Programs & Examples On #Clickatell

Questions using this tag should be about the Clickatell API. Support questions should be directed to Clickatell is the largest Online SMS mobile messaging gateway covering 962 networks in 224 countries and territories, with the potential to reach 5 billion mobile phone users.

RegEx for valid international mobile phone number

// Regex - Check Singapore valid mobile numbers

public static boolean isSingaporeMobileNo(String str) {
    Pattern mobNO = Pattern.compile("^(((0|((\\+)?65([- ])?))|((\\((\\+)?65\\)([- ])?)))?[8-9]\\d{7})?$");
    Matcher matcher = mobNO.matcher(str);
    if (matcher.find()) {
        return true;
    } else {
        return false;

jQuery 1.9 .live() is not a function

.live() was deprecated and has now been removed from jQuery 1.9 You should use .on()

Listing files in a specific "folder" of a AWS S3 bucket

you can check the type. s3 has a special application/x-directory

bucket.objects({:delimiter=>"/", :prefix=>"f1/"}).each { |obj| p obj.object.content_type }

How to pass password automatically for rsync SSH command?

I use a VBScript file for doing this on Windows platform, it servers me very well.

set shell = CreateObject("WScript.Shell")"rsync -a [email protected]:/Users/Name/Projects/test ."
WScript.Sleep 100
shell.SendKeys "{ENTER}"

Maven Out of Memory Build Failure

I got same problem when compiling, increasing the MaxDirectMemorySize finally worked.

export MAVEN_OPTS="-Xms8g -Xmx8g -XX:MaxDirectMemorySize=4096m"

document.getElementByID is not a function

It's document.getElementById() and not document.getElementByID(). Check the casing for Id.

Best way to remove items from a collection

Save your items first, than delete them.

var itemsToDelete = Items.Where(x => !!!your condition!!!).ToArray();
for (int i = 0; i < itemsToDelete.Length; ++i)

You need to override GetHashCode() in your Item class.

Xcode swift am/pm time to 24 hour format

let calendar = Calendar.current
let hours    = calendar.component(.hour, from: Date())
let minutes  = calendar.component(.minute, from: Date())
let seconds  = calendar.component(.second, from: Date())

In Visual Studio Code How do I merge between two local branches?

You can do it without using plugins.

In the latest version of vscode that I'm using (1.17.0) you can simply open the branch that you want (from the bottom left menu) then press ctrl+shift+p and type Git: Merge branch and then choose the other branch that you want to merge from (to the current one)

Get index of a row of a pandas dataframe as an integer

The nature of wanting to include the row where A == 5 and all rows upto but not including the row where A == 8 means we will end up using iloc (loc includes both ends of slice).

In order to get the index labels we use idxmax. This will return the first position of the maximum value. I run this on a boolean series where A == 5 (then when A == 8) which returns the index value of when A == 5 first happens (same thing for A == 8).

Then I use searchsorted to find the ordinal position of where the index label (that I found above) occurs. This is what I use in iloc.

i5, i8 = df.index.searchsorted([df.A.eq(5).idxmax(), df.A.eq(8).idxmax()])

enter image description here


you can further enhance this by using the underlying numpy objects the analogous numpy functions. I wrapped it up into a handy function.

def find_between(df, col, v1, v2):
    vals = df[col].values
    mx1, mx2 = (vals == v1).argmax(), (vals == v2).argmax()
    idx = df.index.values
    i1, i2 = idx.searchsorted([mx1, mx2])
    return df.iloc[i1:i2]

find_between(df, 'A', 5, 8)

enter image description here

enter image description here

Inserting an image with PHP and FPDF

Please note that you should not use any png when you are testing this , first work with jpg .

$myImage = "images/logos/mylogo.jpg";  // this is where you get your Image

$pdf->Image($myImage, 5, $pdf->GetY(), 33.78);

jQuery autocomplete with callback ajax json

I hope this helps:

var token = document.getElementById('token').value;
var nombre = document.getElementById('txtNombre').value;    

$("#txtNombre").keyup(function () {
        type: "POST",
        url: host() + "Formulario/BuscarNombreAutocompletar/",
        data: JSON.stringify({ "nombre": nombre }),
        headers: {
            'Authorization': 'Bearer ' + token
        contentType: "application/json; charset=utf-8",
        dataType: "json",
        success: function (data) {
            var dataArray = [];
            if (controlCarga(data)) {

                $.each(data[1], function (i, item) {

                    clearButton: true,
                    source: dataArray,
                    selectFirst: true,
                    minLength: 2
        error: function (xhr, textStatus, errorThrown) {
            console.log('Error: ' + xhr.responseText);

Why shouldn't I use PyPy over CPython if PyPy is 6.3 times faster?

I've found examples, where PyPy is slower than Python. But: Only on Windows.

C:\Users\User>python -m timeit -n10 -s"from sympy import isprime" "isprime(2**521-1);isprime(2**1279-1)"
10 loops, best of 3: 294 msec per loop

C:\Users\User>pypy -m timeit -n10 -s"from sympy import isprime" "isprime(2**521-1);isprime(2**1279-1)"
10 loops, best of 3: 1.33 sec per loop

So, if you think of PyPy, forget Windows. On Linux, you can achieve awesome accelerations. Example (list all primes between 1 and 1,000,000):

from sympy import sieve
primes = list(sieve.primerange(1, 10**6))

This runs 10(!) times faster on PyPy than on Python. But not on windows. There it is only 3x as fast.

How to normalize a 2-dimensional numpy array in python less verbose?

I think you can normalize the row elements sum to 1 by this: new_matrix = a / a.sum(axis=1, keepdims=1). And the column normalization can be done with new_matrix = a / a.sum(axis=0, keepdims=1). Hope this can hep.

How to convert a hex string to hex number

Use format string

intNum = 123
print "0x%x"%(intNum)

or hex function.

intNum = 123
print hex(intNum)

How to check if an integer is in a given range?

 Range<Long> timeRange = Range.create(model.getFrom(), model.getTo());
        Toast.makeText(context, "green!!", Toast.LENGTH_SHORT).show();

Best Practices for Custom Helpers in Laravel 5

Custom Blade Directives in Laravel 5

Yes, there is another way to do this!

Step 1: Register a custom Blade directive:

<?php // code in app/Providers/AppServiceProvider.php

namespace App\Providers;

use Illuminate\Support\ServiceProvider;

use Blade; // <-- This is important! Without it you'll get an exception.

class AppServiceProvider extends ServiceProvider
     * Bootstrap any application services.
     * @return void
     public function boot()
         // Make a custom blade directive:
         Blade::directive('shout', function ($string) {
             return trim(strtoupper($string), '(\'\')');

         // And another one for good measure:
         Blade::directive('customLink', function () {
             return '<a href="#">Custom Link</a>';

Step 2: Use your custom Blade directive:

<!-- // code in resources/views/view.blade.php -->

@shout('this is my custom blade directive!!')
<br />


Custom Link


Additional Reading:

If you want to learn how to best make custom classes that you can use anywhere, see Custom Classes in Laravel 5, the Easy Way

UITableView Cell selected Color?

The following works for me in iOS 8.

I have to set the selection style to UITableViewCellSelectionStyleDefault for custom background color to work. If any other style, the custom background color will be ignored. There seems to be a change in behaviours as previous answers needs to set style to none instead.

The full code for the cell as follows:

- (UITableViewCell *)tableView:(UITableView *)tableView cellForRowAtIndexPath:(NSIndexPath *)indexPath {
    static NSString *CellIdentifier = @"MyCell";
    UITableViewCell *cell = [tableView dequeueReusableCellWithIdentifier:CellIdentifier];
    if (cell == nil) {
        cell = [[UITableViewCell alloc] initWithStyle:UITableViewCellStyleDefault reuseIdentifier:CellIdentifier];

    // This is how you change the background color
    cell.selectionStyle = UITableViewCellSelectionStyleDefault;
    UIView *bgColorView = [[UIView alloc] init];
    bgColorView.backgroundColor = [UIColor redColor];
    [cell setSelectedBackgroundView:bgColorView];        
    return cell;

How to call Base Class's __init__ method from the child class?

You can call the super class's constructor like this

class A(object):
    def __init__(self, number):
        print "parent", number

class B(A):
    def __init__(self):
        super(B, self).__init__(5)

b = B()


This will work only when the parent class inherits object

How do you auto format code in Visual Studio?

Just to further Starwfanatic and Ewan's answers above. You can customise your IDE to add any button to any toolbar - so you can add the Format button (as the HTML Source Editing toolbar has) to any other toolbar (like Text Editing with all the other edit controls like increase/decrease indent).

Click the arrow to the right of the toolbar > Add or Remove Buttons > Customize... > Commands tab > Add Command... button.

Document Format and Selection Format are both under the Edit group.

(Tested in VS2010 and VS2013)

Java Minimum and Maximum values in Array

Yes you need to use a System.out.println. But you are getting the minimum and maximum everytime they input a value and don't keep track of the number of elements if they break early.


for (int i = 0 ; i < array.length; i++ ) {
       int next = input.nextInt();
       // sentineil that will stop loop when 999 is entered
       if (next == 999)

       array[i] = next;
 int length = i;
 // get biggest number
 int large = getMaxValue(array, length);
 // get smallest number
 int small = getMinValue(array, length);

 // actually print
 System.out.println( "Max: " + large + " Min: " + small );

Then you will have to pass length into the methods to determine min and max and to print. If you don't do this, the rest of the fields will be 0 and can mess up the proper min and max values.

Why doesn't list have safe "get" method like dictionary?

Credits to jose.angel.jimenez and Gus Bus.

For the "oneliner" fans…

If you want the first element of a list or if you want a default value if the list is empty try:

liste = ['a', 'b', 'c']
value = (liste[0:1] or ('default',))[0]

returns a


liste = []
value = (liste[0:1] or ('default',))[0]

returns default

Examples for other elements…

liste = ['a', 'b', 'c']
print(liste[0:1])  # returns ['a']
print(liste[1:2])  # returns ['b']
print(liste[2:3])  # returns ['c']
print(liste[3:4])  # returns []

With default fallback…

liste = ['a', 'b', 'c']
print((liste[0:1] or ('default',))[0])  # returns a
print((liste[1:2] or ('default',))[0])  # returns b
print((liste[2:3] or ('default',))[0])  # returns c
print((liste[3:4] or ('default',))[0])  # returns default

Possibly shorter:

liste = ['a', 'b', 'c']
value, = liste[:1] or ('default',)
print(value)  # returns a

It looks like you need the comma before the equal sign, the equal sign and the latter parenthesis.

More general:

liste = ['a', 'b', 'c']
f = lambda l, x, d: l[x:x+1] and l[x] or d
print(f(liste, 0, 'default'))  # returns a
print(f(liste, 1, 'default'))  # returns b
print(f(liste, 2, 'default'))  # returns c
print(f(liste, 3, 'default'))  # returns default

Tested with Python 3.6.0 (v3.6.0:41df79263a11, Dec 22 2016, 17:23:13)

Error in Python script "Expected 2D array, got 1D array instead:"?

I faced the same issue except that the data type of the instance I wanted to predict was a panda.Series object.

Well I just needed to predict one input instance. I took it from a slice of my data.

df = pd.DataFrame(list(BiogasPlant.objects.all()))
test = df.iloc[-1:]       # sliced it here

In this case, you'll need to convert it into a 1-D array and then reshape it.

 test2d = test.values.reshape(1,-1)

From the docs, values will convert Series into a numpy array.

SSH Key - Still asking for password and passphrase

Add Identity without Keychain

There may be times in which you don't want the passphrase stored in the keychain, but don't want to have to enter the passphrase over and over again.

You can do that like this:

ssh-add ~/.ssh/id_rsa 

This will ask you for the passphrase, enter it and it will not ask again until you restart.

