisions.

Compilation error: stray ‘\302’ in program etc

With me this error ocurred when I copied and pasted a code in text format to my editor (gedit). The code was in a text document (.odt) and I copied it and pasted it into gedit. If you did the same, you have manually rewrite the code.

R numbers from 1 to 100

If you need the construct for a quick example to play with, use the : operator.

But if you are creating a vector/range of numbers dynamically, then use seq() instead.

Let's say you are creating the vector/range of numbers from a to b with a:b, and you expect it to be an increasing series. Then, if b is evaluated to be less than a, you will get a decreasing sequence but you will never be notified about it, and your program will continue to execute with the wrong kind of input.

In this case, if you use seq(), you can set the sign of the by argument to match the direction of your sequence, and an error will be raised if they do not match. For example,

seq(a, b, -1)

will raise an error for a=2, b=6, because the coder expected a decreasing sequence.

Java OCR implementation

We have tested a few OCR engines with Java like Tesseract,Asprise, Abbyy etc. In our analysis, Abbyy gave the best results.

How to use CURL via a proxy?

Here is a well tested function which i used for my projects with detailed self explanatory comments

There are many times when the ports other than 80 are blocked by server firewall so the code appears to be working fine on localhost but not on the server

function get_page($url){

global $proxy;
$ch = curl_init();
curl_setopt($ch, CURLOPT_URL, $url);
//curl_setopt($ch, CURLOPT_PROXY, $proxy);
curl_setopt($ch, CURLOPT_HEADER, 0); // return headers 0 no 1 yes
curl_setopt($ch, CURLOPT_RETURNTRANSFER, true); // return page 1:yes
curl_setopt($ch, CURLOPT_TIMEOUT, 200); // http request timeout 20 seconds
curl_setopt($ch, CURLOPT_FOLLOWLOCATION, true); // Follow redirects, need this if the url changes
curl_setopt($ch, CURLOPT_MAXREDIRS, 2); //if http server gives redirection responce
curl_setopt($ch, CURLOPT_USERAGENT,
    "Mozilla/5.0 (Windows; U; Windows NT 5.1; en-US; rv: Gecko/20070914 Firefox/");
curl_setopt($ch, CURLOPT_COOKIEJAR, "cookies.txt"); // cookies storage / here the changes have been made
curl_setopt($ch, CURLOPT_COOKIEFILE, "cookies.txt");
curl_setopt($ch, CURLOPT_SSL_VERIFYPEER, false); // false for https
curl_setopt($ch, CURLOPT_ENCODING, "gzip"); // the page encoding

$data = curl_exec($ch); // execute the http request
curl_close($ch); // close the connection
return $data;

Password encryption at client side

For a similar situation I used this PKCS #5: Password-Based Cryptography Standard from RSA laboratories. You can avoid storing password, by substituting it with something that can be generated only from the password (in one sentence). There are some JavaScript implementations.

How to create a new database after initally installing oracle database 11g Express Edition?

If you wish to create a new schema in XE, you need to create an USER and assign its privileges. Follow these steps:

  • Open the SQL*Plus Command-line
SQL> connect sys as sysdba
  • Enter the password
SQL> ALTER USER myschema QUOTA unlimited ON SYSTEM;

Now you can connect via Oracle SQL Developer and create your tables.

How to apply `git diff` patch without Git installed?

I use

patch -p1 --merge < patchfile

This way, conflicts may be resolved as usual.

How to specify font attributes for all elements on an html web page?

you can set them in the body tag


How to insert a text at the beginning of a file?

Hi with carriage return:

sed -i '1s/^/your text\n/' file

How to increase image size of pandas.DataFrame.plot in jupyter notebook?

If you want to make a change global to the whole notebook:

import matplotlib.pyplot as plt
%matplotlib inline
plt.rcParams["figure.figsize"] = [10, 5]

Load local images in React.js

First, you need to create a folder in src directory then put images you want.

