[asp.net] You must add a reference to assembly 'netstandard, Version=

The project is an ASP.NET MVC Web App targeting the .NET Framework 4.6.1.

All of a sudden (some NuGet packages were upgraded) I started to get the following error during runtime:

CS0012: The type 'System.Object' is defined in an assembly that is not referenced. You must add a reference to assembly 'netstandard, Version=, Culture=neutral, PublicKeyToken=cc7b13ffcd2ddd51'.

In my main view Index.cshtml, in a line where I make use of @Html.ActionLink

I do have .NET Core SDK 2.0 and .NET Framework 4.7.1 installed in my machine but I don't want to include a reference to it. This is a .NET Framework web app only, it's hosted on Windows IIS where the installed framework is 4.6.1, there's no NET Core installed in the server.

So why is it asking to add a reference to netstandard? How can I fix it without referencing netstandard but the full Windows .NET Framework 4.6.1?

I've checked out a previous commit which worked fine and I'm still getting this error. So it's not related to NuGet packages being upgraded. Seems to be something on my local dev machine.

If a publish the app to a directory and run it with IIS it works.

Link to .csproj gist


<?xml version="1.0" encoding="utf-8"?>
  <package id="Antlr" version="" targetFramework="net46" />
  <package id="BundleTransformer.Core" version="1.9.69" targetFramework="net46" />
  <package id="BundleTransformer.Handlebars" version="1.9.73" targetFramework="net46" />
  <package id="BundleTransformer.Less" version="1.9.69" targetFramework="net46" />
  <package id="BundleTransformer.Yui" version="1.9.52" targetFramework="net46" />
  <package id="Dapper" version="1.42" targetFramework="net46" />
  <package id="EcmaScript.Net" version="" targetFramework="net46" />
  <package id="EntityFramework" version="6.0.0" targetFramework="net46" />
  <package id="Glimpse" version="1.8.6" targetFramework="net46" />
  <package id="Glimpse.AspNet" version="1.9.2" targetFramework="net46" />
  <package id="Glimpse.Mvc5" version="1.5.3" targetFramework="net46" />
  <package id="JavaScriptEngineSwitcher.Core" version="1.2.4" targetFramework="net46" />
  <package id="JavaScriptEngineSwitcher.V8" version="1.3.0" targetFramework="net46" />
  <package id="jQuery" version="2.1.3" targetFramework="net46" />
  <package id="jQuery.Validation" version="1.13.1" targetFramework="net46" />
  <package id="LowercaseDashedRoute" version="1.0.14" targetFramework="net46" />
  <package id="Microsoft.AspNet.Mvc" version="5.2.3" targetFramework="net46" />
  <package id="Microsoft.AspNet.Razor" version="3.2.3" targetFramework="net46" />
  <package id="Microsoft.AspNet.Web.Optimization" version="1.1.3" targetFramework="net46" />
  <package id="Microsoft.AspNet.WebApi" version="5.2.3" targetFramework="net46" />
  <package id="Microsoft.AspNet.WebApi.Client" version="5.2.3" targetFramework="net46" />
  <package id="Microsoft.AspNet.WebApi.Core" version="5.2.3" targetFramework="net46" />
  <package id="Microsoft.AspNet.WebApi.WebHost" version="5.2.3" targetFramework="net46" />
  <package id="Microsoft.AspNet.WebPages" version="3.2.3" targetFramework="net46" />
  <package id="Microsoft.jQuery.Unobtrusive.Validation" version="3.2.3" targetFramework="net46" />
  <package id="Microsoft.Owin" version="3.0.1" targetFramework="net46" />
  <package id="Microsoft.Owin.Host.SystemWeb" version="3.0.1" targetFramework="net46" />
  <package id="Microsoft.SqlServer.Compact" version="4.0.8876.1" targetFramework="net46" />
  <package id="Microsoft.Web.Infrastructure" version="" targetFramework="net46" />
  <package id="Moment.js" version="2.10.2" targetFramework="net46" />
  <package id="Newtonsoft.Json" version="10.0.3" targetFramework="net46" />
  <package id="NWebsec" version="5.1.1" targetFramework="net46" />
  <package id="NWebsec.Core" version="2.1.0" targetFramework="net46" />
  <package id="NWebsec.Mvc" version="5.1.1" targetFramework="net46" />
  <package id="Owin" version="1.0" targetFramework="net46" />
  <package id="Respond" version="1.4.2" targetFramework="net46" />
  <package id="Sendgrid" version="6.3.0" targetFramework="net46" />
  <package id="SendGrid.SmtpApi" version="1.3.1" targetFramework="net46" />
  <package id="Serilog" version="2.6.0" targetFramework="net46" />
  <package id="Serilog.Enrichers.Environment" version="2.1.2" targetFramework="net46" />
  <package id="Serilog.Sinks.File" version="3.2.0" targetFramework="net46" />
  <package id="Serilog.Sinks.RollingFile" version="3.3.0" targetFramework="net46" />
  <package id="Serilog.Sinks.Sentry" version="2.1.4" targetFramework="net46" />
  <package id="SerilogWeb.Classic" version="2.1.17" targetFramework="net46" />
  <package id="SharpRaven" version="2.2.0" targetFramework="net46" />
  <package id="System.Data.SQLite" version="" targetFramework="net46" />
  <package id="System.Data.SQLite.Core" version="" targetFramework="net46" />
  <package id="System.Data.SQLite.EF6" version="" targetFramework="net46" />
  <package id="System.Data.SQLite.Linq" version="" targetFramework="net46" />
  <package id="Twitter.Bootstrap.Less" version="3.3.4" targetFramework="net46" />
  <package id="WebActivatorEx" version="2.0.6" targetFramework="net46" />
  <package id="WebGrease" version="1.6.0" targetFramework="net46" />
  <package id="YUICompressor.NET" version="" targetFramework="net46" />