Add Identity Using Keychain

As @dennis points out in the comments, to persist the passphrase through restarts by storing it in your keychain, you can use the -K option (-k for Ubuntu) when adding the identity like this:

ssh-add -K ~/.ssh/id_rsa

Once again, this will ask you for the passphrase, enter it and this time it will never ask again for this identity.

Align HTML input fields by :

I know that this approach has been taken before, But I believe that using tables, the layout can be generated easily, Though this may not be the best practice.




    <tr><td>Name:</td><td><input type="text"/></td></tr>

    <tr><td>Age:</td><td><input type="text"/></td></tr>


<!--You can add the fields as you want-->



how to remove the bold from a headline?

for "THIS IS" not to be bold - add <span></span> around the text

<h1>><span>THIS IS</span> A HEADLINE</h1>

and in style

h1 span{font-weight:normal}

How to create JSON Object using String?

If you use the gson.JsonObject you can have something like that:


String jsonString = "{'test1':'value1','test2':{'id':0,'name':'testName'}}"
JsonObject jsonObject = (JsonObject) jsonParser.parse(jsonString)

How to format a floating number to fixed width in Python

In python3 the following works:

>>> v=10.4
>>> print('% 6.2f' % v)
>>> print('% 12.1f' % v)
>>> print('%012.1f' % v)

Best way to convert IList or IEnumerable to Array

Put the following in your .cs file:

using System.Linq;

You will then be able to use the following extension method from System.Linq.Enumerable:

public static TSource[] ToArray<TSource>(this System.Collections.Generic.IEnumerable<TSource> source)


IEnumerable<object> query = ...;
object[] bob = query.ToArray();

Ruby Array find_first object?

Do you need the object itself or do you just need to know if there is an object that satisfies. If the former then yes: use find:

found_object = my_array.find { |e| e.satisfies_condition? }

otherwise you can use any?

found_it = my_array.any?  { |e| e.satisfies_condition? }

The latter will bail with "true" when it finds one that satisfies the condition. The former will do the same, but return the object.

How to create a numeric vector of zero length in R


x <- vector(mode="numeric", length=0)

GIT_DISCOVERY_ACROSS_FILESYSTEM problem when working with terminal and MacFusion

My Problem was that I was not in the correct git directory that I just cloned.

How to sum array of numbers in Ruby?

ruby 1.8.7 way is the following:

array.inject(0, &:+) 

What key in windows registry disables IE connection parameter "Automatically Detect Settings"?

For anyone looking to untick the 'Automatically Detect Settings' box without overwriting the other settings contained in the registry entry, you can use vbscript at logon.

On Error Resume Next

Set oReg   = GetObject("winmgmts:{impersonationLevel=impersonate}!\\.\root\default:StdRegProv")
sKeyPath   = "Software\Microsoft\Windows\CurrentVersion\Internet Settings\Connections"
sValueName = "DefaultConnectionSettings"

' Get registry value where each byte is a different setting.
oReg.GetBinaryValue &H80000001, sKeyPath, sValueName, bValue

' Check byte to see if detect is currently on.
If (bValue(8) And 8) = 8 Then

  ' Turn off detect and write back settings value.
  bValue(8) = bValue(8) And Not 8
  oReg.SetBinaryValue &H80000001, sKeyPath, sValueName, bValue

End If

Set oReg = Nothing

What is getattr() exactly and how do I use it?

Here's a quick and dirty example of how a class could fire different versions of a save method depending on which operating system it's being executed on using getattr().

import os

class Log(object):
    def __init__(self):
        self.os =
    def __getattr__(self, name):
        """ look for a 'save' attribute, or just 
          return whatever attribute was specified """
        if name == 'save':
                # try to dynamically return a save 
                # method appropriate for the user's system
                return getattr(self, self.os)
                # bail and try to return 
                # a default save method
                return getattr(self, '_save')
            return getattr(self, name)

    # each of these methods could have save logic specific to 
    # the system on which the script is executed
    def posix(self): print 'saving on a posix machine'
    def nt(self): print 'saving on an nt machine'
    def os2(self): print 'saving on an os2 machine'
    def ce(self): print 'saving on a ce machine'
    def java(self): print 'saving on a java machine'
    def riscos(self): print 'saving on a riscos machine'
    def _save(self): print 'saving on an unknown operating system'

    def which_os(self): print

Now let's use this class in an example:

logger = Log()

# Now you can do one of two things:
save_func =
# and execute it, or pass it along 
# somewhere else as 1st class:

# or you can just call it directly:

# other attributes will hit the else 
# statement and still work as expected

What's the best way to dedupe a table?

For deduplicate / dedupe / remove duplication / remove repeated rows / ??? ?? / ??? ?? ????, there are multiple ways.

  1. If duplicated rows are exact the same, use group by

    create table TABLE_NAME_DEDUP
    as select column1, column2, ... (all column names) from TABLE_NAME group by column1, column2, -- all column names

Then TABLE_NAME_DEDUP is the deduplicated table.

For example,

create table test (t1 varchar(5), t2 varchar(5));
insert into test  values ('12345', 'ssdlh');
insert into test  values ('12345', 'ssdlh');
create table test_dedup as
select * from test 
group by t1, t2;
--remove original table and rename dedup table to previous table
--this is not recommend in dev or qa. DROP table test; Alter table test_dedup rename to test;
  1. You have a rowid, the rowid has duplication but other columns are different Records partial same, this may happened in a transactional system while update a row, and the rows failed to update will have nulls. You want to remove the duplication

    create table test_dedup as select column1, column2, ... (all column names) from ( select * , row_number() over (partition by rowid order by column1, column2, ... (all column names except rowid) ) as cn from test ) where cn =1

This is using the feature that when you use order by, the null value will be ordered behind the non-null value.

create table test (rowid_ varchar(5), t1 varchar(5), t2 varchar(5));
insert into test  values ('12345', 'ssdlh', null);
insert into test  values ('12345', 'ssdlh', 'lhbzj');
create table test_dedup as
select rowid_, t1, t2 from
(select *
  , row_number() over (partition by rowid_ order by t1, t2) as cn
  from  test)
 where cn =1

--remove original table and rename dedup table to previous table
--this is not recommend in dev or qa. DROP table test; Alter table test_dedup rename to test;

Android getActivity() is undefined

This is because you're using getActivity() inside an inner class. Try using:


instead, though there's really no need for the getActivity() part. In your case, SherlockFragmentActivity .this should suffice.

python plot normal distribution

I have just come back to this and I had to install scipy as matplotlib.mlab gave me the error message MatplotlibDeprecationWarning: scipy.stats.norm.pdf when trying example above. So the sample is now:

%matplotlib inline
import math
import matplotlib.pyplot as plt
import numpy as np
import scipy.stats

mu = 0
variance = 1
sigma = math.sqrt(variance)
x = np.linspace(mu - 3*sigma, mu + 3*sigma, 100)
plt.plot(x, scipy.stats.norm.pdf(x, mu, sigma))

How to get the PID of a process by giving the process name in Mac OS X ?

This solution matches the process name more strictly:

ps -Ac -o pid,comm | awk '/^ *[0-9]+ Dropbox$/ {print $1}'

This solution has the following advantages:

  • it ignores command line arguments like tail -f ~/Dropbox
  • it ignores processes inside a directory like ~/Dropbox/
  • it ignores processes with names like ~/

How can I conditionally require form inputs with AngularJS?

For Angular2

<input type='email' 
    [required]='!' >

How do I use brew installed Python as the default Python?

I believe there are means to make homebrew python default, but in my opinion the proper way to solve a problem is not to mess with system python paths: it is better to create a virtualenv in which homebrew python would be default (by using virtualenv --python option). Using tools like python_select is almost always a bad idea.

Remove duplicates from a list of objects based on property in Java 8

This worked for me:;

You need to implement equals, of course

Permission denied error on Github Push

I had this problem too but managed to solve it, the error is that ur computer has saved a git username and password so if you shift to another account the error 403 will appear. Below is the solution For Windows you can find the keys here:

control panel > user accounts > credential manager > Windows credentials > Generic credentials

Next remove the Github keys.

Header and footer in CodeIgniter

Here is how I handle mine. I create a file called template.php in my views folder. This file contains all of my my main site layout. Then from this template file I call my additional views. Here is an example:

<!doctype html>
<html lang="en">
  <meta charset=utf-8">
  <title><?php echo $title; ?></title>
    <link href="<?php echo base_url() ;?>assets/css/bootstrap.min.css" rel="stylesheet" type="text/css" />
    <link href="<?php echo base_url() ;?>assets/css/main.css" rel="stylesheet" type="text/css" />
Javascript is not enabled! Please turn on Javascript to use this site.

<script type="text/javascript">
base_url = '<?php echo base_url();?>';


<div id="wrapper">
    <div id="container">
        <div id="top">
            <?php $this->load->view('top');?>

        <div id="main">
            <?php $this->load->view($main);?>

        <div id="footer"> 
            <?php $this->load->view('bottom');?>
    </div><!-- end container -->
</div><!-- end wrapper -->

<script type="text/javascript" src="<?php echo base_url();?>assets/js/jquery-1.8.2.min.js" ></script>
<script type="text/javascript" src="<?php echo base_url();?>assets/js/bootstrap.min.js"></script>


From my controller, I will pass the name of the view to $data['main']. So I will do something like this then:

class Main extends CI_Controller {

    public function index()
        $data['main'] = 'main_view';
          $data['title'] = 'Site Title';
          $this->load->view('template', $data);

angular.element vs document.getElementById or jQuery selector with spin (busy) control

Improvement to kaiser's answer:

var myEl = $document.find('#some-id');

Don't forget to inject $document into your directive

CURL Command Line URL Parameters

The application/x-www-form-urlencoded Content-type header is not needed. Unless the request handler expects the parameters coming from request body. Try it out:

curl -X DELETE "http://localhost:5000/locations?id=3"


curl -X GET "http://localhost:5000/locations?id=3"

Count the number of occurrences of a string in a VARCHAR field?

ROUND (   
        - LENGTH( REPLACE ( jsondata, "sonal", "") ) 
    ) / LENGTH("sonal")        
ROUND (   
        - LENGTH( REPLACE ( jsondata, "khunt", "") ) 
    ) / LENGTH("khunt")        
AS count1    FROM test ORDER BY count1 DESC LIMIT 0, 2

Thanks Yannis, your solution worked for me and here I'm sharing same solution for multiple keywords with order and limit.

Find all matches in workbook using Excel VBA

Function GetSearchArray(strSearch)
Dim strResults As String
Dim SHT As Worksheet
Dim rFND As Range
Dim sFirstAddress
For Each SHT In ThisWorkbook.Worksheets
    Set rFND = Nothing
    With SHT.UsedRange
        Set rFND = .Cells.Find(What:=strSearch, LookIn:=xlValues, LookAt:=xlPart, SearchOrder:=xlRows, SearchDirection:=xlNext, MatchCase:=False)
        If Not rFND Is Nothing Then
            sFirstAddress = rFND.Address
                If strResults = vbNullString Then
                    strResults = "Worksheet(" & SHT.Index & ").Range(" & Chr(34) & rFND.Address & Chr(34) & ")"
                    strResults = strResults & "|" & "Worksheet(" & SHT.Index & ").Range(" & Chr(34) & rFND.Address & Chr(34) & ")"
                End If
                Set rFND = .FindNext(rFND)
            Loop While Not rFND Is Nothing And rFND.Address <> sFirstAddress
        End If
    End With
If strResults = vbNullString Then
    GetSearchArray = Null
ElseIf InStr(1, strResults, "|", 1) = 0 Then
    GetSearchArray = Array(strResults)
    GetSearchArray = Split(strResults, "|")
End If
End Function

Sub test2()
For Each X In GetSearchArray("1")
    Debug.Print X
End Sub

Careful when doing a Find Loop that you don't get yourself into an infinite loop... Reference the first found cell address and compare after each "FindNext" statement to make sure it hasn't returned back to the first initially found cell.