Create a folder structure like


then import these images in JSX file

import linechart from './../../images/linechart.png'; 

then you need use in images src like below.

<img src={linechart} alt="piechart" height="400px" width="400px"></img>

NameError: global name 'xrange' is not defined in Python 3

in python 2.x, xrange is used to return a generator while range is used to return a list. In python 3.x , xrange has been removed and range returns a generator just like xrange in python 2.x. Therefore, in python 3.x you need to use range rather than xrange.

Try-catch block in Jenkins pipeline script

This answer worked for me:

pipeline {
  agent any
  stages {
    stage("Run unit tests"){
      steps {
        script {
          try {
            sh  '''
              # Run unit tests without capturing stdout or logs, generates cobetura reports
              cd ./python
              nosetests3 --with-xcoverage --nocapture --with-xunit --nologcapture --cover-package=application
              cd ..
          } finally {
            junit 'nosetests.xml'
    stage ('Speak') {
        echo "Hello, CONDITIONAL"

How do I run Python script using arguments in windows command line

There are more than a couple of mistakes in the code.

  1. 'import sys' line should be outside the functions as the function is itself being called using arguments fetched using sys functions.
  2. If you want correct sum, you should cast the arguments (strings) into floats. Change the sum line to --> sum = float(a) + float(b).
  3. Since you have not defined any default values for any of the function arguments, it is necessary to pass both arguments while calling the function --> hello(sys.argv[2], sys.argv[2])

    import sys def hello(a,b): print ("hello and that's your sum:") sum=float(a)+float(b) print (sum)

    if __name__ == "__main__": hello(sys.argv[1], sys.argv[2])

Also, using "C:\Python27>hello 1 1" to run the code looks fine but you have to make sure that the file is in one of the directories that Python knows about (PATH env variable). So, please use the full path to validate the code. Something like:

C:\Python34>python C:\Users\pranayk\Desktop\ 1 1

Sql Server equivalent of a COUNTIF aggregate function

Not product-specific, but the SQL standard provides

SELECT COUNT() FILTER WHERE <condition-1>, COUNT() FILTER WHERE <condition-2>, ... FROM ...

for this purpose. Or something that closely resembles it, I don't know off the top of my hat.

And of course vendors will prefer to stick with their proprietary solutions.

read file in classpath

Change . to / as the path separator and use getResourceAsStream:

reader = new BufferedReader(new InputStreamReader(


reader = new BufferedReader(new InputStreamReader(

Note the leading slash when using Class.getResourceAsStream() vs ClassLoader.getResourceAsStream. getSystemResourceAsStream uses the system classloader which isn't what you want.

I suspect that using slashes instead of dots would work for ClassPathResource too.

Calculate date/time difference in java

// d1, d2 are dates
long diff = d2.getTime() - d1.getTime();

long diffSeconds = diff / 1000 % 60;
long diffMinutes = diff / (60 * 1000) % 60;
long diffHours = diff / (60 * 60 * 1000) % 24;
long diffDays = diff / (24 * 60 * 60 * 1000);

System.out.print(diffDays + " days, ");
System.out.print(diffHours + " hours, ");
System.out.print(diffMinutes + " minutes, ");
System.out.print(diffSeconds + " seconds.");

ReferenceError: document is not defined (in plain JavaScript)

It depends on when the self executing anonymous function is running. It is possible that it is running before window.document is defined.