When publishing the app using VS2017 to the file system I get the following warning in the output:

The following assembly has dependencies on a version of the .NET Framework that is higher than the target and might not load correctly during runtime causing a failure: netstandard, Version=, Culture=neutral, PublicKeyToken=cc7b13ffcd2ddd51. The dependencies are: System.Transactions, Version=, Culture=neutral, PublicKeyToken=b77a5c561934e089. You should either ensure that the dependent assembly is correct for the target framework, or ensure that the target framework you are addressing is that of the dependent assembly.

But I can't find anything on System.Transactions. How can I search what's referencing it?

This question is related to asp.net .net asp.net-mvc .net-framework-version

The answer is

I have run into this before and trying a number of things has fixed it for me:

  • Delete a bin folder if it exists
  • Delete the hidden .vs folder
  • Make sure the 4.6.1 targeting pack is installed
  • Last Ditch Effort: Add a reference to System.Runtime (right click project -> add -> reference -> tick the box next to System.Runtime), although I think I've always figured out one of the above has solved it instead of doing this.

Also, if this is a .net core app running on the full framework, I've found you have to include a global.json file at the root of your project and point it to the SDK you want to use for that project:

  "sdk": {
    "version": "1.0.0-preview2-003121"

Deleting Bin and Obj folders worked for me.

I had to do a combination of other people's answers on this thread.

  1. Install the NetStandard.Library via NuGet
  2. Manually editing the .csproj file and adding the reference. <Reference Include="netstandard" />
  3. Expanding project-->References in the VS Solution Explorer, right clicking on 'netstandard' and showing the properties page and setting "Copy Local" to true.

I am facing Same Problem i do following Setup Now Application Work fine


<compilation debug="true" targetFramework="4.7.1">
        <add assembly="netstandard, Version=, Culture=neutral, 

2- Add Reference

 **C:\Program Files (x86)\Microsoft Visual


Copy Above Path Dll to Application Bin Folder on web server

I was facing this problem when trying to add a .NETStandard dependency to a .NET4.6.1 library, and compiling it in Linux with Mono 4.6.2 (the version that comes with Ubuntu 16.04).