Logging best practices

I have to join the chorus recommending log4net, in my case coming from a platform flexibility (desktop .Net/Compact Framework, 32/64-bit) point of view.

However, wrapping it in a private-label API is a major anti-pattern. log4net.ILogger is the .Net counterpart of the Commons Logging wrapper API already, so coupling is already minimized for you, and since it is also an Apache library, that's usually not even a concern because you're not giving up any control: fork it if you must.

Most house wrapper libraries I've seen also commit one or more of a litany of faults:

  1. Using a global singleton logger (or equivalently a static entry point) which loses the fine resolution of the recommended logger-per-class pattern for no other selectivity gain.
  2. Failing to expose the optional Exception argument, leading to multiple problems:
    • It makes an exception logging policy even more difficult to maintain, so nothing is done consistently with exceptions.
    • Even with a consistent policy, formatting the exception away into a string loses data prematurely. I've written a custom ILayout decorator that performs detailed drill-down on an exception to determine the chain of events.
  3. Failing to expose the IsLevelEnabled properties, which discards the ability to skip formatting code when areas or levels of logging are turned off.

How to make matrices in Python?

I got a simple fix to this by casting the lists into strings and performing string operations to get the proper print out of the matrix.

Creating the function

By creating a function, it saves you the trouble of writing the for loop every time you want to print out a matrix.

def print_matrix(matrix):
    for row in matrix:
        new_row = str(row)
        new_row = new_row.replace(',','')
        new_row = new_row.replace('[','')
        new_row = new_row.replace(']','')


Example of a 5x5 matrix with 0 as every entry:

>>> test_matrix = [[0] * 5 for i in range(5)]
>>> print_matrix(test_matrix)
0 0 0 0 0
0 0 0 0 0
0 0 0 0 0
0 0 0 0 0
0 0 0 0 0 

Example of a 2x3 matrix with 0 as every entry:

>>> test_matrix = [[0] * 3 for i in range(2)]
>>> print_matrix(test_matrix)
0 0 0
0 0 0


If you want to make it print:

D D D D D 

I suggest you just change the way you enter your data into your lists within lists. In my method, each list within the larger list represents a line in the matrix, not columns.

Callback when CSS3 transition finishes

There is an animationend Event that can be observed see documentation here, also for css transition animations you could use the transitionend event

There is no need for additional libraries these all work with vanilla JS

document.getElementById("myDIV").addEventListener("transitionend", myEndFunction);_x000D_
function myEndFunction() {_x000D_
 this.innerHTML = "transition event ended";_x000D_
#myDIV {transition: top 2s; position: relative; top: 0;}_x000D_
div {background: #ede;cursor: pointer;padding: 20px;}
<div id="myDIV" onclick=" = '55px';">Click me to start animation.</div>

Run an Ansible task only when the variable contains a specific string

None of the above answers worked for me in ansible, but the following does:

when: variable1 | search("value")

In ansible 2.9 this is deprecated in favor of using ~ concatenation for variable replacement:

when: "variable1.find('v=' ~ value) == -1"

Other options:

when: "inventory_hostname in groups[sync_source]"

includes() not working in all browsers

One more solution is to use contains which will return true or false

_.contains($(".right-tree").css("background-image"), "stage1")

Hope this helps

How to get list of dates between two dates in mysql select query


select * from 
(select adddate('1970-01-01',t4.i*10000 + t3.i*1000 + t2.i*100 + t1.i*10 + t0.i) selected_date from
 (select 0 i union select 1 union select 2 union select 3 union select 4 union select 5 union select 6 union select 7 union select 8 union select 9) t0,
 (select 0 i union select 1 union select 2 union select 3 union select 4 union select 5 union select 6 union select 7 union select 8 union select 9) t1,
 (select 0 i union select 1 union select 2 union select 3 union select 4 union select 5 union select 6 union select 7 union select 8 union select 9) t2,
 (select 0 i union select 1 union select 2 union select 3 union select 4 union select 5 union select 6 union select 7 union select 8 union select 9) t3,
 (select 0 i union select 1 union select 2 union select 3 union select 4 union select 5 union select 6 union select 7 union select 8 union select 9) t4) v
where selected_date between '2012-02-10' and '2012-02-15'

-for date ranges up to nearly 300 years in the future.

[Corrected following a suggested edit by UrvishAtSynapse.]

Font size relative to the user's screen resolution?

function getFontsByScreenWidth(actuallFontSize, maxScreenWidth){
     return (actualFontSize / maxScreenWidth) * window.innerWidth;

// Example:
fontSize = 18;
maxScreenWidth = 1080;
fontSize = getFontsByScreenWidth(fontSize, maxScreenWidth)


I hope this will help. I am using this formula for my Phase game.

ArrayList insertion and retrieval order

Yes it remains the same. but why not easily test it? Make an ArrayList, fill it and then retrieve the elements!

Adding a directory to the PATH environment variable in Windows

You don't need any set or setx command. Simply open the terminal and type:


This shows the current value of PATH variable. Now you want to add directory to it? Simply type:

PATH %PATH%;C:\xampp\php

If for any reason you want to clear the PATH variable (no paths at all or delete all paths in it), type:



Like Danial Wilson noted in comment below, it sets the path only in the current session. To set the path permanently, use setx but be aware, although that sets the path permanently, but not in the current session, so you have to start a new command line to see the changes. More information is here.

To check if an environmental variable exist or see its value, use the ECHO command:


Failed linking file resources

In my case, I made a custom background which was not recognised.

I removed the <?xml version="1.0" encoding="utf-8"?> tag from the top of those two XML resources file.

This worked for me, after trying many solutions from the community. @P Fuster's answer made me try this.

Pretty git branch graphs

Update: This answer has gotten far more attention than it deserves.  It was originally posted because I think the graphs look nice and they could be drawn-over in Illustrator for a publication– and there was no better solution.  But there now exists much more applicable answers to this Q, such as fracz's, Jubobs', or Harry Lee's!  Please go upvote those!!

Update 2: I've posted an improved version of this answer to the Visualizing branch topology in git question, since it's far more appropriate there.  That version includes lg3, which shows both the author and committer info, so you really should check it out.  Leaving this answer for historical (& rep, I'll admit) reasons, though I'm really tempted to just delete it.

My 2¢: I have two aliases I normally throw in my ~/.gitconfig file:

lg1 = log --graph --abbrev-commit --decorate --format=format:'%C(bold blue)%h%C(reset) - %C(bold green)(%ar)%C(reset) %C(white)%s%C(reset) %C(dim white)- %an%C(reset)%C(bold yellow)%d%C(reset)' --all
lg2 = log --graph --abbrev-commit --decorate --format=format:'%C(bold blue)%h%C(reset) - %C(bold cyan)%aD%C(reset) %C(bold green)(%ar)%C(reset)%C(bold yellow)%d%C(reset)%n''          %C(white)%s%C(reset) %C(dim white)- %an%C(reset)' --all
lg = !"git lg1"

git lg/git lg1 looks like this:
git lg1

and git lg2 looks like this:
git lg2

C# Select elements in list as List of string

List<string> empnames = emplist.Select(e => e.Ename).ToList();

This is an example of Projection in Linq. Followed by a ToList to resolve the IEnumerable<string> into a List<string>.

Alternatively in Linq syntax (head compiled):

var empnamesEnum = from emp in emplist 
                   select emp.Ename;
List<string> empnames = empnamesEnum.ToList();

Projection is basically representing the current type of the enumerable as a new type. You can project to anonymous types, another known type by calling constructors etc, or an enumerable of one of the properties (as in your case).

For example, you can project an enumerable of Employee to an enumerable of Tuple<int, string> like so:

var tuples = emplist.Select(e => new Tuple<int, string>(e.EID, e.Ename));

What do the return values of Comparable.compareTo mean in Java?


if the value of A>B it will return "Yes" or "No".

How to center a window on the screen in Tkinter?


import tkinter as tk

if __name__ == '__main__':
    root = tk.Tk()

    w = 800
    h = 650

    ws = root.winfo_screenwidth()
    hs = root.winfo_screenheight()
    x = (ws/2) - (w/2)
    y = (hs/2) - (h/2)

    root.geometry('%dx%d+%d+%d' % (w, h, x, y))


CertificateException: No name matching found

I've found a good resolution here:

But my problem was a little bit different and solved it differently.

The web service was on remote host. For example:

But it was available only by IP for any clients, but certificate was created for domain: ( And this domain can't be resolved by IP because it is not presented in DNS).

So the same problem appeared: if I use IP to connect to web service by ssl, it can't be reached becase certificate and it is not equal to host name I've specified (i.e. host IP).

I've resolved it by matching this hostname with IP in /etc/hosts file. The problem was fixed.

But in case when the Web Service is hosted on localhost app server, it think, it should be solved like mkyong described in his article.

JQuery create new select option

How about

    $('<option />')
        .text('Select a city / town in Sweden')
    $('<option />')

Does height and width not apply to span?

Span is an inline element. It has no width or height.

You could turn it into a block-level element, then it will accept your dimension directives.

    display: inline-block; /* or block */

How to make a phone call in android and come back to my activity when the call is done?

   Intent callIntent = new Intent(Intent.ACTION_CALL);
   callIntent .setData(Uri.parse("tel:+91-XXXXXXXXX"));
   startActivity(callIntent );

var functionName = function() {} vs function functionName() {}

In JavaScript there are two ways to create functions:

  1. Function declaration:

    function fn(){

    This is very basic, self-explanatory, used in many languages and standard across C family of languages. We declared a function defined it and executed it by calling it.

    What you should be knowing is that functions are actually objects in JavaScript; internally we have created an object for above function and given it a name called fn or the reference to the object is stored in fn. Functions are objects in JavaScript; an instance of function is actually an object instance.

  2. Function expression:

    var fn=function(){

    JavaScript has first-class functions, that is, create a function and assign it to a variable just like you create a string or number and assign it to a variable. Here, the fn variable is assigned to a function. The reason for this concept is functions are objects in JavaScript; fn is pointing to the object instance of the above function. We have initialized a function and assigned it to a variable. It's not executing the function and assigning the result.

Reference: JavaScript function declaration syntax: var fn = function() {} vs function fn() {}

How to Install Windows Phone 8 SDK on Windows 7

You can install it by first extracting all the files from the ISO and then overwriting those files with the files from the ZIP. Then you can run the batch file as administrator to do the installation. Most of the packages install on windows 7, but I haven't tested yet how well they work.

Is it possible in Java to access private fields via reflection

Yes, it absolutely is - assuming you've got the appropriate security permissions. Use Field.setAccessible(true) first if you're accessing it from a different class.

import java.lang.reflect.*;

class Other
    private String str;
    public void setStr(String value)
        str = value;

class Test
    public static void main(String[] args)
        // Just for the ease of a throwaway test. Don't
        // do this normally!
        throws Exception
        Other t = new Other();
        Field field = Other.class.getDeclaredField("str");
        Object value = field.get(t);

And no, you shouldn't normally do this... it's subverting the intentions of the original author of the class. For example, there may well be validation applied in any situation where the field can normally be set, or other fields may be changed at the same time. You're effectively violating the intended level of encapsulation. runserver

in flask using flask.ext.script, you can do it like this:

python runserver -h -p 8000

Django templates: If false?

In old version you can only use the ifequal or ifnotequal

{% ifequal YourVariable ExpectValue %}
    # Do something here.
{% endifequal %}


{% ifequal userid 1 %}
  Hello No.1
{% endifequal %}

{% ifnotequal username 'django' %}
  You are not django!
{% else %}
  Hi django!
{% endifnotequal %}

As in the if tag, an {% else %} clause is optional.

The arguments can be hard-coded strings, so the following is valid:

{% ifequal user.username "adrian" %} ... {% endifequal %} An alternative to the ifequal tag is to use the if tag and the == operator.

ifnotequal Just like ifequal, except it tests that the two arguments are not equal.

An alternative to the ifnotequal tag is to use the if tag and the != operator.