In that case, try adding a listener

window.addEventListener('load', yourFunction, false);
// ..... or 
window.addEventListener('DOMContentLoaded', yourFunction, false);

yourFunction () {
  // some ocde


Update: (after the update of the question and inclusion of the code)

Read the following about the issues in referencing DOM elements from a JavaScript inserted and run in head element:
- “getElementsByTagName(…)[0]” is undefined?
- Traversing the DOM

SELECT list is not in GROUP BY clause and contains nonaggregated column

As @Brian Riley already said you should either remove 1 column in your select

select countrylanguage.language ,sum(country.population*countrylanguage.percentage/100)
from countrylanguage
join country on countrylanguage.countrycode = country.code
group by countrylanguage.language
order by sum(country.population*countrylanguage.percentage) desc ;

or add it to your grouping

select countrylanguage.language, country.code, sum(country.population*countrylanguage.percentage/100)
from countrylanguage
join country on countrylanguage.countrycode = country.code
group by countrylanguage.language, country.code
order by sum(country.population*countrylanguage.percentage) desc ;

How to show all rows by default in JQuery DataTable


    aLengthMenu: [
        [25, 50, 100, 200, -1],
        [25, 50, 100, 200, "All"]
    iDisplayLength: -1

Or if using 1.10+

    paging: false

The option you should use is iDisplayLength:

  'iDisplayLength': 100

   "lengthMenu": [ [5, 10, 25, 50, -1], [5, 10, 25, 50, "All"] ]

It will Load by default all entries.

    aLengthMenu: [
        [25, 50, 100, 200, -1],
        [25, 50, 100, 200, "All"]
    iDisplayLength: -1

Or if using 1.10+

    paging: false

If you want to load by default 25 not all do this.

    aLengthMenu: [
        [25, 50, 100, 200, -1],
        [25, 50, 100, 200, "All"]

Could not calculate build plan: Plugin org.apache.maven.plugins:maven-jar-plugin:2.3.2 or one of its dependencies could not be resolved

Right click project "pom.xml" in eclipse and select Maven Install. Right click on the Project -> Maven -> Update Project.

Then Refresh.

Leave menu bar fixed on top when scrolled

In this example, you may show your menu centered.


<div id="main-menu-container">
    <div id="main-menu">
        //your menu


.f-nav{  /* To fix main menu container */
    z-index: 9999;
    position: fixed;
    left: 0;
    top: 0;
    width: 100%;
#main-menu-container {
    text-align: center; /* Assuming your main layout is centered */
#main-menu {
    display: inline-block;
    width: 1024px; /* Your menu's width */


    var nav = $('#main-menu-container');

    $(window).scroll(function () {
        if ($(this).scrollTop() > 125) {
        } else {

Inner join with 3 tables in mysql

The correct statement should be :

FROM grade
  INNER JOIN student
    ON student.studentId = grade.fk_studentId
    ON exam.examId = grade.fk_examId

A table is refered to other on the basis of the foreign key relationship defined. You should refer the ids properly if you wish the data to show as queried. So you should refer the id's to the proper foreign keys in the table rather than just on the id which doesn't define a proper relation

MySQL LEFT JOIN Multiple Conditions

Just move the extra condition into the JOIN ON criteria, this way the existence of b is not required to return a result

    LEFT JOIN b ON a.group_id=b.group_id AND b.user_id!=$_SESSION{['user_id']} 
    WHERE a.keyword LIKE '%".$keyword."%' 
    GROUP BY group_id

How to getElementByClass instead of GetElementById with JavaScript?

Use it to access class in Javascript.

<script type="text/javascript">
var var_name = document.getElementsByClassName("class_name")[0];

Displaying a webcam feed using OpenCV and Python

Try the following. It is simple, but I haven't figured out a graceful way to exit yet.

import as cv
import time

cv.NamedWindow("camera", 0)

capture = cv.CaptureFromCAM(0)

while True:
    img = cv.QueryFrame(capture)
    cv.ShowImage("camera", img)
    if cv.WaitKey(10) == 27:

how do I initialize a float to its max/min value?

You can either use -FLT_MAX (or -DBL_MAX) for the maximum magnitude negative number and FLT_MAX (or DBL_MAX) for positive. This gives you the range of possible float (or double) values.

You probably don't want to use FLT_MIN; it corresponds to the smallest magnitude positive number that can be represented with a float, not the most negative value representable with a float.