I finally solved it today; the solution requires to do both of these things:

  1. Change <TargetFrameworkVersion>v4.6.1</TargetFrameworkVersion> to <TargetFrameworkVersion>v4.7.1</TargetFrameworkVersion> in the .csproj file.
  2. Upgrade your mono to a newer version. I believe 5.x should work, but to be sure, you can just install Ubuntu 20.04 (which at the time of writing is only in preview), which includes Mono

enter image description here

Set Copy Enbale to true in netstandard.dll properties.

Open Solution Explorer and right click on netstandard.dll. Set Copy Local to true.

You can add to your web.config in your project.

It wouldn't work when you add it to projects web.config because it works with MVC.

I experienced this when upgrading .NET Core 1.1 to 2.1.

I followed the instructions outlined here.

Try to remove <RuntimeFrameworkVersion>1.1.1</RuntimeFrameworkVersion> or <NetStandardImplicitPackageVersion> section in the .csproj.

We started getting this error on the production server after deploying the application migrated from 4.6.1 to 4.7.2.

We noticed that the .NET framework 4.7.2 was not installed there. In order to solve this issue we did the following steps:

  1. Installed the .NET Framework 4.7.2 from:


  2. Restarted the machine

  3. Confirmed the .NET Framework version with the help of How do I find the .NET version?

Running the application again with the .Net Framework 4.7.2 version installed on the machine fixed the issue.

The solution of Quango in is working but I prefer to resolve it by adding this code in my Web.config like new projects :

      <compiler language="c#;cs;csharp" extension=".cs"
        type="Microsoft.CodeDom.Providers.DotNetCompilerPlatform.CSharpCodeProvider, Microsoft.CodeDom.Providers.DotNetCompilerPlatform, Version=, Culture=neutral, PublicKeyToken=31bf3856ad364e35"
        warningLevel="4" compilerOptions="/langversion:default /nowarn:1659;1699;1701"/>
      <compiler language="vb;vbs;visualbasic;vbscript" extension=".vb"
        type="Microsoft.CodeDom.Providers.DotNetCompilerPlatform.VBCodeProvider, Microsoft.CodeDom.Providers.DotNetCompilerPlatform, Version=, Culture=neutral, PublicKeyToken=31bf3856ad364e35"
        warningLevel="4" compilerOptions="/langversion:default /nowarn:41008 /define:_MYTYPE=\&quot;Web\&quot; /optionInfer+"/>

Although this is an old thread, I had the same issue today, last week I updated some NuGet packages and although the MVC website worked OK on my dev machine when I published to the testing server it failed.

I read numerous posts but none worked. I finally compared the DLL's in my local bin to those in the testing server and found that the netstandard.dll was not uploaded, once uploaded the website worked OK, not sure why VS2017 web deploy did not publish the DLL.

Just something to look out for in case none of the above work for you.

Might have todo with one of these:

  1. Install a newer SDK.
  2. In .csproj check for Reference Include="netstandard"
  3. Check the assembly versions in the compilation tags in the Views\Web.config and Web.config.

Those who are not having web.config file. Output Type other than web application. update the project file (.csproj) with below give code.

It may cause due to adding/removing the .netframework in improper way or it may broke unexpected way.

    <Reference Include="netstandard" />

Output Type

  • Console application
  • Class Library

This issue is based on your installed version of visual studio and Windows, you can follow the following steps:-

  1. Go to Command Window
  2. downgraded your PCL by the following command

    Install-Package Xamarin.Forms -Version
  3. Rebuild Your Project.
  4. Now You will able to see the required output

After upgrading from 4.6.1 framework to 4.7.2 we started getting this error:

"The type 'System.Object' is defined in an assembly that is not referenced. You must add a reference to assembly 'netstandard, Version=, Culture=neutral, PublicKeyToken=cc7b13ffcd2ddd51'." and ultimately the solution was to add the "netstandard" assembly reference mentioned above:

<compilation debug="true" targetFramework="4.7.1" >
      <add assembly="netstandard, Version=, Culture=neutral, 

Manually editing the .csproj file and adding the reference below worked for me.

<Reference Include="netstandard" />

Thank you to Fahad Alshaya who suggested it here.

This is where netstandard.dll exists: C:\Program Files (x86)\Reference Assemblies\Microsoft\Framework.NETFramework\v4.7.2\Facades\netstandard.dll Add ref to your Project through this.

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