However, now we can use if/else easily

{% if somevar >= 1 %}
{% endif %}

{% if "bc" in "abcdef" %}
  This appears since "bc" is a substring of "abcdef"
{% endif %}

Complex expressions

All of the above can be combined to form complex expressions. For such expressions, it can be important to know how the operators are grouped when the expression is evaluated - that is, the precedence rules. The precedence of the operators, from lowest to highest, is as follows:

  • or
  • and
  • not
  • in
  • ==, !=, <, >, <=, >=

More detail

Does "git fetch --tags" include "git fetch"?

The general problem here is that git fetch will fetch +refs/heads/*:refs/remotes/$remote/*. If any of these commits have tags, those tags will also be fetched. However if there are tags not reachable by any branch on the remote, they will not be fetched.

The --tags option switches the refspec to +refs/tags/*:refs/tags/*. You could ask git fetch to grab both. I'm pretty sure to just do a git fetch && git fetch -t you'd use the following command:

git fetch origin "+refs/heads/*:refs/remotes/origin/*" "+refs/tags/*:refs/tags/*"

And if you wanted to make this the default for this repo, you can add a second refspec to the default fetch:

git config --local --add remote.origin.fetch "+refs/tags/*:refs/tags/*"

This will add a second fetch = line in the .git/config for this remote.

I spent a while looking for the way to handle this for a project. This is what I came up with.

git fetch -fup origin "+refs/*:refs/*"

In my case I wanted these features

  • Grab all heads and tags from the remote so use refspec refs/*:refs/*
  • Overwrite local branches and tags with non-fast-forward + before the refspec
  • Overwrite currently checked out branch if needed -u
  • Delete branches and tags not present in remote -p
  • And force to be sure -f

How can I declare dynamic String array in Java

You want to use a Set or List implementation (e.g. HashSet, TreeSet, etc, or ArrayList, LinkedList, etc..), since Java does not have dynamically sized arrays.

List<String> zoom = new ArrayList<>();
zoom.add("String 1");
zoom.add("String 2");

for (String z : zoom) {

Edit: Here is a more succinct way to initialize your List with an arbitrary number of values using varargs:

List<String> zoom = Arrays.asList("String 1", "String 2", "String n");

How can I get browser to prompt to save password?

I have been struggling with this myself, and I finally was able to track down the issue and what was causing it to fail.

It all stemmed from the fact that my login form was being dynamically injected into the page (using backbone.js). As soon as I embed my login form directly into my index.html file, everything worked like a charm.

I think this is because the browser has to be aware that there is an existing login form, but since mine was being dynamically injected into the page, it didn't know that a "real" login form ever existed.

How do you create optional arguments in php?

Give the optional argument a default value.

function date ($format, $timestamp='') {

How do I force a DIV block to extend to the bottom of a page even if it has no content?

You can use the "vh" length unit for the min-height property of the element itself and its parents. It's supported since IE9:

<body class="full-height">
    <form id="form1">
    <div id="header">
        <a title="Home" href="index.html" />

    <div id="menuwrapper">
        <div id="menu">

    <div id="content" class="full-height">


.full-height {
    min-height: 100vh;
    box-sizing: border-box;

How much should a function trust another function

Typically this is bad practice. Since it is possible to call addEdge before addNode and have a NullPointerException (NPE) thrown, addEdge should check if the result is null and throw a more descriptive Exception. In my opinion, the only time it is acceptable not to check for nulls is when you expect the result to never be null, in which case, an NPE is plenty descriptive.

Redirecting to previous page after login? PHP

You can use session to to store the current page on which you want to return after login and that will work for other pages if you maintain session properly. It is very useful technique as you can develop your breadcrumb using it.

call javascript function on hyperlink click

Neater still, instead of the typical href="#" or href="javascript:void" or href="whatever", I think this makes much more sense:

var el = document.getElementById('foo');
el.onclick = showFoo;

function showFoo() {
  alert('I am foo!');
  return false;

<a href="no-javascript.html" title="Get some foo!" id="foo">Show me some foo</a>

If Javascript fails, there is some feedback. Furthermore, erratic behavior (page jumping in the case of href="#", visiting the same page in the case of href="") is eliminated.

Oracle: How to find out if there is a transaction pending?

Use the query below to find out pending transaction.

If it returns a value, it means there is a pending transaction.

Here is the query:

select dbms_transaction.step_id from dual;


SyntaxError: import declarations may only appear at top level of a module

I got this on Firefox (FF58). I fixed this with:

  1. It is still experimental on Firefox (from v54): You have to set to true the variable dom.moduleScripts.enabled in about:config

Source: Import page on mozilla (See Browser compatibility)

  1. Add type="module" to your script tag where you import the js file

<script type="module" src="appthatimports.js"></script>

  1. Import files have to be prefixed (./, /, ../ or http:// before)

import * from "./mylib.js"

For more examples, this blog post is good.

Which is faster: Stack allocation or Heap allocation

Remark that the considerations are typically not about speed and performance when choosing stack versus heap allocation. The stack acts like a stack, which means it is well suited for pushing blocks and popping them again, last in, first out. Execution of procedures is also stack-like, last procedure entered is first to be exited. In most programming languages, all the variables needed in a procedure will only be visible during the procedure's execution, thus they are pushed upon entering a procedure and popped off the stack upon exit or return.

Now for an example where the stack cannot be used:

Proc P
  pointer x;
  Proc S
    pointer y;
    y = allocate_some_data();
    x = y;

If you allocate some memory in procedure S and put it on the stack and then exit S, the allocated data will be popped off the stack. But the variable x in P also pointed to that data, so x is now pointing to some place underneath the stack pointer (assume stack grows downwards) with an unknown content. The content might still be there if the stack pointer is just moved up without clearing the data beneath it, but if you start allocating new data on the stack, the pointer x might actually point to that new data instead.


Quite an old article on mssqlcity attempts to explain the types of locks:

Shared locks are used for operations that do not change or update data, such as a SELECT statement.

Update locks are used when SQL Server intends to modify a page, and later promotes the update page lock to an exclusive page lock before actually making the changes.

Exclusive locks are used for the data modification operations, such as UPDATE, INSERT, or DELETE.

What it doesn't discuss are Intent (which basically is a modifier for these lock types). Intent (Shared/Exclusive) locks are locks held at a higher level than the real lock. So, for instance, if your transaction has an X lock on a row, it will also have an IX lock at the table level (which stops other transactions from attempting to obtain an incompatible lock at a higher level on the table (e.g. a schema modification lock) until your transaction completes or rolls back).

The concept of "sharing" a lock is quite straightforward - multiple transactions can have a Shared lock for the same resource, whereas only a single transaction may have an Exclusive lock, and an Exclusive lock precludes any transaction from obtaining or holding a Shared lock.

How to set DateTime to null

This line:

eventCustom.DateTimeEnd = dateTimeEndResult = true ? (DateTime?)null : dateTimeEndResult;

is same as:

eventCustom.DateTimeEnd = dateTimeEndResult = (true ? (DateTime?)null : dateTimeEndResult);

because the conditional operator ? has a higher precedence than the assignment operator =. That's why you always get null for eventCustom.DateTimeEnd. (MSDN Ref)

How to know function return type and argument types?

Yes it is.

In Python a function doesn't always have to return a variable of the same type (although your code will be more readable if your functions do always return the same type). That means that you can't specify a single return type for the function.

In the same way, the parameters don't always have to be the same type too.

Uncaught SyntaxError: Invalid or unexpected token

You should pass in quotes then it will be treated as string argument

<td><a href ="#"  onclick="Getinfo('');" >6/16/2016 2:02:29 AM</a>  </td>

Otherwise, it is treated as variable thus error is generated.

Bootstrap 4: responsive sidebar menu to top navbar

If this isn't a good solution for any reason, please let me know. It worked fine for me.

What I did is to hide the Sidebar and then make appear the navbar with breakpoints

@media screen and (max-width: 771px) {
    #fixed-sidebar {
        display: none;
    #navbar-superior {
        display: block !important;

is inaccessible due to its protection level

In your Main method, you're trying to access, for instance, club (which is protected), when you should be accessing myclub which is the public property that you created.

How to change PHP version used by composer

If anyone is still having trouble, remember you can run composer with any php version that you have installed e.g. $ php7.3 -f /usr/local/bin/composer update

Use which composer command to help locate the composer executable.

How to add a href link in PHP?

There is no need to invoke PHP for this. Just put it directly into the HTML:

<a href="">...

Largest and smallest number in an array

    public int MinimumValue { get; private set; }
    public int MaxmimumValue { get; private set; }

    public void num()
        int[] array = { 12, 56, 89, 65, 61, 36, 45, 23 };
        MaxmimumValue = array[0];
        MinimumValue = array[0];

        foreach (int num in array)


            if (num > MaxmimumValue) MaxmimumValue = num;
            if (num < MinimumValue) MinimumValue = num;

Bootstrap 3 Align Text To Bottom of Div

You can do this:


#container {

#container h3{

Then in HTML:

<div class="row">
    <div class="col-sm-6">
        <img src="//" alt="Logo" />
    <div id="container" class="col-sm-6">
        <h3>Some Text</h3>

EDIT: add the <

How to call a stored procedure from Java and JPA

My solution was. Create a FUNCTION calling PROCEDURE.

So, inside JAVA code you execute a NATIVE QUERY calling the oracle FUNCTION.

How do I get the last day of a month?

To get last day of a month in a specific calendar - and in an extension method -:

public static int DaysInMonthBy(this DateTime src, Calendar calendar)
    var year = calendar.GetYear(src);                   // year of src in your calendar
    var month = calendar.GetMonth(src);                 // month of src in your calendar
    var lastDay = calendar.GetDaysInMonth(year, month); // days in month means last day of that month in your calendar
    return lastDay;

Run PHP Task Asynchronously

I've used the queuing approach, and it works well as you can defer that processing until your server load is idle, letting you manage your load quite effectively if you can partition off "tasks which aren't urgent" easily.

Rolling your own isn't too tricky, here's a few other options to check out:

  • GearMan - this answer was written in 2009, and since then GearMan looks a popular option, see comments below.
  • ActiveMQ if you want a full blown open source message queue.
  • ZeroMQ - this is a pretty cool socket library which makes it easy to write distributed code without having to worry too much about the socket programming itself. You could use it for message queuing on a single host - you would simply have your webapp push something to a queue that a continuously running console app would consume at the next suitable opportunity
  • beanstalkd - only found this one while writing this answer, but looks interesting
  • dropr is a PHP based message queue project, but hasn't been actively maintained since Sep 2010
  • php-enqueue is a recently (2017) maintained wrapper around a variety of queue systems
  • Finally, a blog post about using memcached for message queuing

Another, perhaps simpler, approach is to use ignore_user_abort - once you've sent the page to the user, you can do your final processing without fear of premature termination, though this does have the effect of appearing to prolong the page load from the user perspective.

Provide schema while reading csv file as a dataframe

schema definition as simple string

Just in case if some one is interested in schema definition as simple string with date and time stamp

data file creation from Terminal or shell

echo " 
2019-07-02 22:11:11.000999, 01/01/2019, Suresh, abc  
2019-01-02 22:11:11.000001, 01/01/2020, Aadi, xyz 
" > data.csv

Defining the schema as String

    user_schema = 'timesta TIMESTAMP,date DATE,first_name STRING , last_name STRING'

reading the data

    df ='data.csv', schema = user_schema, sep=',', dateFormat='MM/dd/yyyy',timestampFormat='yyyy-MM-dd HH:mm:ss.SSSSSS'), False)

    |timesta                |date      |first_name|last_name|
    |2019-07-02 22:11:11.999|2019-01-01| Suresh   | abc     |
    |2019-01-02 22:11:11.001|2020-01-01| Aadi     | xyz     |

Please note defining the schema explicitly instead of letting spark infer the schema also improves the spark read performance.