FLT_MIN and FLT_MAX correspond to std::numeric_limits<float>::min() and std::numeric_limits<float>::max().

PHP code to convert a MySQL query to CSV

// Export to CSV
if($_GET['action'] == 'export') {

  $rsSearchResults = mysql_query($sql, $db) or die(mysql_error());

  $out = '';
  $fields = mysql_list_fields('database','table',$db);
  $columns = mysql_num_fields($fields);

  // Put the name of all fields
  for ($i = 0; $i < $columns; $i++) {
    $l=mysql_field_name($fields, $i);
    $out .= '"'.$l.'",';
  $out .="\n";

  // Add all values in the table
  while ($l = mysql_fetch_array($rsSearchResults)) {
    for ($i = 0; $i < $columns; $i++) {
      $out .='"'.$l["$i"].'",';
    $out .="\n";
  // Output to browser with appropriate mime type, you choose ;)
  header("Content-type: text/x-csv");
  //header("Content-type: text/csv");
  //header("Content-type: application/csv");
  header("Content-Disposition: attachment; filename=search_results.csv");
  echo $out;

How to print instances of a class using print()?

If you're in a situation like @Keith you could try:


It goes against what I would consider good style but if you're just trying to debug then it should do what you want.

MySQL Stored procedure variables from SELECT statements

You simply need to enclose your SELECT statements in parentheses to indicate that they are subqueries:

SET cityLat = (SELECT FROM cities WHERE = cityID);

Alternatively, you can use MySQL's SELECT ... INTO syntax. One advantage of this approach is that both cityLat and cityLng can be assigned from a single table-access:

SELECT lat, lng INTO cityLat, cityLng FROM cities WHERE id = cityID;

However, the entire procedure can be replaced with a single self-joined SELECT statement:

SELECT   b.*, HAVERSINE(, a.lng,, b.lng) AS dist
FROM     cities AS a, cities AS b
WHERE = cityID
LIMIT    10;

bitwise XOR of hex numbers in python

If the strings are the same length, then I would go for '%x' % () of the built-in xor (^).

Examples -

>>>a = '290b6e3a'
>>>b = 'd6f491c5'
>>>'%x' % (int(a,16)^int(b,16))
>>>c = 'abcd'
>>>d = '12ef'
>>>'%x' % (int(a,16)^int(b,16))

If the strings are not the same length, truncate the longer string to the length of the shorter using a slice longer = longer[:len(shorter)]

Python Pandas replicate rows in dataframe

You can put df_try inside a list and then do what you have in mind:

>>> df.append([df_try]*5,ignore_index=True)

    Store  Dept       Date  Weekly_Sales IsHoliday
0       1     1 2010-02-05      24924.50     False
1       1     1 2010-02-12      46039.49      True
2       1     1 2010-02-19      41595.55     False
3       1     1 2010-02-26      19403.54     False
4       1     1 2010-03-05      21827.90     False
5       1     1 2010-03-12      21043.39     False
6       1     1 2010-03-19      22136.64     False
7       1     1 2010-03-26      26229.21     False
8       1     1 2010-04-02      57258.43     False
9       1     1 2010-02-12      46039.49      True
10      1     1 2010-02-12      46039.49      True
11      1     1 2010-02-12      46039.49      True
12      1     1 2010-02-12      46039.49      True
13      1     1 2010-02-12      46039.49      True

Extracting hours from a DateTime (SQL Server 2005)

Try this one too:


Using the grep and cut delimiter command (in bash shell scripting UNIX) - and kind of "reversing" it?

You don't need to change the delimiter to display the right part of the string with cut.

The -f switch of the cut command is the n-TH element separated by your delimiter : :, so you can just type :

 grep puddle2_1557936 | cut -d ":" -f2

Another solutions (adapt it a bit) if you want fun :

Using :

grep -oP 'puddle2_1557936:\K.*' <<< 'puddle2_1557936:/home/rogers.williams/folderz/puddle2'                                                                        

or still with look around

grep -oP '(?<=puddle2_1557936:).*' <<< 'puddle2_1557936:/home/rogers.williams/folderz/puddle2'                                                                    

or with :

perl -lne '/puddle2_1557936:(.*)/ and print $1' <<< 'puddle2_1557936:/home/rogers.williams/folderz/puddle2'                                                      

or using (thanks to glenn jackman)

ruby -F: -ane '/puddle2_1557936/ and puts $F[1]' <<< 'puddle2_1557936:/home/rogers.williams/folderz/puddle2'

or with :

awk -F'puddle2_1557936:' '{print $2}'  <<< 'puddle2_1557936:/home/rogers.williams/folderz/puddle2'

or with :

python -c 'import sys; print(sys.argv[1].split("puddle2_1557936:")[1])' 'puddle2_1557936:/home/rogers.williams/folderz/puddle2'

or using only :

IFS=: read _ a <<< "puddle2_1557936:/home/rogers.williams/folderz/puddle2"
echo "$a"

or using in a :

var x = 'puddle2_1557936:/home/rogers.williams/folderz/puddle2'

or using in a :

php -r 'preg_match("/puddle2_1557936:(.*)/", $argv[1], $m); echo "$m[1]\n";' 'puddle2_1557936:/home/rogers.williams/folderz/puddle2' 

Create an empty data.frame

If you don't mind not specifying data types explicitly, you can do it this way:

df <-,ncol=3,nrow=0))

#then bind incoming data frame with col types to set data types
df<-rbind(df, new_df)

NSAttributedString add text alignment


NSMutableParagraphStyle paragraphStyle = new NSMutableParagraphStyle();
paragraphStyle.HyphenationFactor = 1.0f;
var hyphenAttribute = new UIStringAttributes();
hyphenAttribute.ParagraphStyle = paragraphStyle;
var attributedString = new NSAttributedString(str: name, attributes: hyphenAttribute);

Not able to install Python packages [SSL: TLSV1_ALERT_PROTOCOL_VERSION]

Check your TLS version:

python2 -c "import urllib2,json; print(json.loads(urllib2.urlopen('').read())['tls_version'])"

If your TLS version is less than 1.2 you have to upgrade it since the PyPI repository is on a brownout period of deprecating early TLS.

Source - Time To Upgrade Your Python: TLS v1.2 Will Soon Be Mandatory

You can upgrade the TLS version using the following command:

sudo apt-get update && sudo apt-get install openssl libssl-dev

This should fix your problem. Good luck!

EDIT: You can download packages using your own private python package repository regardless of TLS version. Private Python Package Repository

Find substring in the string in TWIG

Just searched for the docs, and found this:

Containment Operator: The in operator performs containment test. It returns true if the left operand is contained in the right:

{# returns true #}

{{ 1 in [1, 2, 3] }}

{{ 'cd' in 'abcde' }}

Drop all tables command

rm db/development.sqlite3

Resource interpreted as stylesheet but transferred with MIME type text/html (seems not related with web server)

Using React

I came across this error in my react profile app. My app behaved kind of like it was trying to reference a url that doesn't exist. I believe this has something to do with how webpack behaves.

If you are linking files in your public folder you must remember to use %PUBLIC_URL% before the resource like this:

<link type="text/css" rel="stylesheet" href="%PUBLIC_URL%/bootstrap.min.css" />

Plotting a python dict in order of key values

Python dictionaries are unordered. If you want an ordered dictionary, use collections.OrderedDict

In your case, sort the dict by key before plotting,

import matplotlib.pylab as plt

lists = sorted(d.items()) # sorted by key, return a list of tuples

x, y = zip(*lists) # unpack a list of pairs into two tuples

plt.plot(x, y)

Here is the result. enter image description here

How to add comments into a Xaml file in WPF?