How to print last two columns using awk

using gawk exhibits the problem:

 gawk '{ print $NF-1, $NF}' filename
1 2
2 3
-1 one
-1 three
# cat filename
1 2
2 3
one two three

I just put gawk on Solaris 10 M4000: So, gawk is the cuplrit on the $NF-1 vs. $(NF-1) issue. Next question what does POSIX say? per:

There is no direction one way or the other. Not good. gawk implies subtraction, other awks imply field number or subtraction. hmm.

Send data from a textbox into Flask?

Assuming you already know how to write a view in Flask that responds to a url, create one that reads the data. To add the input box to this post data create a form on your page with the text box. You can then use jquery to do

var data = $('#<form-id>').serialize()

and then post to your view asynchronously using something like the below.

$.post('<your view url>', function(data) {

How to git clone a specific tag

git clone --depth 1 --branch <tag_name> <repo_url>

--depth 1 is optional but if you only need the state at that one revision, you probably want to skip downloading all the history up to that revision.

AngularJS : automatically detect change in model

In views with {{}} and/or ng-model, Angular is setting up $watch()es for you behind the scenes.

By default $watch compares by reference. If you set the third parameter to $watch to true, Angular will instead "shallow" watch the object for changes. For arrays this means comparing the array items, for object maps this means watching the properties. So this should do what you want:

$scope.$watch('myModel', function() { ... }, true);

Update: Angular v1.2 added a new method for this, `$watchCollection():

$scope.$watchCollection('myModel', function() { ... });

Note that the word "shallow" is used to describe the comparison rather than "deep" because references are not followed -- e.g., if the watched object contains a property value that is a reference to another object, that reference is not followed to compare the other object.

Coloring Buttons in Android with Material Design and AppCompat

To support colored buttons use the latest AppCompat library (>23.2.1) with:

inflate - XML

AppCompat Widget:

AppCompat Style:


NB! To set a custom color in xml: use the attr: app instead of android

(use alt+enter or declare xmlns:app="" to use app)



     android:text="Colored Button"/>

or set it programmatically - JAVA


Git Bash is extremely slow on Windows 7 x64

You can significantly speed up Git on Windows by running three commands to set some config options:

git config --global core.preloadindex true
git config --global core.fscache true
git config --global 256


  • core.preloadindex does filesystem operations in parallel to hide latency (update: enabled by default in Git 2.1)

  • core.fscache fixes UAC issues so you don't need to run Git as administrator (update: enabled by default in Git for Windows 2.8)

  • minimizes the number of files in .git/

How to implement a Keyword Search in MySQL?

I will explain the method i usally prefer:

First of all you need to take into consideration that for this method you will sacrifice memory with the aim of gaining computation speed. Second you need to have a the right to edit the table structure.

1) Add a field (i usually call it "digest") where you store all the data from the table.

The field will look like:

"n-n1-n2-n3-n4-n5-n6-n7-n8-n9" etc.. where n is a single word

I achieve this using a regular expression thar replaces " " with "-". This field is the result of all the table data "digested" in one sigle string.

2) Use the LIKE statement %keyword% on the digest field:

SELECT * FROM table WHERE digest LIKE %keyword%

you can even build a qUery with a little loop so you can search for multiple keywords at the same time looking like:

 digest LIKE %keyword1% AND 
 digest LIKE %keyword2% AND 
 digest LIKE %keyword3% ... 

How to register ASP.NET 2.0 to web server(IIS7)?

Open Control Panel - Programs - Turn Windows Features on or off expand - Internet Information Services expand - World Wide Web Services expand - Application development Features check - ASP.Net

Its advisable you check other feature to avoid future problem that might not give direct error messages Please don't forget to mark this question as answered if it solves your problem for the purpose of others

When should a class be Comparable and/or Comparator?

The text below comes from Comparator vs Comparable


A comparable object is capable of comparing itself with another object. The class itself must implements the java.lang.Comparable interface in order to be able to compare its instances.


A comparator object is capable of comparing two different objects. The class is not comparing its instances, but some other class’s instances. This comparator class must implement the java.util.Comparator interface.

Run exe file with parameters in a batch file

Unless it's just a simplified example for the question, my advice is that drop the batch wrapper and schedule PHP directly, more specifically the php-win.exe program, which won't open unnecessary windows.

Program: c:\program files\php\php-win.exe
Arguments: D:\mydocs\mp\index.php param1 param2

Otherwise, just quote stuff as Andrew points out.

In older versions of Windows, you should be able to put everything in the single "Run" text box (as long as you quote everything that has spaces):

"c:\program files\php\php-win.exe" D:\mydocs\mp\index.php param1 param2

Test if registry value exists

My version, matching the exact text from the caught exception. It will return true if it's a different exception but works for this simple case. Also Get-ItemPropertyValue is new in PS 5.0

Function Test-RegValExists($Path, $Value){
$ee = @() # Exception catcher
    Get-ItemPropertyValue -Path $Path -Name $Value | Out-Null
catch{$ee += $_}

    if ($ee.Exception.Message -match "Property $Value does not exist"){return $false}
else {return $true}

Using filesystem in node.js with async / await

Native support for async await fs functions since Node 11

Since Node.JS 11.0.0 (stable), and version 10.0.0 (experimental), you have access to file system methods that are already promisify'd and you can use them with try catch exception handling rather than checking if the callback's returned value contains an error.

The API is very clean and elegant! Simply use .promises member of fs object:

import fs from 'fs';
const fsPromises = fs.promises;

async function listDir() {
  try {
    return fsPromises.readdir('path/to/dir');
  } catch (err) {
    console.error('Error occured while reading directory!', err);


How can I add shadow to the widget in flutter?

A Container can take a BoxDecoration (going off of the code you had originally posted) which takes a boxShadow:

decoration: BoxDecoration(
    borderRadius: BorderRadius.circular(10),
    boxShadow: [
            color: Colors.grey.withOpacity(0.5),
            spreadRadius: 5,
            blurRadius: 7,
            offset: Offset(0, 3), // changes position of shadow

Generate random numbers uniformly over an entire range

[edit] Warning: Do not use rand() for statistics, simulation, cryptography or anything serious.

It's good enough to make numbers look random for a typical human in a hurry, no more.

See @Jefffrey's reply for better options, or this answer for crypto-secure random numbers.

Generally, the high bits show a better distribution than the low bits, so the recommended way to generate random numbers of a range for simple purposes is:

((double) rand() / (RAND_MAX+1)) * (max-min+1) + min

Note: make sure RAND_MAX+1 does not overflow (thanks Demi)!

The division generates a random number in the interval [0, 1); "stretch" this to the required range. Only when max-min+1 gets close to RAND_MAX you need a "BigRand()" function like posted by Mark Ransom.

This also avoids some slicing problems due to the modulo, which can worsen your numbers even more.

The built-in random number generator isn't guaranteed to have a the quality required for statistical simulations. It is OK for numbers to "look random" to a human, but for a serious application, you should take something better - or at least check its properties (uniform distribution is usually good, but values tend to correlate, and the sequence is deterministic). Knuth has an excellent (if hard-to-read) treatise on random number generators, and I recently found LFSR to be excellent and darn simple to implement, given its properties are OK for you.

Get all rows from SQLite

Update queueAll() method as below:

public Cursor queueAll() {

     String selectQuery = "SELECT * FROM " + MYDATABASE_TABLE;
     Cursor cursor = sqLiteDatabase.rawQuery(selectQuery, null);

     return cursor;

Update readFileFromSQLite() method as below:

public ArrayList<String> readFileFromSQLite() {

    fileName = new ArrayList<String>();

    fileSQLiteAdapter = new FileSQLiteAdapter(FileChooser.this);

    cursor = fileSQLiteAdapter.queueAll();

    if (cursor != null) {
        if (cursor.moveToFirst()) {
                String name = cursor.getString(cursor.getColumnIndex(FileSQLiteAdapter.KEY_CONTENT1));
            } while (cursor.moveToNext());


    return fileName;

Send mail via Gmail with PowerShell V2's Send-MailMessage

Here it is:

$filename = “c:\scripts_scott\test9999.xls”
$smtpserver = “”
$msg = New-Object Net.Mail.MailMessage
$att = New-Object Net.Mail.Attachment($filename)
$smtp = New-Object Net.Mail.SmtpClient($smtpServer )
$smtp.EnableSsl = $True
$smtp.Credentials = New-Object System.Net.NetworkCredential(“username”, “password_here”); # Put username without the or –
$msg.From = “[email protected]”
$msg.To.Add(”[email protected]”)
$msg.Subject = “Monthly Report”
$msg.Body = “Good MorningATTACHED”

Let me know if it helps you San. Also use the send-mailmessage also at

For that way also that I think is way better and pure to use.

Eloquent: find() and where() usage laravel

Not Found Exceptions

Sometimes you may wish to throw an exception if a model is not found. This is particularly useful in routes or controllers. The findOrFail and firstOrFail methods will retrieve the first result of the query. However, if no result is found, a Illuminate\Database\Eloquent\ModelNotFoundException will be thrown:

$model = App\Flight::findOrFail(1);

$model = App\Flight::where('legs', '>', 100)->firstOrFail();

If the exception is not caught, a 404 HTTP response is automatically sent back to the user. It is not necessary to write explicit checks to return 404 responses when using these methods:

Route::get('/api/flights/{id}', function ($id) {
    return App\Flight::findOrFail($id);

initializing a Guava ImmutableMap

"put" has been deprecated, refrain from using it, use .of instead

ImmutableMap<String, String> myMap = ImmutableMap.of(
    "city1", "Seattle",
    "city2", "Delhi"

What size do you use for varchar(MAX) in your parameter declaration?

For those of us who did not see -1 by Michal Chaniewski, the complete line of code:

cmd.Parameters.Add("@blah",SqlDbType.VarChar,-1).Value = "some large text";

How do I delete everything below row X in VBA/Excel?

Any Reference to 'Row' should use 'long' not 'integer' else it will overflow if the spreadsheet has a lot of data.

Difference between InvariantCulture and Ordinal string comparison

Always try to use InvariantCulture in those string methods that accept it as overload. By using InvariantCulture you are on a safe side. Many .NET programmers may not use this functionality but if your software will be used by different cultures, InvariantCulture is an extremely handy feature.

Android Debug Bridge (adb) device - no permissions

I had the same situation where three devices connected to one same host but only one had 'no permissions' others were online.

Adding SUID or SGID on adb was another issue for me. Devices seen offline every time adb restarts - until you acknowledge on the devices every time.

I solved this 'no permissions' issue by adding 'o+w' permission for a device file.

chmod o+w /dev/bus/usb/00n/xxx

How to convert InputStream to FileInputStream

Use ClassLoader#getResource() instead if its URI represents a valid local disk file system path.

URL resource = classLoader.getResource("resource.ext");
File file = new File(resource.toURI());
FileInputStream input = new FileInputStream(file);
// ...

If it doesn't (e.g. JAR), then your best bet is to copy it into a temporary file.

Path temp = Files.createTempFile("resource-", ".ext");
Files.copy(classLoader.getResourceAsStream("resource.ext"), temp, StandardCopyOption.REPLACE_EXISTING);
FileInputStream input = new FileInputStream(temp.toFile());
// ...

That said, I really don't see any benefit of doing so, or it must be required by a poor helper class/method which requires FileInputStream instead of InputStream. If you can, just fix the API to ask for an InputStream instead. If it's a 3rd party one, by all means report it as a bug. I'd in this specific case also put question marks around the remainder of that API.

Android: crashes with getApplicationContext

For me worked changing

builder = new AlertDialog.Builder(getApplicationContext());


builder = new AlertDialog.Builder(ThisActivityClassName.this);

Weird thing is that the first one can be found in google tutorial and people get error on this..

Styling text input caret

In CSS3, there is now a native way to do this, without any of the hacks suggested in the existing answers: the caret-color property.

There are a lot of things you can do to with the caret, as seen below. It can even be animated.

/* Keyword value */
caret-color: auto;
color: transparent;
color: currentColor;

/* <color> values */
caret-color: red;
caret-color: #5729e9;
caret-color: rgb(0, 200, 0);
caret-color: hsla(228, 4%, 24%, 0.8);

The caret-color property is supported from Firefox 55, and Chrome 60. Support is also available in the Safari Technical Preview and in Opera (but not yet in Edge). You can view the current support tables here.

How can I pad a value with leading zeros?

Why not use recursion?

function padZero(s, n) {
    s = s.toString(); // in case someone passes a number
    return s.length >= n ? s : padZero('0' + s, n);

How do I compile C++ with Clang?

Solution 1:

  clang++ your.cpp

Solution 2:

  clang your.cpp -lstdc++

Solution 3:

   clang -x c++ your.cpp

Amazon S3 and Cloudfront cache, how to clear cache or synchronize their cache

If you're looking for a minimal solution that invalidates the cache, this edited version of Dr Manhattan's solution should be sufficient. Note that I'm specifying the root / directory to indicate I want the whole site refreshed.

export AWS_ACCESS_KEY_ID=<Key>
export AWS_DEFAULT_REGION=eu-west-1

echo "Invalidating cloudfrond distribution to get fresh cache"
aws cloudfront create-invalidation --distribution-id=<distributionId> --paths / --profile=<awsprofile>

Region Codes can be found here

You'll also need to create a profile using the aws cli. Use the aws configure --profile option. Below is an example snippet from Amazon.

$ aws configure --profile user2
AWS Secret Access Key [None]: je7MtGbClwBF/2Zp9Utk/h3yCo8nvbEXAMPLEKEY
Default region name [None]: us-east-1
Default output format [None]: text

Forcing Internet Explorer 9 to use standards document mode

Make sure you take into account that adding this tag,

<meta http-equiv="X-UA-Compatible" content="IE=Edge">

may only allow compatibility with the latest versions. It all depends on your libraries

Checking length of dictionary object

This question is confusing. A regular object, {} doesn't have a length property unless you're intending to make your own function constructor which generates custom objects which do have it ( in which case you didn't specify ).

Meaning, you have to get the "length" by a statement on the object, since length is not set, and increment a counter.

I'm confused as to why you need the length. Are you manually setting 0 on the object, or are you relying on custom string keys? eg obj['foo'] = 'bar';. If the latter, again, why the need for length?

Edit #1: Why can't you just do this?

list = [ {name:'john'}, {name:'bob'} ];

Then iterate over list? The length is already set.

How to increase heap size for jBoss server

Look in your JBoss bin folder for the file run.bat ( on Unix)

look for the line set JAVA_OPTS, (or just JAVA_OPTS on Unix) at the end of that line add -Xmx512m. Change the number to the amount of memory you want to allocate to JBoss.

If you are using a custom script to start your jboss instance, you can add the set JAVA_OPTS option there as well.

How remove border around image in css?

I realize this is a very old post, but I encountered a similar issue in which my displayed image always had a border around it. I was trying to fill the browser window with a single image. Adding styles like border:none; did not remove the border and neither did margin:0; or padding:0; or any combination of the three.

However, adding position:absolute;top:0;left:0; fixed the problem.

The original post above has position:absolute; but does not have top:0;left:0; and this was adding a default border on my page.

To illustrate the solution, this has a white border (to be precise, it has a top and left offset):

<img src="filename.jpg"

This does not have a border:

<img src="filename.jpg"

Hopefully this helps someone finding this post looking to resolve a similar problem.

Split / Explode a column of dictionaries into separate columns with pandas

How do I split a column of dictionaries into separate columns with pandas?

pd.DataFrame(df['val'].tolist()) is the canonical method for exploding a column of dictionaries

Here's your proof using a colorful graph.

enter image description here

Benchmarking code for reference.

Note that I am only timing the explosion since that's the most interesting part of answering this question - other aspects of result construction (such as whether to use pop or drop) are tangential to the discussion and can be ignored (it should be noted however that using pop avoids the followup drop call, so the final solution is a bit more performant, but we are still listifying the column and passing it to pd.DataFrame either way).

Additionally, pop destructively mutates the input DataFrame, making it harder to run in benchmarking code which assumes the input is not changed across test runs.

Critique of other solutions

  • df['val'].apply(pd.Series) is extremely slow for large N as pandas constructs Series objects for each row, then proceeds to construct a DataFrame from them. For larger N the performance dips to the order of minutes or hours.

  • pd.json_normalize(df['val'])) is slower simply because json_normalize is meant to work with a much more complex input data - particularly deeply nested JSON with multiple record paths and metadata. We have a simple flat dict for which pd.DataFrame suffices, so use that if your dicts are flat.

  • Some answers suggest df.pop('val').values.tolist() or df.pop('val').to_numpy().tolist(). I don't think it makes much of a difference whether you listify the series or the numpy array. It's one operation less to listify the series directly and really isn't slower so I'd recommend avoiding generating the numpy array in the intermediate step.

Unable to access JSON property with "-" dash

For ansible, and using hyphen, this worked for me:

    - name: free-ud-ssd-space-in-percent
        var: clusterInfo.json.content["free-ud-ssd-space-in-percent"]

Conversion of Char to Binary in C

unsigned char c;

for( int i = 7; i >= 0; i-- ) {
    printf( "%d", ( c >> i ) & 1 ? 1 : 0 );



With every iteration, the most significant bit is being read from the byte by shifting it and binary comparing with 1.

For example, let's assume that input value is 128, what binary translates to 1000 0000. Shifting it by 7 will give 0000 0001, so it concludes that the most significant bit was 1. 0000 0001 & 1 = 1. That's the first bit to print in the console. Next iterations will result in 0 ... 0.

How to print to the console in Android Studio?

Android Studio 3.0 and earlier:

If the other solutions don't work, you can always see the output in the Android Monitor.

android studio screen shot

Make sure to set your filter to Show only selected application or create a custom filter.

enter image description here

Laravel - check if Ajax request

To check an ajax request you can use if (Request::ajax())

Note: If you are using laravel 5, then in the controller replace

use Illuminate\Http\Request;


use Request; 

I hope it'll work.

Getting Hour and Minute in PHP

print date('H:i');

You have to set the correct timezone in php.ini .

Look for these lines:


; Defines the default timezone used by the date functions

;date.timezone =

It will be something like :

date.timezone ="Europe/Lisbon"

Don't forget to restart your webserver.

How to use WHERE IN with Doctrine 2

The best way doing this - especially if you're adding more than one condition - is:

$values = array(...); // array of your values
$qb->andWhere('where', $qb->expr()->in('r.winner', $values));

If your array of values contains strings, you can't use the setParameter method with an imploded string, because your quotes will be escaped!

Why am I getting an OPTIONS request instead of a GET request?

In my case, the issue was unrelated to CORS since I was issuing a jQuery POST to the same web server. The data was JSON but I had omitted the dataType: 'json' parameter.

I did not have (nor did I add) a contentType parameter as shown in David Lopes' answer above.

Passing base64 encoded strings in URL

Introductory Note I'm inclined to post a few clarifications since some of the answers here were a little misleading (if not incorrect).

The answer is NO, you cannot simply pass a base64 encoded parameter within a URL query string since plus signs are converted to a SPACE inside the $_GET global array. In other words, if you sent test.php?myVar=stringwith+sign to

print $_GET['myVar'];

the result would be:
stringwith sign

The easy way to solve this is to simply urlencode() your base64 string before adding it to the query string to escape the +, =, and / characters to %## codes. For instance, urlencode("stringwith+sign") returns stringwith%2Bsign

When you process the action, PHP takes care of decoding the query string automatically when it populates the $_GET global. For example, if I sent test.php?myVar=stringwith%2Bsign to

print $_GET['myVar'];

the result would is:

You do not want to urldecode() the returned $_GET string as +'s will be converted to spaces.
In other words if I sent the same test.php?myVar=stringwith%2Bsign to

$string = urldecode($_GET['myVar']);
print $string;

the result is an unexpected:
stringwith sign

It would be safe to rawurldecode() the input, however, it would be redundant and therefore unnecessary.

How to reset par(mfrow) in R

You can reset the plot by doing this:

Bootstrap dropdown not working

Add following lines within the body tags.

<!-- jQuery (necessary for Bootstrap's JavaScript plugins) -->
  <script src=""></script>
  <!-- Include all compiled plugins (below), or include individual files 
        as needed -->
  <script src="js/bootstrap.min.js"></script>

Installing packages in Sublime Text 2

Here is a link to a shorter and to the point description:

The steps are:

  1. Install package control.
  2. Go to and grab the install code.
  3. In Sublime Text 2 open the console (Ctrl+`) and paste the code.
  4. Restart Sublime Text 2.
  5. Open command palette via Command+Shift+P (Mac OSX) or Ctrl+Shift+P (Windows).
  6. Start typing Package Control and choose the package you are looking for.

Stop embedded youtube iframe?

For a Twitter Bootstrap modal/popup with a video inside, this worked for me:

$('.modal.stop-video-on-close').on('', function(e) {_x000D_
  $('.video-to-stop', this).each(function() {_x000D_
    this.contentWindow.postMessage('{"event":"command","func":"stopVideo","args":""}', '*');_x000D_
<script src=""></script>_x000D_
<link rel="stylesheet" href="" integrity="sha384-BVYiiSIFeK1dGmJRAkycuHAHRg32OmUcww7on3RYdg4Va+PmSTsz/K68vbdEjh4u" crossorigin="anonymous">_x000D_
<script src="" integrity="sha384-Tc5IQib027qvyjSMfHjOMaLkfuWVxZxUPnCJA7l2mCWNIpG9mGCD8wGNIcPD7Txa" crossorigin="anonymous"></script>_x000D_
<div id="vid" class="modal stop-video-on-close"_x000D_
  tabindex="-1" role="dialog" aria-labelledby="Title">_x000D_
  <div class="modal-dialog" role="document">_x000D_
    <div class="modal-content">_x000D_
      <div class="modal-header">_x000D_
        <button type="button" class="close" data-dismiss="modal" aria-label="Close">_x000D_
          <span aria-hidden="true">&times;</span>_x000D_
        <h4 class="modal-title">Title</h4>_x000D_
      <div class="modal-body">_x000D_
       <iframe class="video-to-stop center-block"_x000D_
        allow="accelerometer; autoplay; encrypted-media; gyroscope; picture-in-picture"_x000D_
        frameborder="0" allowfullscreen>_x000D_
      <div class="modal-footer">_x000D_
        <button class="btn btn-danger waves-effect waves-light"_x000D_
          data-dismiss="modal" type="button">Close</button>_x000D_
<button class="btn btn-success" data-toggle="modal"_x000D_
 data-target="#vid" type="button">Open video modal</button>

Based on Marco's answer, notice that I just needed to add the enablejsapi=1 parameter to the video URL (rel=0 is just for not displaying related videos at the end). The JS postMessage function is what does all the heavy lifting, it actually stops the video.

The snippet may not display the video due to request permissions, but in a regular browser this should work as of November of 2018.

Chrome Fullscreen API

In Google's closure library project , there is a module which has do the job , below is the API and source code.

Closure library fullscreen.js API

Closure libray fullscreen.js Code

How to view DLL functions?

Without telling us what language this dll/assembly is from, we can only guess.

So how about .NET Reflector

How do the PHP equality (== double equals) and identity (=== triple equals) comparison operators differ?

You would use === to test whether a function or variable is false rather than just equating to false (zero or an empty string).

$needle = 'a';
$haystack = 'abc';
$pos = strpos($haystack, $needle);
if ($pos === false) {
    echo $needle . ' was not found in ' . $haystack;
} else {
    echo $needle . ' was found in ' . $haystack . ' at location ' . $pos;

In this case strpos would return 0 which would equate to false in the test

if ($pos == false)


if (!$pos)

which is not what you want here.