You cannot put comments inside UWP XAML tags. Your syntax is right.


<!-- Cool comment -->


    <!-- Cool comment -->

Replace Multiple String Elements in C#

If you are simply after a pretty solution and don't need to save a few nanoseconds, how about some LINQ sugar?

var input = "test1test2test3";
var replacements = new Dictionary<string, string> { { "1", "*" }, { "2", "_" }, { "3", "&" } };

var output = replacements.Aggregate(input, (current, replacement) => current.Replace(replacement.Key, replacement.Value));

What's the use of "enum" in Java?

Enum serves as a type of fixed number of constants and can be used at least for two things


public enum Month {

This is much better than creating a bunch of integer constants.

creating a singleton

public enum Singleton {

   // init

You can do quite interesting things with enums, look at here

Also look at the official documentation

How can I select from list of values in Oracle

There are various ways to take a comma-separated list and parse it into multiple rows of data. In SQL

SQL> ed
Wrote file afiedt.buf

  1  with x as (
  2    select '1,2,3,a,b,c,d' str from dual
  3  )
  4   select regexp_substr(str,'[^,]+',1,level) element
  5     from x
  6* connect by level <= length(regexp_replace(str,'[^,]+')) + 1
SQL> /


7 rows selected.

Or in PL/SQL

SQL> create type str_tbl is table of varchar2(100);
  2  /

Type created.

SQL> create or replace function parse_list( p_list in varchar2 )
  2    return str_tbl
  3    pipelined
  4  is
  5  begin
  6    for x in (select regexp_substr( p_list, '[^,]', 1, level ) element
  7                from dual
  8             connect by level <= length( regexp_replace( p_list, '[^,]+')) + 1)
  9    loop
 10      pipe row( x.element );
 11    end loop
 12    return;
 13  end;
 15  /

Function created.

SQL> select *
  2    from table( parse_list( 'a,b,c,1,2,3,d,e,foo' ));


9 rows selected.

What is the newline character in the C language: \r or \n?

What is the newline character in the C language: \r or \n?

The new-line may be thought of a some char and it has the value of '\n'. C11 5.2.1

This C new-line comes up in 3 places: C source code, as a single char and as an end-of-line in file I/O when in text mode.

  1. Many compilers will treat source text as ASCII. In that case, codes 10, sometimes 13, and sometimes paired 13,10 as new-line for source code. Had the source code been in another character set, different codes may be used. This new-line typically marks the end of a line of source code (actually a bit more complicated here), // comment, and # directives.

  2. In source code, the 2 characters \ and n represent the char new-line as \n. If ASCII is used, this char would have the value of 10.

  3. In file I/O, in text mode, upon reading the bytes of the input file (and stdin), depending on the environment, when bytes with the value(s) of 10 (Unix), 13,10, (*1) (Windows), 13 (Old Mac??) and other variations are translated in to a '\n'. Upon writing a file (or stdout), the reverse translation occurs.
    Note: File I/O in binary mode makes no translation.

The '\r' in source code is the carriage return char.

(*1) A lone 13 and/or 10 may also translate into \n.

Create SQL script that create database and tables

An excellent explanation can be found here: Generate script in SQL Server Management Studio

Courtesy Ali Issa Here's what you have to do:

  1. Right click the database (not the table) and select tasks --> generate scripts
  2. Next --> select the requested table/tables (from select specific database objects)
  3. Next --> click advanced --> types of data to script = schema and data

If you want to create a script that just generates the tables (no data) you can skip the advanced part of the instructions!

Visual Studio opens the default browser instead of Internet Explorer

If you're running an MVC 3 application - in your solution explorer click the show all files icon and then under the Global.asax file there should be a file called YourProjectName.Publish.XML right-click it and then click "Browse With..." and select your favorite browser as the default.

Granting Rights on Stored Procedure to another user of Oracle

Packages and stored procedures in Oracle execute by default using the rights of the package/procedure OWNER, not the currently logged on user.

So if you call a package that creates a user for example, its the package owner, not the calling user that needs create user privilege. The caller just needs to have execute permission on the package.

If you would prefer that the package should be run using the calling user's permissions, then when creating the package you need to specify AUTHID CURRENT_USER

Oracle documentation "Invoker Rights vs Definer Rights" has more information

Hope this helps.

How do I count the number of occurrences of a char in a String?

The simplest way to get the answer is as follow:

public static void main(String[] args) {
    String string = "a.b.c.d";
    String []splitArray = string.split("\\.",-1);
    System.out.println("No of . chars is : " + (splitArray.length-1));

pandas dataframe groupby datetime month

One solution which avoids MultiIndex is to create a new datetime column setting day = 1. Then group by this column.

Normalise day of month

df = pd.DataFrame({'Date': pd.to_datetime(['2017-10-05', '2017-10-20', '2017-10-01', '2017-09-01']),
                   'Values': [5, 10, 15, 20]})

# normalize day to beginning of month, 4 alternative methods below
df['YearMonth'] = df['Date'] + pd.offsets.MonthEnd(-1) + pd.offsets.Day(1)
df['YearMonth'] = df['Date'] - pd.to_timedelta(df['Date'], unit='D')
df['YearMonth'] = df['Date'].map(lambda dt: dt.replace(day=1))
df['YearMonth'] = df['Date'].dt.normalize().map(pd.tseries.offsets.MonthBegin().rollback)

Then use groupby as normal:

g = df.groupby('YearMonth')

res = g['Values'].sum()

# YearMonth
# 2017-09-01    20
# 2017-10-01    30
# Name: Values, dtype: int64

Comparison with pd.Grouper

The subtle benefit of this solution is, unlike pd.Grouper, the grouper index is normalized to the beginning of each month rather than the end, and therefore you can easily extract groups via get_group:

some_group = g.get_group('2017-10-01')

Calculating the last day of October is slightly more cumbersome. pd.Grouper, as of v0.23, does support a convention parameter, but this is only applicable for a PeriodIndex grouper.

Comparison with string conversion

An alternative to the above idea is to convert to a string, e.g. convert datetime 2017-10-XX to string '2017-10'. However, this is not recommended since you lose all the efficiency benefits of a datetime series (stored internally as numerical data in a contiguous memory block) versus an object series of strings (stored as an array of pointers).

Show/Hide Multiple Divs with Jquery

jQuery(function() {_x000D_
  jQuery('#showall').click(function() {_x000D_
  jQuery('.showSingle').click(function() {_x000D_
    jQuery('#div' + $(this).attr('target')).show();_x000D_
<script src=""></script>_x000D_
<div class="buttons">_x000D_
  <a id="showall">All</a>_x000D_
  <a class="showSingle" target="1">Div 1</a>_x000D_
  <a class="showSingle" target="2">Div 2</a>_x000D_
  <a class="showSingle" target="3">Div 3</a>_x000D_
  <a class="showSingle" target="4">Div 4</a>_x000D_
<div id="div1" class="targetDiv">Lorum Ipsum1</div>_x000D_
<div id="div2" class="targetDiv">Lorum Ipsum2</div>_x000D_
<div id="div3" class="targetDiv">Lorum Ipsum3</div>_x000D_
<div id="div4" class="targetDiv">Lorum Ipsum4</div>

html/css buttons that scroll down to different div sections on a webpage

try this:

<input type="button" onClick="document.getElementById('middle').scrollIntoView();" />

How to set selected value on select using selectpicker plugin from bootstrap

$('.selectpicker').selectpicker('val', '0');

With the '0' being the value of the item you want selected

jQuery Set Select Index

I often use trigger ('change') to make it work

$('#selectBox option:eq(position_index)').prop('selected', true).trigger('change');