Opening database file from within SQLite command-line shell

The same way you do it in other db system, you can use the name of the db for identifying double named tables. unique tablenames can used directly.

select * from ttt.table_name;

or if table name in all attached databases is unique

select * from my_unique_table_name;

But I think the of of sqlite-shell is only for manual lookup or manual data manipulation and therefor this way is more inconsequential

normally you would use sqlite-command-line in a script

Iterating through list of list in Python

x = [u'sam', [['Test', [['one', [], []]], [(u'file.txt', ['id', 1, 0])]], ['Test2', [], [(u'file2.txt', ['id', 1, 2])]]], []]
output = []

def lister(l):
    for item in l:
        if type(item) in [list, tuple, set]:


405 method not allowed Web API

Old question but none of the answers worked for me.

This article solved my problem by adding the following lines to web.config:

  <modules runAllManagedModulesForAllRequests="false">
    <remove name="WebDAVModule" />

Convert seconds to hh:mm:ss in Python

I can't believe any of the many answers gives what I'd consider the "one obvious way to do it" (and I'm not even Dutch...!-) -- up to just below 24 hours' worth of seconds (86399 seconds, specifically):

>>> import time
>>> time.strftime('%H:%M:%S', time.gmtime(12345))

Doing it in a Django template's more finicky, since the time filter supports a funky time-formatting syntax (inspired, I believe, from PHP), and also needs the datetime module, and a timezone implementation such as pytz, to prep the data. For example:

>>> from django import template as tt
>>> import pytz
>>> import datetime
>>> tt.Template('{{ x|time:"H:i:s" }}').render(
...     tt.Context({'x': datetime.datetime.fromtimestamp(12345, pytz.utc)}))

Depending on your exact needs, it might be more convenient to define a custom filter for this formatting task in your app.

@RequestParam in Spring MVC handling optional parameters

You need to give required = false for name and password request parameters as well. That's because, when you provide just the logout parameter, it actually expects for name and password as well as they are still mandatory.

It worked when you just gave name and password because logout wasn't a mandatory parameter thanks to required = false already given for logout.

Unrecognized escape sequence for path string containing backslashes

var foo = @"D:\Projects\Some\Kind\Of\Pathproblem\wuhoo.xml";

Initialize a Map containing arrays

Per Mozilla's Map documentation, you can initialize as follows:

private _gridOptions:Map<string, Array<string>> = 
    new Map([
        ["1", ["test"]],
        ["2", ["test2"]]

How to inspect FormData?

ES6+ solutions:

To see the structure of form data:


To see each key-value pair:

for (let [key, value] of formData.entries()) {
  console.log(`${key}: ${value}`);

Why does integer division in C# return an integer and not a float?

The result will always be of type that has the greater range of the numerator and the denominator. The exceptions are byte and short, which produce int (Int32).

var a = (byte)5 / (byte)2;  // 2 (Int32)
var b = (short)5 / (byte)2; // 2 (Int32)
var c = 5 / 2;              // 2 (Int32)
var d = 5 / 2U;             // 2 (UInt32)
var e = 5L / 2U;            // 2 (Int64)
var f = 5L / 2UL;           // 2 (UInt64)
var g = 5F / 2UL;           // 2.5 (Single/float)
var h = 5F / 2D;            // 2.5 (Double)
var i = 5.0 / 2F;           // 2.5 (Double)
var j = 5M / 2;             // 2.5 (Decimal)
var k = 5M / 2F;            // Not allowed

There is no implicit conversion between floating-point types and the decimal type, so division between them is not allowed. You have to explicitly cast and decide which one you want (Decimal has more precision and a smaller range compared to floating-point types).

Tomcat 8 Maven Plugin for Java 8

Almost 2 years later....
This github project readme has a some clarity of configuration of the maven plugin and it seems, according to this apache github project, the plugin itself will materialise soon enough.

Get user location by IP address

You'll probably have to use an external API, most of which cost money.

I did find this though, seems to be free:

C++ class forward declaration

I had this:

class paulzSprite;

struct spriteFrame
    spriteFrame(int, int, paulzSprite*, int, int);
    paulzSprite* pSprite; //points to the sprite class this struct frames
    static paulzSprite* pErase; //pointer to blanking sprite
    int x, y;
    int Xmin, Xmax, Ymin, Ymax; //limits, leave these to individual child classes, according to bitmap size
    bool move(int, int);
    bool DrawAt(int, int);
    bool dead;

spriteFrame::spriteFrame(int initx, int inity, paulzSprite* pSpr, int winWidth, int winHeight)
    x = initx;
    y= inity;
    pSprite = pSpr;
    Xmin = Ymin = 0;
    Xmax = winWidth - pSpr->width;
    Ymax = winHeight - pSpr->height;
    dead = false;


Got the same grief as in the original question. Only solved by moving the definition of paulzSprite to after that of spriteFrame. Shouldn't the compiler be smarter than this (VC++, VS 11 Beta)?

And btw, I wholeheartedly agree with Clifford's remark above "Pointers don't cause memory leaks, poor coding causes memory leaks". IMHO this is true of many other new "smart coding" features, which should not become a substitute for understanding what you are actually asking the computer to do.

remove duplicates from sql union

Since you are still getting duplicate using only UNION I would check that:

  • That they are exact duplicates. I mean, if you make a

    SELECT DISTINCT * FROM (<your query>) AS subquery

    you do get fewer files?

  • That you don't have already the duplicates in the first part of the query (maybe generated by the left join). As I understand it UNION it will not add to the result set rows that are already on it, but it won't remove duplicates already present in the first data set.

Where can I find the API KEY for Firebase Cloud Messaging?

STEP 1: Go to Firebase Console

STEP 2: Select your Project

STEP 3: Click on Settings icon and select Project Settings

Select Project Setting


enter image description here

Compute row average in pandas

You can specify a new column. You also need to compute the mean along the rows, so use axis=1.

df['mean'] = df.mean(axis=1)
>>> df
       Y1961      Y1962      Y1963      Y1964      Y1965 Region       mean
0  82.567307  83.104757  83.183700  83.030338  82.831958     US  82.943612
1   2.699372   2.610110   2.587919   2.696451   2.846247     US   2.688020
2  14.131355  13.690028  13.599516  13.649176  13.649046     US  13.743824
3   0.048589   0.046982   0.046583   0.046225   0.051750     US   0.048026
4   0.553377   0.548123   0.582282   0.577811   0.620999     US   0.576518

Copying Code from Inspect Element in Google Chrome

Right click on the particular element (e.g. div, table, td) and select the copy as html.

How do you set the width of an HTML Helper TextBox in ASP.NET MVC?

Don't use the length parameter as it will not work with all browsers. The best way is to set a style on the input tag.

<input style="width:100px" />

Can't change table design in SQL Server 2008

Prevent saving changes that require table re-creation

Five swift clicks

Prevent saving changes that require table re-creation in five clicks

  1. Tools
  2. Options
  3. Designers
  4. Prevent saving changes that require table re-creation
  5. OK.

After saving, repeat the proceudure to re-tick the box. This safe-guards against accidental data loss.

Further explanation

  • By default SQL Server Management Studio prevents the dropping of tables, because when a table is dropped its data contents are lost.*

  • When altering a column's datatype in the table Design view, when saving the changes the database drops the table internally and then re-creates a new one.

*Your specific circumstances will not pose a consequence since your table is empty. I provide this explanation entirely to improve your understanding of the procedure.

Subtracting time.Duration from time in Go

In response to Thomas Browne's comment, because lnmx's answer only works for subtracting a date, here is a modification of his code that works for subtracting time from a time.Time type.

package main

import (

func main() {
    now := time.Now()

    fmt.Println("now:", now)

    count := 10
    then := now.Add(time.Duration(-count) * time.Minute)
    // if we had fix number of units to subtract, we can use following line instead fo above 2 lines. It does type convertion automatically.
    // then := now.Add(-10 * time.Minute)
    fmt.Println("10 minutes ago:", then)


now: 2009-11-10 23:00:00 +0000 UTC
10 minutes ago: 2009-11-10 22:50:00 +0000 UTC

Not to mention, you can also use time.Hour or time.Second instead of time.Minute as per your needs.


I can't find my git.exe file in my Github folder

1) Install Git for Windows from here:

2) Note: During installation, Make sure "Use Git and optional Unix tools from the windows command prompt" is selected enter image description here

3) restart the Android Studio and try again

4) Go to File-> New -> Project from version control -> Git

How to open an existing project in Eclipse?

If it's a maven project, go to file>import>maven project >existing maven project, then browse for the folder that contains the project, select folder then click finish. That worked for me

return in for loop or outside loop

Now someone told me that this is not very good programming because I use the return statement inside a loop and this would cause garbage collection to malfunction.

That's a bunch of rubbish. Everything inside the method would be cleaned up unless there were other references to it in the class or elsewhere (a reason why encapsulation is important). As a rule of thumb, it's generally better to use one return statement simply because it is easier to figure out where the method will exit.

Personally, I would write:

Boolean retVal = false;
for(int i=0; i<array.length; ++i){
    if(array[i]==valueToFind) {
        retVal = true;
        break; //Break immediately helps if you are looking through a big array
return retVal;

How to find the last field using 'cut'

Use a parameter expansion. This is much more efficient than any kind of external command, cut (or grep) included.


See BashFAQ #100 for an introduction to native string manipulation in bash.

How does `scp` differ from `rsync`?

Difference b/w scp and rsync on different parameter

1. Performance over latency

  • scp : scp is relatively less optimise and speed

  • rsync : rsync is comparatively more optimise and speed

2. Interruption handling

  • scp : scp command line tool cannot resume aborted downloads from lost network connections

  • rsync : If the above rsync session itself gets interrupted, you can resume it as many time as you want by typing the same command. rsync will automatically restart the transfer where it left off.

3. Command Example


$ scp source_file_path destination_file_path


$ cd /path/to/directory/of/partially_downloaded_file
$ rsync -P --rsh=ssh [email protected]:bigdata.tgz ./bigdata.tgz 

The -P option is the same as --partial --progress, allowing rsync to work with partially downloaded files. The --rsh=ssh option tells rsync to use ssh as a remote shell.

4. Security :

scp is more secure. You have to use rsync --rsh=ssh to make it as secure as scp.

man document to know more :

performance chart

Return a 2d array from a function

Whatever changes you would make in function will persist.So there is no need to return anything.You can pass 2d array and change it whenever you will like.

  void MakeGridOfCounts(int Grid[][6])
      cGrid[6][6] = {{0, }, {0, }, {0, }, {0, }, {0, }, {0, }};



void MakeGridOfCounts(int Grid[][6],int answerArray[][6])
     ....//do the changes in the array as you like they will reflect in main... 

SDK Location not found Android Studio + Gradle

specifying sdk.dir=<SDK_PATH> in in root folder solved my problem.

Sibling package imports

Tired of sys.path hacks?

There are plenty of sys.path.append -hacks available, but I found an alternative way of solving the problem in hand.


  • Wrap the code into one folder (e.g. packaged_stuff)
  • Create script where you use setuptools.setup(). (see minimal below)
  • Pip install the package in editable state with pip install -e <myproject_folder>
  • Import using from packaged_stuff.modulename import function_name


The starting point is the file structure you have provided, wrapped in a folder called myproject.

+-- myproject
    +-- api
    ¦   +--
    ¦   +--
    ¦   +--
    +-- examples
    ¦   +--
    ¦   +--
    ¦   +--
    +-- tests

I will call the . the root folder, and in my example case it is located at C:\tmp\test_imports\.