Example with id select = selectA1 and position_index = 0 (frist option in select):

$('#selectA1 option:eq(0)').prop('selected', true).trigger('change');

C++ Remove new line from multiline string

If the newline is expected to be at the end of the string, then:

if (!s.empty() && s[s.length()-1] == '\n') {

If the string can contain many newlines anywhere in the string:

std::string::size_type i = 0;
while (i < s.length()) {
    i = s.find('\n', i);
    if (i == std::string:npos) {

QR Code encoding and decoding using zxing

For what it's worth, my groovy spike seems to work with both UTF-8 and ISO-8859-1 character encodings. Not sure what will happen when a non zxing decoder tries to decode the UTF-8 encoded image though... probably varies depending on the device.

// ------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
// Requires: groovy-1.7.6, jdk1.6.0_03, ./lib with zxing core-1.7.jar, javase-1.7.jar 
// Javadocs:
// Run with: groovy -cp "./lib/*" zxing.groovy
// ------------------------------------------------------------------------------------


import java.awt.image.BufferedImage
import javax.imageio.ImageIO

def class zxing {
    def static main(def args) {
        def filename = "./qrcode.png"
        def data = "This is a test to see if I can encode and decode this data..."
        def charset = "UTF-8" //"ISO-8859-1" 
        def hints = new Hashtable<EncodeHintType, String>([(EncodeHintType.CHARACTER_SET): charset])

        writeQrCode(filename, data, charset, hints, 100, 100)

        assert data == readQrCode(filename, charset, hints)

    def static writeQrCode(def filename, def data, def charset, def hints, def width, def height) {
        BitMatrix matrix = new MultiFormatWriter().encode(new String(data.getBytes(charset), charset), BarcodeFormat.QR_CODE, width, height, hints)
        MatrixToImageWriter.writeToFile(matrix, filename.substring(filename.lastIndexOf('.')+1), new File(filename))

    def static readQrCode(def filename, def charset, def hints) {
        BinaryBitmap binaryBitmap = new BinaryBitmap(new HybridBinarizer(new BufferedImageLuminanceSource( FileInputStream(filename)))))
        Result result = new MultiFormatReader().decode(binaryBitmap, hints)



How to remove \xa0 from string in Python?

Python recognize it like a space character, so you can split it without args and join by a normal whitespace:

line = ' '.join(line.split())

How do I get PHP errors to display?

I would usually go with the following code in my plain PHP projects.


$base_url = null;

if (defined('ENVIRONMENT'))
    switch (ENVIRONMENT)
        case 'DEVELOPMENT':
            $base_url = 'http://localhost/product/';
            ini_set('display_errors', 1);
            ini_set('display_startup_errors', 1);

        case 'PRODUCTION':
            $base_url = 'Production URL'; /* */
            /* Mechanism to log errors */

            exit('The application environment is not set correctly.');

Check time difference in Javascript

I would use just getTime(); and for example to return difference in milliseconds:

 //specified date:

var oneDate = new Date("November 02, 2017 06:00:00");

//number of milliseconds since midnight Jan 1 1970 till specified date

var oneDateMiliseconds = oneDate.getTime();

////number of milliseconds since midnight Jan 1 1970 till now

var currentMiliseconds =; 

//return time difference in miliseconds


Difference between signed / unsigned char

I slightly disagree with the above. The unsigned char simply means: Use the most significant bit instead of treating it as a bit flag for +/- sign when performing arithmetic operations.

It makes significance if you use char as a number for instance:

typedef char BYTE1;
typedef unsigned char BYTE2;

BYTE1 a;
BYTE2 b;

For variable a, only 7 bits are available and its range is (-127 to 127) = (+/-)2^7 -1. For variable b all 8 bits are available and the range is 0 to 255 (2^8 -1).

If you use char as character, "unsigned" is completely ignored by the compiler just as comments are removed from your program.