As a test case, let's use the following ./api/

def function_from_api():
    return 'I am the return value from api.api!'

from api.api import function_from_api

def test_function():

if __name__ == '__main__':

Try to run test_one:

PS C:\tmp\test_imports> python .\myproject\tests\
Traceback (most recent call last):
  File ".\myproject\tests\", line 1, in <module>
    from api.api import function_from_api
ModuleNotFoundError: No module named 'api'

Also trying relative imports wont work:

Using from ..api.api import function_from_api would result into

PS C:\tmp\test_imports> python .\myproject\tests\
Traceback (most recent call last):
  File ".\tests\", line 1, in <module>
    from ..api.api import function_from_api
ValueError: attempted relative import beyond top-level package


  1. Make a file to the root level directory

The contents for the would be*

from setuptools import setup, find_packages

setup(name='myproject', version='1.0', packages=find_packages())
  1. Use a virtual environment

If you are familiar with virtual environments, activate one, and skip to the next step. Usage of virtual environments are not absolutely required, but they will really help you out in the long run (when you have more than 1 project ongoing..). The most basic steps are (run in the root folder)

  • Create virtual env
    • python -m venv venv
  • Activate virtual env
    • source ./venv/bin/activate (Linux, macOS) or ./venv/Scripts/activate (Win)

To learn more about this, just Google out "python virtual env tutorial" or similar. You probably never need any other commands than creating, activating and deactivating.

Once you have made and activated a virtual environment, your console should give the name of the virtual environment in parenthesis

PS C:\tmp\test_imports> python -m venv venv
PS C:\tmp\test_imports> .\venv\Scripts\activate
(venv) PS C:\tmp\test_imports>

and your folder tree should look like this**

+-- myproject
¦   +-- api
¦   ¦   +--
¦   ¦   +--
¦   ¦   +--
¦   +-- examples
¦   ¦   +--
¦   ¦   +--
¦   ¦   +--
¦   +--
¦   +--
¦   +-- tests
¦       +--
¦       +--
+-- venv
    +-- Include
    +-- Lib
    +-- pyvenv.cfg
    +-- Scripts [87 entries exceeds filelimit, not opening dir]
  1. pip install your project in editable state

Install your top level package myproject using pip. The trick is to use the -e flag when doing the install. This way it is installed in an editable state, and all the edits made to the .py files will be automatically included in the installed package.

In the root directory, run

pip install -e . (note the dot, it stands for "current directory")

You can also see that it is installed by using pip freeze

(venv) PS C:\tmp\test_imports> pip install -e .
Obtaining file:///C:/tmp/test_imports
Installing collected packages: myproject
  Running develop for myproject
Successfully installed myproject
(venv) PS C:\tmp\test_imports> pip freeze
  1. Add myproject. into your imports

Note that you will have to add myproject. only into imports that would not work otherwise. Imports that worked without the & pip install will work still work fine. See an example below.

Test the solution

Now, let's test the solution using defined above, and defined below.

from myproject.api.api import function_from_api

def test_function():

if __name__ == '__main__':

running the test

(venv) PS C:\tmp\test_imports> python .\myproject\tests\
I am the return value from api.api!

* See the setuptools docs for more verbose examples.

** In reality, you could put your virtual environment anywhere on your hard disk.

How to generate serial version UID in Intellij

Without any plugins:

You just need to enable highlight: (Idea v.2016, 2017 and 2018, previous versions may have same or similar settings)

File -> Settings -> Editor -> Inspections -> Java -> Serialization issues -> Serializable class without 'serialVersionUID' - set flag and click 'OK'. (For Macs, Settings is under IntelliJ IDEA -> Preferences...)

Now, if your class implements Serializable, you will see highlight and alt+Enter on class name will ask you to generate private static final long serialVersionUID.

UPD: a faster way to find this setting - you might use hotkey Ctrl+Shift+A (find action), type Serializable class without 'serialVersionUID' - the first is the one.

How to set headers in http get request?

Go's net/http package has many functions that deal with headers. Among them are Add, Del, Get and Set methods. The way to use Set is:

func yourHandler(w http.ResponseWriter, r *http.Request) {
    w.Header().Set("header_name", "header_value")

How to list imported modules?

import sys

An approximation of getting all imports for the current module only would be to inspect globals() for modules:

import types
def imports():
    for name, val in globals().items():
        if isinstance(val, types.ModuleType):
            yield val.__name__

This won't return local imports, or non-module imports like from x import y. Note that this returns val.__name__ so you get the original module name if you used import module as alias; yield name instead if you want the alias.

Adding a right click menu to an item

If you are using Visual Studio, there is a GUI solution as well:

  1. From Toolbox add a ContextMenuStrip
  2. Select the context menu and add the right click items
  3. For each item set the click events to the corresponding functions
  4. Select the form / button / image / etc (any item) that the right click menu will be connected
  5. Set its ContextMenuStrip property to the menu you have created.

Disable/turn off inherited CSS3 transitions

You could also disinherit all transitions inside a containing element:


.noTrans *{
-moz-transition: none;
-webkit-transition: none;
-o-transition: color 0 ease-in;
transition: none;


<a href="#">Content</a>
<a href="#">Content</a>
<div class="noTrans">
<a href="#">Content</a>
<a href="#">Content</a>

How to align an input tag to the center without specifying the width?

write this:

p, input{display:inline-block}

Experimental decorators warning in TypeScript compilation

I've to add the following in the settings.json file of vscode to remove the warning.

"javascript.implicitProjectConfig.experimentalDecorators": true

VSCode -> Preferences -> Settings

enter image description here


As Clepsyd pointed out, this setting had been deprecated. You need to use now


enter image description here

How to change line-ending settings

The normal way to control this is with git config

For example

git config --global core.autocrlf true

For details, scroll down in this link to Pro Git to the section named "core.autocrlf"

If you want to know what file this is saved in, you can run the command:

git config --global --edit

and the git global config file should open in a text editor, and you can see where that file was loaded from.

How to find the highest value of a column in a data frame in R?

max(ozone$Ozone, na.rm = TRUE) should do the trick. Remember to include the na.rm = TRUE or else R will return NA.

Convert hexadecimal string (hex) to a binary string

BigInteger.toString(radix) will do what you want. Just pass in a radix of 2.

static String hexToBin(String s) {
  return new BigInteger(s, 16).toString(2);

How to get a list of all files that changed between two Git commits?

When I have added/modified/deleted many files (since the last commit), I like to look at those modifications in chronological order.

For that I use:

  • To list all non-staged files:

    git ls-files --other --modified --exclude-standard
  • To get the last modified date for each file:

    while read filename; do  echo -n "$(stat -c%y -- $filename 2> /dev/null) "; echo $filename;  done

Although ruvim suggests in the comments:

xargs -0 stat -c '%y %n' -- 
  • To sort them from oldest to more recent:


An alias makes it easier to use:

alias gstlast='git ls-files --other --modified --exclude-standard|while read filename; do  echo -n "$(stat -c%y -- $filename 2> /dev/null) "; echo $filename;  done|sort'

Or (shorter and more efficient, thanks to ruvim)

alias gstlast='git ls-files --other --modified --exclude-standard|xargs -0 stat -c '%y %n' --|sort'

For example:

username@hostname:~> gstlast
2015-01-20 11:40:05.000000000 +0000 .cpl/params/libelf
2015-01-21 09:02:58.435823000 +0000 .cpl/params/glib
2015-01-21 09:07:32.744336000 +0000 .cpl/params/libsecret
2015-01-21 09:10:01.294778000 +0000 .cpl/_deps
2015-01-21 09:17:42.846372000 +0000 .cpl/params/npth
2015-01-21 12:12:19.002718000 +0000 sbin/git-rcd

I now can review my modifications, from oldest to more recent.

How to convert a GUID to a string in C#?

Did you write

String guid = System.Guid.NewGuid().ToString;


String guid = System.Guid.NewGuid().ToString();

notice the paranthesis

JPA eager fetch does not join

"mxc" is right. fetchType just specifies when the relation should be resolved.

To optimize eager loading by using an outer join you have to add


to your field. This is a hibernate specific annotation.

How to perform a for-each loop over all the files under a specified path?

More compact version working with spaces and newlines in the file name:

find . -iname '*.txt' -exec sh -c 'echo "{}" ; ls -l "{}"' \;

How can I verify if a Windows Service is running

I guess something like this would work:

Add System.ServiceProcess to your project references (It's on the .NET tab).

using System.ServiceProcess;

ServiceController sc = new ServiceController(SERVICENAME);

switch (sc.Status)
    case ServiceControllerStatus.Running:
        return "Running";
    case ServiceControllerStatus.Stopped:
        return "Stopped";
    case ServiceControllerStatus.Paused:
        return "Paused";
    case ServiceControllerStatus.StopPending:
        return "Stopping";
    case ServiceControllerStatus.StartPending:
        return "Starting";
        return "Status Changing";

Edit: There is also a method sc.WaitforStatus() that takes a desired status and a timeout, never used it but it may suit your needs.

Edit: Once you get the status, to get the status again you will need to call sc.Refresh() first.

Reference: ServiceController object in .NET.

PHP date yesterday

strtotime(), as in date("F j, Y", strtotime("yesterday"));

How to rollback a specific migration?

Rolling back last migration:

# rails < 5.0
rake db:rollback

# rails >= 5.0
rake db:rollback
# or
rails db:rollback

Rolling back last n number of migrations

# rails < 5.0
rake db:rollback STEP=2

# rails >= 5.0
rake db:rollback STEP=2
# or
rails db:rollback STEP=2

Rolling back a specific migration

# rails < 5.0
rake db:migrate:down VERSION=20100905201547

# rails >= 5.0
rake db:migrate:down VERSION=20100905201547
# or
rails db:migrate:down VERSION=20100905201547

Class constructor type in typescript?

Like that:

class Zoo {
    AnimalClass: typeof Animal;

    constructor(AnimalClass: typeof Animal ) {
        this.AnimalClass = AnimalClass
        let Hector = new AnimalClass();

Or just:

class Zoo {
    constructor(public AnimalClass: typeof Animal ) {
        let Hector = new AnimalClass();

typeof Class is the type of the class constructor. It's preferable to the custom constructor type declaration because it processes static class members properly.

Here's the relevant part of TypeScript docs. Search for the typeof. As a part of a TypeScript type annotation, it means "give me the type of the symbol called Animal" which is the type of the class constructor function in our case.

How to convert an address to a latitude/longitude?

You want a geocoding application. These are available either online or as an application backend.

How to get Django and ReactJS to work together?

You can try the following tutorial, it may help you to move forward:

Serving React and Django together

LEFT JOIN only first row

For some database like DB2 and PostgreSQL, you have to use the key word LATERAL for specifying a sub query in the LEFT JOIN : (here, it's for DB2)

SELECT f.*, a.*
FROM feeds f
    SELECT artist_id, feed_id
    FROM feeds_artists sfa
    WHERE sfa.feed_id =
    fetch first 1 rows only
) fa ON fa.feed_id =
LEFT JOIN artists a ON a.artist_id = fa.artist_id

Linux Process States

While waiting for read() or write() to/from a file descriptor return, the process will be put in a special kind of sleep, known as "D" or "Disk Sleep". This is special, because the process can not be killed or interrupted while in such a state. A process waiting for a return from ioctl() would also be put to sleep in this manner.

An exception to this is when a file (such as a terminal or other character device) is opened in O_NONBLOCK mode, passed when its assumed that a device (such as a modem) will need time to initialize. However, you indicated block devices in your question. Also, I have never tried an ioctl() that is likely to block on a fd opened in non blocking mode (at least not knowingly).

How another process is chosen depends entirely on the scheduler you are using, as well as what other processes might have done to modify their weights within that scheduler.

Some user space programs under certain circumstances have been known to remain in this state forever, until rebooted. These are typically grouped in with other "zombies", but the term would not be correct as they are not technically defunct.

ScriptManager.RegisterStartupScript code not working - why?

You must put the updatepanel id in the first argument if the control causing the script is inside the updatepanel else use the keyword 'this' instead of update panel here is the code

ScriptManager.RegisterStartupScript(UpdatePanel3, this.GetType(), UpdatePanel3.UniqueID, "showError();", true);